How did the soviet union turn agriculture into an industry


The successes the industrialization drive did enjoy were the results of the transformation of the Russian agricultural system and the exploitation of the peasantry. Industrializing Russia required purchasing large amounts of foreign machinery and feeding a growing workforce, both of which required large amounts of grain.


What type of Agriculture did the Soviet Union have?

Industrialisation in the Soviet Union was a process of accelerated building-up of the industrial potential of the Soviet Union to reduce the economy’s lag behind the developed capitalist states, which was carried out from May 1929 to June 1941.. The official task of industrialisation was the transformation of the Soviet Union from a predominantly agrarian state into a leading …

Why did the Soviet Union have poor agriculture?

Because Soviet agriculture was so inefficient, the Soviet Union had to import about one-fifth of its total calories by the early 1980s, making it the largest single importer of food on earth. The most common imports were wheat from Canada; sugar from Cuba; and vegetable, fruit, and meat from the Eastern European countries. In exchange, the U.S.S.R. sold grain, fossil fuels, timber, …

What made industrialisation possible in the Soviet Union?

The resource contribution of agriculture. The idea of industrialisation supported by a government transfer of resources from agriculture owes much to Russian and Soviet history. In the …

Why did the Soviet Union have so many collective farms?

On the industrial side the 1930s were to be a period of Sturm und Drang. A planned economy was to be introduced with, as its first task, the direction of all possible resources into intensive …


How was the Soviet Union transformed into an industrial superpower?

From 1928 Stalin began a state-run programme of rapid industrialisation. Factories were built, transport networks developed and workers encouraged, even forced, to work harder. Stalin intended to turn the economy around and make the USSR competitive with capitalist countries.

What was done to agriculture in the Soviet Union?

Agriculture in the Soviet Union was mostly collectivized, with some limited cultivation of private plots. It is often viewed as one of the more inefficient sectors of the economy of the Soviet Union.

How did Stalin transform agriculture in the Soviet Union?

The Soviet Union introduced the collectivization (Russian: Коллективизация) of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 during the ascension of Joseph Stalin. It began during and was part of the first five-year plan.

What agricultural changes were introduced in Soviet Union after 1917?

CBSE, JEE, NEET, NDA Following agricultural changes were introduced in the Soviet Union after 1917 are : 1. Large estates of landlords, nobility and farmers were occupied by the government and transformed into collective farms known as kholkoz. 2. These collective farms were transferred to peasants known as kulkas.

How was agriculture in Russia modernized by means of collectivization?

Collectivisation saw the creation of ‘collective’ farms. These, called kolkhozes, would replace smallholdings held by peasants with larger farms. The idea here is to have large fields in which crops can be sown, grown and harvested using modern machinery. Farm workers would live and work together.

What policy did Stalin follow to bring agriculture under state control?

collectivization, policy adopted by the Soviet government, pursued most intensively between 1929 and 1933, to transform traditional agriculture in the Soviet Union and to reduce the economic power of the kulaks (prosperous peasants).

How did Stalin’s five-year plan affect industry and agriculture?

In the Soviet Union the first Five-Year Plan (1928–32), implemented by Joseph Stalin, concentrated on developing heavy industry and collectivizing agriculture, at the cost of a drastic fall in consumer goods.

How did Stalin’s Five-Year Plans affect industry and agriculture quizlet?

How did the effects differ between industry and agriculture? The five-year plans were aimed at building up and improving industry and agriculture. The plans resulted in progress in industry but failed to increase agricultural outputs. Peasants resisted collectivization.

How did Stalin attempt to collectivize agriculture?

Stalin ordered the collectivisation of farming, a policy pursued intensely between 1929-33. Collectivisation meant that peasants would work together on larger, supposedly more productive farms. Almost all the crops they produced would be given to the government at low prices to feed the industrial workers.

What were the major changes introduced in agriculture and industry by Stalin?

Answer. Collectivization of agriculture was the major change implemented by Stalin. He introduced the Collectivization of agriculture to increase agricultural production. Accordingly, in the process of Collectivization of agriculture, the small farms were merged into large farms known as the kolkhoz.

What were the major changes introduced in industry by Stalin?

1 Government introduced centralised planning process. 2 Government intodoced 5 year planning in this program. 3 All the prices were fixed to promote industrial growth. 4 Industrial production was increased by 100% in the case of oil, coal and iron.

What positive effect did the former Soviet Union’s central economic planning have on industry?

Central Economic Planning in the Former Soviet Union- Effects on Industry: Positive: Job wages were guaranteed.

Why was industrialization important in the Soviet Union?

In Soviet times, industrialization was considered a great feat. The rapid growth of production capacity and the volume of production of heavy industry (4 times) was of great importance for ensuring economic independence from capitalist countries and strengthening the country’s defense capability. At this time, the Soviet Union made …

What was the Soviet Union’s economic policy?

Until 1928, the Soviet Union conducted the ” New Economic Policy “. While agriculture, retail, services, food and light industries were mostly in private hands, the state retained control of heavy industry , transport, banks, wholesale and international trade (“commanding heights”). State-owned enterprises competed with each other, the role of the Gosplan of the Soviet Union was limited to forecasts that determined the direction and size of public investment .

What was the main goal of the Soviet command economy?

The main task of the introduced command economy was to build up the economic and military power of the state at the highest possible rates, accompani ed with the near complete elimination of private industry that had allowed under the NEP. At the initial stage, it was reduced to the redistribution of the maximum possible amount of resources for the needs of state-owned industrialization. In December 1927, at the 15th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), “Directives for drafting the first five-year national economic development plan of the Soviet Union” were adopted, in which the congress spoke out against super-industrialization: the growth rates should not be maximal and should be planned so that failures do not occur. Developed on the basis of directives, the draft of the first five-year plan (October 1, 1928 – October 1, 1933) was approved at the 16th Conference of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) (April 1929) as a complex of carefully thought-out and real tasks. This plan, in reality, is much more stressful than previous projects, immediately after it was approved by the 5th Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union in May 1929, gave grounds for the state to carry out a number of economic, political, organizational and ideological measures, which elevated industrialization in status of the concept, the era of the ” Great Turn “. The country had to expand the construction of new industries, increase the production of all types of products and start producing new equipment.

What happened in 1927?

In August 1927, a panic began among the population, which resulted in the wholesale purchase of food for the future. At the 15th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) (December 1927), Mikoyan admitted that the country had experienced the difficulties of “the eve of war without having a war”.

When did the British raid the Soviet embassy?

In the same period, a raid on the Soviet embassy in Beijing (April 6) took place; British police searched the Soviet-British joint-stock company Arcos in London (May 12). In June 1927, representatives of the Russian All-Military Union conducted a series of terrorist attacks against the Soviet Union.

When did the United Kingdom break off diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union?

After the refusal, the United Kingdom on May 24–27 broke off diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. However, at the same time, the alliance of the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communists fell apart; on April 12, Chiang Kai-shek and his allies massacred the Shanghai Communists (see the Shanghai Massacre of 1927 ).

What was the internal economic crisis of 1927?

The internal economic crisis of 1927 intertwined with a sharp exacerbation of the foreign policy situation. On February 23, 1927, the British Foreign Secretary sent a note to the Soviet Union demanding that it stop supporting the Kuomintang-Communist government in China.

What was the name of the Soviet Union from farm to factory?

Nintil – The Soviet Union: From farm to factory. Stalin’s Industrial Revolution

What is Allen’s view on Soviet industrialization?

Allen sees Soviet industrialization as a success story with many positive elements ranging from a rising standard of living to rapidly increasing urban employment and an efficient agricultural sector.

What is Stalin’s approach?

In a nutshell, Stalin’s approach is summarised by what Allen calls Feldman’s model: Investing in capital goods now leads to a greater availability of consumer goods in the future, even when that may lead to a drop in consumer goods today.

What is the consensus explanation for the later stagnation of the Soviet Union?

The consensus explanation for the later stagnation of the Soviet Union is largely correct: central planning does have incentive and information problems, and growth by increasing inputs (capital and labour) alone is not sustainable without accompanying increases in productivit y. The cold war could have been a , but not the, factor explaining that decrease in productivity.

What was the secret sauce of Soviet growth?

The secret sauce of Soviet growth is the increase of the investment share of GDP, and forcing the transition from agriculture to industry. Not central planning.

Did Stalin’s policies drive industrialization?

On the other hand, these graphs do not necessarily prove that this transformation was driven by Stalin’s policies. It may well be the case that industrialisation and growth would have happened anyway. The graphs also do not tell us to what extent Soviet citizens benefitted from Stalin’s policies in the short- and in the long-run – compared to a reasonable counterfactual.

What caused the Soviet Union to stagnate?

One of the causes that Allen says caused the later stagnation of the Soviet Union was a decrease in civilian R&D motivated by an increase in military spending, a fraction of which was R&D. Allen argues that absent the Cold War, and keeping the rate of civilian R&D investment constant, Soviet GDP growth would have been 2 percentage points higher. The evidence cited for this is from 1986 and 1990.

What was the idea of industrialization supported by a government transfer of resources from agriculture?

The idea of industrialisation supported by a government transfer of resources from agriculture owes much to Russian and Soviet history. In the nineteenth century, Imperial government officials stressed the role of agriculture in supplying food for the urban population, taxes to pay for government support of the industrial sector and exports to pay for industrial technology from abroad. Populist critics stressed the extent to which government was buying industrial modernisation at the expense of peasant sacrifice and agricultural stagnation.

What were the results of the restructuring of the agrarian economy?

What were the results of this restructuring of the agrarian economy? Results could be measured first of all in the achievements of Soviet food policy which now aimed at rapid improvement of Soviet diet. And table 3 shows that, after the war, the Soviet diet did improve markedly, although by western standards there was an unhealthy preoccupation with increased consumption of high-cholesterol, high-sugar items. But improved diet was based on domestic supply only in part, because production did not keep pace with requirements. The 1970s saw the beginning of a turn towards largescale imports, mainly of meat and animal feedstuffs, to support rising domestic meat consumption. The failure of agricultural production to keep pace with domestic needs was certainly not for want of resources. It is true that, as table 4 (A) shows, for many years the Soviet agricultural workforce had been in decline, both in absolute numbers and in proportion to the total working population. Over the same period, however, from 1940 to 1970, the number of trained agronomists, animal specialists and veterinarians multiplied from 34,000 to nearly half a million. Moreover, table 4 (B) suggests that declining labour supplies were hugely compensated by the increase in capital investment in agriculture which rose, not only in billions of “comparable” rubles, but even in proportion to total investment in the Soviet economy. This, more than anything, indicated the rising priority of agriculture for Soviet decision makers.

What was Stalin’s policy in 1928?

Matters came to a head in July, 1928, with Stalin’s decision to secure a “temporary tribute” from agriculture. This had three results for policy, often conflated under the general heading of “collectivisation”, but best considered separately and taken in order.8 First was the move to a new procurement system for obtaining rural food surpluses. There was an impromptu resort to coercion in the Ural region and western Siberia in the spring of 1928; then coercive methods were extended to the country as a whole, and codified in the criminal law in June, 1929. A nationwide system of compulsory food

What was the primary task of Stalin?

The primary task, as to an only slightly lesser degree throughout the Stalin epoch and even later, was the buildup of heavy industry. At the end of 1932 it was announced that the First Five-Year Plan had been successfully completed. In fact none of the targets had been reached, or even approached.

What was the name of the new industries that Syrtsov group held to be?

The Syrtsov group (see below) held the new industries to be “eyewash,” and there was certainly great emphasis on the propaganda side. Some undertakings were ill-considered: the Baltic–White Sea Canal, supposedly completed in 1933, employed some 200,000–300,000 forced labourers but proved almost useless.

When did the Zinovyev-Kamenev trial start?

But while these trials received considerable publicity they were not made the central feature of Soviet politics. In August 1936 the NKVD set up the Zinovyev-Kamenev trial (to be followed by two similar trials in 1937 and 1938). And these cases were presented as the crucial element in the country’s public life.

When did bread rationing end?

And there was a noticeable, if not a major, thaw, including the end of bread rationing in 1935. In literature the dogmatic RAPPists were discredited, and a new Union of Soviet Writers held its first Congress in 1934 under the new doctrine of “ Socialist Realism .”.

What was the economic side of the Industrialization Drive of the 1930s?

The first was the claim by the communists that they were implementing a rational and fulfillable plan. The second, which came later, was the claim that they had in fact secured unprecedented increases in production.

What was the industrialization of the 1930s?

Industrialization, 1929–34. On the industrial side the 1930s were to be a period of Sturm und Drang. A planned economy was to be introduced with, as its first task, the direction of all possible resources into intensive industrialization. This was to be supported by a socialized agriculture. The Five-Year Plan had not been finalized …

How many delegates crossed Stalin’s name out of the balloting?

Some 166 delegates (out of 1,225) actually crossed Stalin’s name out in the balloting for the new Central Committee. Stalin went on record in favour of the concessions to the more moderate policy proposed at the Congress. And there was a noticeable, if not a major, thaw, including the end of bread rationing in 1935.

How did Soviet agriculture recover from the war?

As a result, Soviet agriculture suffered shortages pf resources and workers from 1946 to 1949. After war was over, Stalin re-imposed strict discipline over soviet farms.

What were the main achievements of the USSR?

Production of iron, steel, coal and electricity increased greatly. Achieved by building new factories to exploit the USSR’s natural resources. Major success of the Plans, Moscow Metro’s first lines opened in 1935, easy transport around Moscow, therefore transported goods more efficiently.

When did the Stakhanovite movement start?

Stakhanovite movement. The Stakhanovite movement began during the second FYP in 1935 as a new stage of socialist competition. The Stakhanovite movement took its name from Aleksei Grigorievich Stakhanov, who had mined 102 tons of coal in less than 6 hours.

When did the Moscow Metro start?

Major success of the Plans, Moscow Metro’s first lines opened in 1935, easy transport around Moscow, therefore transported goods more efficiently. Labour productivity: Very low in the USSR, workers were less productive in the USSR than in Britain, the USA or Western Europe.

What was Stalin’s great turn?

Stalin’s great turn transformed the soviet economy and the USSR.

Why did women have to go to work?

Women were forced to go out to work because their families needed income. Stalin recognized that women were vital for the reconstruction of soviet industry. Again, the FYP was full of inefficiencies and issues, nonetheless the economy was the fastest growing economy in the world.

What did Stalin do to the Kulaks?

Stalin initiated “Liquidation of Kulaks”. Meaning to take farms and equipment from the richer peasants. However, in practice it meant that many peasants were killed or deported if they resisted government policies. 1.5 million Peasants sent to labour camps as a result of the dekulakisation campaigns.

How did the peasants subsidize the industrialization of Russia?

In the end, the peasants were forced, oftentimes violently, to subsidize the industrialization of Russia by giving up larger and larger amounts of their grain while gaining nothing in return. Stalin called this a “supertax” on the peasants, but was convinced it was necessary (Daniels, 171).

What was Stalin’s drive to industrialize the Soviet Union?

It was during this period Stalin consolidated his grip on power and was allowed to rule with impunity, instituting his “revolution from above” on the Soviet people.

What was the impact of the brutal process of collectivization on the Russian people?

Through the brutal process of collectivization he destroyed the autonomy the Russian peasant had enjoyed since the revolution, and he led an industrialization drive that has had few historic parallels. The human costs of both these initiatives were monstrous. It was during industrialization that the Soviet Union became truly totalitarian.

What did Stalin say about collectivization?

In 1932, Stalin gave his “dizzy with success” speech in which he claimed that collectivization was such a success that it must be reeled in. At that time the largest of the farms were broken up into smaller ones, and the peasants were once again allowed private garden plots, which were more productive then the farms themselves.

What was the most convincing means of coercion in Stalin’s Russia?

As was always the case in Stalin’s Russia, terror was the most convincing means of coercion. Kulaks were sometimes killed, sometimes sent to Siberia, but always had their property taken. Local districts were required to fill quotas of Kulaks to identify (Kenez, 86).

How did Stalin make collectivization possible?

The process of rapid collectivization was made possible by Stalin’s war on the Kulaks. Like Lenin before him, Stalin saw the kulaks, vaguely defined as wealthy peasants, as unacceptably capitalist. (Paradoxically, the regime was punishing those who were most successful under the NEP system.) By initiating a war on the kulaks, Stalin’s regime succeeded in dividing the peasant class, making them less likely to resist collectivization. The attacks on the Kulaks also helped make the impression that it was only the Kulaks that resisted collectivization, presumably because they were not imbued with enough “class consciousness” and enjoyed exploiting their neighbors. And since kulak was so loosely defined, anyone who resisted collectivization could be quickly labeled a kulak.

What percentage of the land was collected in 1928?

In 1928 less than one percent of all arable land was farmed by collectives; by 1929 barely more than seven percent of the peasant households were collectivized (Kenez, 85). After Stalin defeated all political opposition, however, collectivization became mandatory, and increasingly violent.



Feldman’s Model

GDP Growth

Book Reviews

Tsarist Growth

Recovery from The War?

A Drop in Civilian R&D?

  • One of the causes that Allen says caused the later stagnation of the Soviet Union was a decrease in civilian R&D motivated by an increase in military spending, a fraction of which was R&D. Allen argues that absent the Cold War, and keeping the rate of civilian R&D investment constant, Soviet GDP growth would have been 2 percentage points higher. Th…

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Some Counterfactuals



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