how did the green revolution impact agriculture



Problems caused by The Green Revolution:

  1. Increase in the pesticides: It encourages the use of excess pesticides which mix the toxicity to the food grains.
  2. Reduce in soil fertility: Due to excess use of synthetic inputs soil fertility reduced.
  3. Increase in irrigation: Due to excess use of synthetic fertilizers, more water is needed for irrigation.

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The green revolution led to high productivity of crops through adapted measures, such as (1) increased area under farming, (2) double-cropping, which includes planting two crops rather than one, annually, (3) adoption of HYV of seeds, (4) highly increased use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides, (5) improved …Feb 22, 2021


Did the Green Revolution improve agricultural productivity?

It revolutionized the very traditional idea of food production by giving a boost by more than 250 per cent to the productivity level.2 The Green Revolution was centered around the use of the High Yielding Variety (HYV) of seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural machinery including tractors, soil-testing facilities, irrigation facilities, institutional credit etc. Government …

How did the Green Revolution affect the United States?

The Green Revolution boosted agricultural production approximately 2.5 times and was associated with an approximately 40% price reduction in the cost of food (MA, 2005). Following on the euphoria of this success there has been increasing pressure to diversify production and to improve the planet’s environment (Hubert et al., 2010). Successful realization of this pressure …

How did the Green Revolution change agriculture in Mexico?

 · During the Green Revolution, plants that had the largest seeds were selected to create the most production possible. After selectively breeding these plants, they evolved to all have the characteristic of larger seeds. These larger seeds then created more grain yield and a heavier above ground weight.

What is the impact of Green Revolution in rice?

the green revolution led to high productivity of crops through adapted measures, such as (1) increased area under farming, (2) double-cropping, which includes planting two crops rather than one, annually, (3) adoption of hyv of seeds, (4) highly increased use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides, (5) improved irrigation facilities, and (6) …


What is Green Revolution and how it was beneficial to agriculture sector?

green revolution, great increase in production of food grains (especially wheat and rice) that resulted in large part from the introduction into developing countries of new, high-yielding varieties, beginning in the mid-20th century. Its early dramatic successes were in Mexico and the Indian subcontinent.

How did the Green Revolution impact agriculture quizlet?

The Green Revolution was the rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology. The Green Revolution involved two main practices: new higher-yield seeds and expanded use of fertilizer. Higher-yield seeds were used to produce a higher-yield form of wheat.

What impact has the Green Revolution had in agricultural landscapes?

Through the introduction of modern agricultural technologies, including high yielding variety seeds, irrigation facilities, farm machinery, chemical fertilizers and plant protection measures, the ‘Green Revolution’ (GR) has helped farmers become financially stable by increasing their farm production (David and Otsuka, …

Why is the Green Revolution important to agriculture?

Impact on Productivity and Food Prices. The rapid increase in agricultural output resulting from the GR came from an impressive increase in yields per hectare. Between 1960 and 2000, yields for all developing countries rose 208% for wheat, 109% for rice, 157% for maize, 78% for potatoes, and 36% for cassava (18).

What is the Green Revolution in agriculture?

Ray Offenheiser: The Green Revolution was the emergence of new varieties of crops, specifically wheat and rice varietals, that were able to double if not triple production of those crops in two countries.

How did the Green Revolution contribute to world food production briefly discuss?

Benefits of the Green Revolution As a result of the Green Revolution and the introduction of chemical fertilizers, synthetic herbicides and pesticides, high-yield crops, and the method of multiple cropping, the agricultural industry was able to produce much larger quantities of food.

How did the Green Revolution help to feed the earth’s growing population in the latter half of the 20th century?

Between 1950 and 1984, as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the globe, world grain production increased by about 160%. The production increases fostered by the Green Revolution are often credited with having helped to avoid widespread famine, and for feeding billions of people.

Where has the Green Revolution had the least impact?

Which regions were least impacted by the Green Revolution? Sub-Saharan Africa and U.S. Which factor explains an economic limitation to the success of the Green Revolution? Many farmers in the developing world cannot afford the expensive inputs such as machinery, seeds, and fertilizer.

What countries benefited from the Green Revolution?

In addition to Mexico, Pakistan, India, and the Philippines, countries benefiting from the Green Revolution included Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, China, Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Malaya, Morocco, Thailand, Tunisia, and Turkey.

How did the Agricultural Revolution Impact farmers?

The Agricultural Revolution of the 18th century paved the way for the Industrial Revolution in Britain. New farming techniques and improved livestock breeding led to amplified food production. This allowed a spike in population and increased health. The new farming techniques also led to an enclosure movement.

What is Green Revolution and its impact?

The Green Revolution (a term used for rapid increases in wheat and rice yields in developing countries brought about by improved varieties combined with the expanded use of fertilizers and other chemical inputs) has had a dramatic impact on incomes and food supplies in many developing countries.

What were the benefits of Green Revolution?

Advantages of Green Revolution It allows us to create more food than conventional methods of growing. In uncooperative conditions, it offers us with predictable yields. It allows a decline in food costs for the world economy. The deforestation problems on our planet have been minimized.


How did the Green Revolution affect the world?

According to a 2012 review in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the existing academic literature, the Green Revolution “contributed to widespread poverty reduction, averted hunger for millions of people, and avoided the conversion of thousands of hectares of land into agricultural cultivation.”

What were the innovations of the Green Revolution?

The novel technological development of the Green Revolution was the production of novel wheat cultivars. Agronomists bred cultivars of maize, wheat, and rice that are the generally referred to as HYVs or ” high-yielding varieties “. HYVs have higher nitrogen-absorbing potential than other varieties. Since cereals that absorbed extra nitrogen would typically lodge, or fall over before harvest, semi-dwarfing genes were bred into their genomes. A Japanese dwarf wheat cultivar Norin 10 developed by Japanese agronomist Gonjiro Inazuka, which was sent to Orville Vogel at Washington State University by Cecil Salmon, was instrumental in developing Green Revolution wheat cultivars. IR8, the first widely implemented HYV rice to be developed by IRRI, was created through a cross between an Indonesian variety named “Peta” and a Chinese variety named “Dee-geo-woo-gen”. In the 1960s, when a food crisis happened in Asia, the spread of HYV rice was aggravated intensely.

What were the two technologies used in the Green Revolution?

Two kinds of technologies were used in the Green Revolution and aim at cultivation and breeding area respectively. The technologies in cultivation are targeted at providing excellent growing conditions, which included modern irrigation projects, pesticides, and synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. The breeding technologies aimed at improving crop varieties developed through the conventional, science-based methods available at the time. These technologies included hybrids, combining modern genetics with selections.

Why is the Green Revolution not so successful?

Reasons cited include widespread corruption, insecurity, a lack of infrastructure, and a general lack of will on the part of the governments. Yet environmental factors, such as the availability of water for irrigation, the high diversity in slope and soil types in one given area are also reasons why the Green Revolution is not so successful in Africa.

What was the main goal of the Chinese government?

When the Chinese Communists came to power in 1949, the Chinese state came to play a major role in agricultural policy and scientific research. It sought to solve China’s food security issues, eliminating hunger and starvation, seeking to transform traditional cultivation of existing strains of rice and to apply new science and technology to agricultural production. Through agrarian reform over the 1950s, it eliminated absentee landlords and created collective farms, which could utilize mechanized cultivation. However, grain production did not increase significantly until the state began promoting state-supported agricultural research and investment in infrastructure. The development of strains of hybrid rice had long been a practice in Chinese agriculture, but in the 1960s, this ramped up through government supported agricultural science. Prominent in the development of productive hybrid rice was Yuan Longping, whose research hybridized wild strains of rice with existing strains. He has been dubbed “the father of hybrid rice,” and was considered a national hero in China. The Chinese government’s policies gave cultivators technical assistance, access to affordable HYVs, fertilizers, and pesticides, and developed infrastructure. Chinese rice production met the nation’s food security needs. In recent years, however, extensive use of ground water for irrigation has drawn down aquifers and extensive use of fertilizers has increased greenhouse gas emissions. China has not expanded the area of cultivable land, but the Green Revolution with high yields per hectare gave China the food security it sought.

What happened in the aftermath of the Mexican Revolution?

In the aftermath of the Mexican Revolution, the government had redistributed land to peasants in some parts of the country which had broken the back of the hacienda system. During the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas (1934-1940), land reform in Mexico reached its apex in the center and south of Mexico.

What was Mexico called during the Green Revolution?

Mexico has been called the ‘birthplace’ and ‘burial ground’ of the Green Revolution. It began with great promise and it has been argued that “during the twentieth century two ‘revolutions’ transformed rural Mexico: the Mexican Revolution (1910–1920) and the Green Revolution (1950–1970).”.

How did the Green Revolution affect agriculture?

Fertilizers and pesticid es polluted soil, air, and water far beyond the agricultural lands themselves, including the world’s oceans . The Green Revolution transformed not only the farming system, but local foodways and culture as farmers swapped traditional seeds and growing practices for the new varieties of corn, wheat,

What was the basis of the agricultural revolution?

In addition to plant genetics, the basis for this agricultural revolution was a package of interventions to supercharge crop productivity, based largely on American industrialized techniques that had made places like California a global agricultural leader. This included enriching soil by applying powerful chemical fertilizers and combating plant pathogens and pests with chemical pesticides. Coupled with modern irrigation methods and farm equipment, the techniques doubled and tripled yields.

What are the effects of chemical exposure on agriculture?

Many rural communities remain in poverty and suffer the effects of chemical exposure as pesticide-resistant crop pests and soil degradation demand ever stronger chemical inputs. The world now faces another looming food crisis.

What were the limitations of the Green Revolution?

By the late 1970s, the limitations of the Green Revolution were apparent. Many of its policies favored large landowners and producers, creating hardship for smallholders passed over for research opportunities and subsidies.

What did Borlaug’s crops do to the environment?

In addition, increased water consumption, soil degradation, and chemical runoff did significant environmental damage . Fertilizers and pesticides polluted soil, air, and water far beyond the agricultural lands themselves, including the world’s oceans .

Why is the Cerrado Savanna considered a wasteland?

In Brazil, the vast Cerrado savanna region had been regarded as a wasteland due to its acidic soil, but by fortifying the soil with lime, researchers discovered it could be quite productive for growing commodity crops.

What did China do with rice?

China undertook its own rice research and application of Green Revolution techniques on a massive scale to feed its growing population. Between the 1970s and 1990s, rice and wheat yields in Asia increased 50%. The poverty rate halved and nutrition improved even as the population more than doubled.

How did the Green Revolution affect agriculture?

The Green Revolution boosted agricultural production approximately 2.5 times and was associated with an approximately 40% price reduction in the cost of food (MA, 2005 ). Following on the euphoria of this success there has been increasing pressure to diversify production and to improve the planet’s environment ( Hubert et al., 2010 ). Successful realization of this pressure will require better soil management. However, current conditions are very different from what they were 50 years ago. The success of the Green Revolution came at the expense of the natural capital, such that 18 of the 24 currently acknowledged ecosystem services have been impaired. Although soils have aided climate regulation by sequestering an estimated 2 Gt carbon (C) per annum from fossil fuel burning, they have lost part of their capacity to regulate hydrological fluxes and nutrient cycles and therefore to support plant production.

What were the consequences of the Green Revolution?

The political consequences of the Green Revolution were seen, particularly by the United States, to be very important as a solution to food shortages and famine in Asia in particular, and therefore a bulwark to the spread of socialism in that continent at the height of the Cold War.

How did the Green Revolution help the world?

The Green Revolution played a major role in providing food for an exponentially growing world population . Norman Borlaug and co-workers developed dwarf wheat strains while working at CIMMYT (The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) in Mexico during the 1950s and 1960s. Dwarf strains have a high Harvest Index, which means that they put more of their energy resources into seeds rather than leaves, stems, and other plant structures. More importantly, these plants proved to be more responsive to fertilizer than standard wheat varieties.

What was the Green Revolution?

The Green Revolution refers to the development of high-yielding plant varieties – especially of wheat and rice, that increased food supplies in the 1940s–60s and staved off widespread starvation in developing countries. The rapid increase in the human population, adding 1 billion people every 14 years, placed, and continues to place, a heavy burden on the world’s ability to meet the consequential food demand. Around 1 billion people in the world are currently malnourished. The Green Revolution of today needs to significantly increase food supplies, but, without harming the environment, causing a loss of biodiversity, or fostering high food prices that especially affect the poor.

What is organic agriculture?

Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. [ IFOAM, 2008]

What are the problems with rice and wheat?

With the increased production of rice and wheat came the problem of residue management. Most of the rice residue is burnt in situ, which, in addition to causing environmental pollution and health hazards, leads to loss of carbon and other nutrients.

Where did the Green Revolution take place?

These states are part of the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP), where Punjab and Haryana fall in Trans IGP and western UP in the middle and upper IGP (Fig. 6.3 ).

How did the Green Revolution affect food production?

Finally, the use of Green Revolution technologies exponentially increased the amount of food production worldwide. Places like India and China that once feared famine have not experienced it since implementing the use of IR8 rice and other food varieties.

How did fertilizers affect the Green Revolution?

Since fertilizers are largely what made the Green Revolution possible, they forever changed agricultural practices because the high yield varieties developed during this time cannot grow successfully without the help of fertilizers.

What are the criticisms of the Green Revolution?

The first is that the increased amount of food production has led to overpopulation worldwide .

How many varieties of rice were there before the Green Revolution?

In addition, the development of high yield varieties meant that only a few species of say, rice started being grown. In India, for example, there were about 30,000 rice varieties prior to the Green Revolution, today there are around ten – all the most productive types.

How did irrigation affect agriculture?

For instance, before the Green Revolution, agriculture was severely limited to areas with a significant amount of rainfall, but by using irrigation, water can be stored and sent to drier areas, putting more land into agricultural production – thus increasing nationwide crop yields.

What were the crops that were developed during the Green Revolution?

The crops developed during the Green Revolution were high yield varieties – meaning they were domesticated plants bred specifically to respond to fertilizers and produce an increased amount of grain per acre planted.

What was the name of the research institute that helped Mexico in the Green Revolution?

In 1963 with the help of this funding, Mexico formed an international research institution called The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center . Countries all over the world, in turn, benefited from the Green Revolution work conducted by Borlaug and this research institution.

What is the impact of the Green Revolution?

A revolutionary impact of green revolution/modern agricultural techniques is that it has broken away from the old and outdated traditional practices. It has paved to latest and modern technology to raise the productivity per unit of land, per unit of man.

What are the direct impacts of the new agricultural strategy/green revolution?

1. Increase in Agricultural Production : ADVERTISEMENTS: The direct impact of new agricultural strategy/green revolution is the sharp increase in agricultural production. Among all crops, the production of wheat has made spectacular increase after the inception of green revolution.

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Why is fertilizer important?

The reason is very simple that’ fertilizer saves us from at least one natural limitation of crop production, i.e., the supply of nutrients from soil. 5. Impact on Employment: New agricultural strategy is followed by the application of water, fertilizer and other inputs.

How much groundnut per hectare?

Similarly, the yield per hectare of groundnut has been recorded 7.45 kg. in 1960-61 which in 1990-91 increased to 904 kg. per hectare and further to 1065 kg. per hectare in 2000-01. The yield per hectare of sugarcane crossed 60 tonnes per hectare in 1960-61 from 65 tonnes per hectare in 1990-91.

How much sugarcane was produced in 1960?

Among the cash crops sugarcane only has shown significant changes. In 1960-61 its production was 100.00 million tonnes which rose to the level of 300.1 million tonnes in 2001-02. In 2001-02 production of oilseeds was recorded to 20.5 million tonnes. 2.

How has the Green Revolution improved the economy?

Prosperity of Farmers: Green Revolution has improved the economic lot of the farmers. Their standard of living has greatly improved. Agriculture has emerged as a lucrative occupation. 9. Reduction in Import of Food grains: On account of Green Revolution, import of food grains has considerably declined.


Agricultural production and food security

According to a 2012 review in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the existing academic literature, the Green Revolution “contributed to widespread poverty reduction, averted hunger for millions of people, and avoided the conversion of thousands of hectares of land into agricultural cultivation.”


The term “Green Revolution” was first used by William S. Gaud, the administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), in a speech on 8 March 1968. He noted the spread of the new technologies as:
“These and other developments in the field of agriculture contain the makings of a new revolution. It is not a violent Red Revolution like that of the Soviets, nor i…

Norman Borlaug’s response to criticism

Borlaug dismissed certain claims of critics, but also cautioned, “There are no miracles in agricultural production. Nor is there such a thing as a miracle variety of wheat, rice, or maize which can serve as an elixir to cure all ills of a stagnant, traditional agriculture.”
Of environmental lobbyists, he said:
some of the environmental lobbyists of the Western nations are the salt of the earth, but many o…

Second Green Revolution

Although the Green Revolution has been able to improve agricultural output in some regions in the world, there was and is still room for improvement. As a result, many organizations continue to invent new ways to improve the techniques already used in the Green Revolution. Frequently quoted inventions are the System of Rice Intensification, marker-assisted selection, agroecology, and applying existing technologies to agricultural problems of the developing world. Current cha…

See also

• Arab Agricultural Revolution
• British Agricultural Revolution
• Columbian exchange
• Environmental impact of agriculture

Further reading

• Cotter, Joseph (2003). Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880–2002. Westport, CT: Prager
• Deb, Debal, “Restoring Rice Biodiversity”, Scientific American, vol. 321, no. 4 (October 2019), pp. 54–61.
• Harwood, Andrew (14 June 2013). “Development policy and history: lessons from the Green Revolution”.

External links

• Norman Borlaug talk transcript, 1996
• The Green Revolution in the Punjab, by Vandana Shiva
• Aftermath of the Green Revolution in Punjab, by Harsha Vadlamani
• Africa’s Turn: A New Green Revolution for the 21st Century, Rockefeller Foundation

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