- 1 How did the monsoons affect ancient India?
- 2 What are the effects of monsoons on farmers?
- 3 What causes monsoons and droughts?
- 4 Is July the critical monsoon month for agriculture sector?
- 5 How does monsoon affect Indian agriculture?
- 6 How do the summer monsoons affect India?
- 7 How did monsoons affect ancient India?
- 8 How did the summer monsoon affect farming?
- 9 What are the effects of summer monsoons?
- 10 What is summer monsoon in India?
- 11 What is a monsoon in ancient India?
- 12 Why are the monsoons important to India?
- 13 What are monsoons and what effect did they have on the Indus river valley civilizations?
- 14 Why do we say that Indian agriculture is dependent on monsoon?
- 15 Is monsoon good for farming?
- 16 Why are monsoons bad for India?
- 17 How does monsoon affect India?
- 18 What was the climate like in ancient India?
- 19 How does geography affect people?
- 20 Why is monsoon season important in India?
- 21 What crops are planted during monsoon?
- 22 Why is there a water shortage in India?
- 23 Is India vulnerable to monsoons?
- 24 What is the agriculture sector in India?
- 25 Why is the government raising the minimum support prices for all of the current season’s crops?
- 26 What percentage of India’s land is dependent on precipitation?
- 27 What is monsoon in India?
- 28 Where was the Indus Valley located?
- 29 Is monsoon a weather phenomenon?
- 30 How does monsoon affect farmers?
- 31 Why is monsoon important?
- 32 Why do farmers work on crops that don’t need much water?
- 33 What is the saddest thing about monsoons?
- 34 Is India an agricultural country?
- 35 Does rain help farmers?
- 36 Proxy Climate Records
- 37 Discussion
- 38 Outlook
- 39 Summary
- 40 Data Availability Statement
- 41 Conflict of Interest
- 42 Publisher’S Note
- 43 Acknowledgments
A fundamental shift in the Indian monsoon has occurred over the last few millennia, from a steady humid monsoon that favored lush vegetation to extended periods of drought, reports a new study led by researchers at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
How did the monsoons affect ancient India?
How did monsoons affect ancient India? Monsoons would bring much needed rain that farmers require for their crops in a hot climate. When monsoon came either too early or late in a season, it would affect the agriculture of Ancient India .
What are the effects of monsoons on farmers?
India is a Monsoon land. Besides it is basically an agricultural country. Monsoon climate influences agricultural crops in a big way as under: (i) India is primarily an agricultural country. About 75% of the total population directly or indirectly earns livelihood from agriculture. Growth and development of Indian agriculture is mainly dependent on Monsoon climate.
What causes monsoons and droughts?
Monsoons in Ancient India How Monsoons Affected Life in Ancient India Monsoons would bring much needed rain that farmers require for their crops in a hot climate. When monsoon came either too early or late in a season, it would affect the agriculture of Ancient India. Although
Is July the critical monsoon month for agriculture sector?
“Major crop-sowing takes place in July. This is the critical monsoon month for the agriculture sector when more than 50.0% of the Kharif crop sowing takes place,” analysts from Citi …
How does monsoon affect Indian agriculture?
Monsoon is one of the most important seasons for farmers for a country so dependent on its agro-industry. Most of the Indian agricultural land is irrigated by the southwest monsoon. Crops such as wheat, rice, pulses, which are a staple in Indian diets, need heavy rainfalls to grow.
How do the summer monsoons affect India?
The summer monsoon brings a humid climate and torrential rainfall to these areas. India and Southeast Asia depend on the summer monsoon. Agriculture, for example, relies on the yearly rain. Many areas in these countries do not have large irrigation systems surrounding lakes, rivers, or snowmelt areas.
How did monsoons affect ancient India?
The slow eastward migration of monsoons across the Asian continent initially supported the formation of the Harappan civilization in the Indus valley by allowing production of large agricultural surpluses, then decimated the civilization as water supplies for farming dried up, researchers reported Monday.
How did the summer monsoon affect farming?
By the end of July, rainfall was so heavy that rivers flooded and crops were damaged. The combination of a prolonged dry spell followed by heavy rainfall increased pest infestation and disease, forcing farmers to spend more on pesticides.
What are the effects of summer monsoons?
Summer monsoons can bring heavy rains that destroy homes, damage infrastructure, wash away crops and destroy Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)infrastructure. During winter monsoons, dry weather can lead to drought and crop failures from lack of moisture.
What is summer monsoon in India?
Indian summer monsoon. The Indian summer monsoon typically lasts from June-September (Fig. 58d), with large areas of western and central India receiving more than 90% of their total annual precipitation during the period, and southern and northwestern India receiving 50%-75% of their total annual rainfall.
What is a monsoon in ancient India?
It involves winds blowing from the south-west direction (known as South-West Monsoon) from the Indian Ocean onto the Indian landmass during the months of June through September. These are generally rain-bearing winds, blowing from sea to land, and bring rains to most parts of the subcontinent.
Why are the monsoons important to India?
The monsoon is critical for agriculture in the country since nearly 60% of India’s net arable land lacks irrigation. The monsoon delivers about 70% of India’s annual rainfall and determines the yield of several grains and pulses, including rice, wheat, and sugarcane.
What are monsoons and what effect did they have on the Indus river valley civilizations?
The monsoons that came to the Indus River Valley aided the growth of agricultural surpluses, which supported the development of cities, such as Harappa. The population came to rely on seasonal monsoons rather than irrigation, and as the monsoons shifted eastward, the water supply would have dried up.
Why do we say that Indian agriculture is dependent on monsoon?
Good rains during the season result in bountiful crops which further benefit the farmers. A major portion of the country’s crop area is completely dependent on Monsoon rains as they’re not equipped with methods of manual irrigation. Simply speaking, the Indian economy gains due to good Monsoon rains in the country.
Is monsoon good for farming?
Monsoon rains are critical for farm output and economic growth as about 55% of India’s arable land is rain-fed and the sector employs more than half of its 1.3 billion population, boosting rural spending.
Why are monsoons bad for India?
The impact of an erratic monsoon on agriculture is direct. Between 50 to 60 percent of Indian agriculture is still rainfed, without access to any form of irrigation. This makes farmers vulnerable to any change in monsoonal patterns; they rely on the rainfall’s arrival date, its even spread and consistent quantity.
How does monsoon affect India?
Monsoons still affect India today too. Indian agriculture is heavily dependent on the rains, especially crops like cotton, rice, and coarse grains. A delay of a few days in the arrival of the monsoon can, badly affect the economy. However, most major cities are often adversely affected as well. The roads, already shoddy, take a battering each year, houses and streets at the bottom of slopes and beside rivers are flooded, and the sewers and the rare hurricane drain start to back up and pour out toxic filth rather than drain it away. It also cause terrible floods that can cause severe damage property and life.
What was the climate like in ancient India?
In much of ancient India, it was hot and humid and the climate was heavily influenced by India’s monsoons. Most of the year, it was very dry and sunny in India. Everything got hot and dusty and brown. But around May, clouds would start to gather, and it would get very muggy and heavy-feeling, and everybody would feel like they were waiting for something to happen. And then one day finally it would start raining, all at once. Buckets and buckets of water would fall. That was the monsoon. Unfortunately, the Indian ocean would bring in monsoon winds which caused terrible floods. Although it seems like Ancient India wasn’t a good place to settle, monsoons actually helped develop one of the world’s earliest civilization.
How does geography affect people?
To really know how geography affects life, you need to break it down into subcategories. Geography affects the way people live by, socialism, Land Formation, Soil, Water Access and Climate. One of the most important subcategories is socialism. Without socialism, our ancestors wouldn’t be able to tell friend from foe. That wouldn’t help the civilization to develop. Other subcategories include, soil, water, climate, and land features. If ancient civilizations hadn’t picked to settle near fertile soil or a patch of land with plethora amount of water, they wouldn’t have develop into the civilizations today.
Why is monsoon season important in India?
India needs this year’s monsoon season to deliver heavier rainfall that will boost farm output and economic growth — but the country has been disappointed so far.
What crops are planted during monsoon?
Kharif crops include rice, maize, sorghum and cotton, and are planted during the monsoon season. The agriculture sector in India is both economically and politically important.
Why is there a water shortage in India?
In addition to reduced rainfall in recent years, factors including increased demand and inefficient usage have contributed to India’s water shortage, said Radhika Rao, an economist at Singaporean bank DBS.
Is India vulnerable to monsoons?
The overall Indian economy remains very vulnerable to the monsoon, since poor rainfall can significantly reduce agricultural production. Rajiv Biswas. economist at IHS Markit. About one-third of India’s manufacturing output — which makes up around 18% of the country’s gross domestic product — is linked to turning agricultural products into food, …
What is the agriculture sector in India?
The agriculture sector in India is both economically and politically important. The industry accounts for around 14% of the country’s $2.7 trillion economy and 42% of total employment, according to Rajiv Biswas, chief economist in Asia Pacific for consultancy IHS Markit. The overall Indian economy remains very vulnerable to the monsoon, …
Why is the government raising the minimum support prices for all of the current season’s crops?
That slow start to the monsoon harvest season has prompted the government to raise minimum support prices for all of the current season’s crops to help support farmers’ incomes , according to local media.
What percentage of India’s land is dependent on precipitation?
With around 55% of India’s arable land dependent on precipitation, the amount of rainfall during the current monsoon season could sway economic activity in the agriculture sector and industries linked to it.
What is monsoon in India?
Monsoon is a tropical phenomenon. The Indian subcontinent, lying northwards of the equator up to the Himalayas and Hindukush, lies primarily in the tropical zone of the Northern Hemisphere. It involves winds blowing from the south-west direction (known as South-West Monsoon) from the Indian Ocean onto the Indian landmass during the months of June through September. These are generally rain-bearing winds, blowing from sea to land, and bring rains to most parts of the subcontinent. They split into two branches, the Arabian Sea Branch and the Bay of Bengal Branch near the southern-most end of the Indian Peninsula. They are eagerly awaited in most parts of India for their agricultural and economic importance.
Where was the Indus Valley located?
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization (3300â€“1300 BCE) located in what are now Pakistan, northwest India, and eastern Afghanistan. Flourishing in the Indus River basin, the civilization extended east into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the upper reaches of the Ganges; it extended west to the Makran coast of Baluchistan and north to northeastern Afghanistan. The civilization was spread over some 1,260,000 kmÂ², making it the largest of the ancient civilizations. Why did it end and what happened to it? A fundamental shift in the Indian monsoon has occurred over the last few millennia, from a steady humid monsoon that favored lush vegetation to extended periods of drought, reports a new study led by researchers at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The study has implications for our understanding of the monsoonâ€™s response to climate change.
Is monsoon a weather phenomenon?
In the subcontinent, it is one of oldest weather observations, an economically important weather pattern and the most anticipated weather event and unique weather phenomenon . Yet it is only partially understood and notoriously difficult to predict. Several theories have been proposed explaining the origin, the process, the strength, the variability, the distribution and the general vagaries of the monsoon of the Indian subcontinent, but understanding of the phenomenon and its predictability are still evolving.
How does monsoon affect farmers?
The bad monsoon will not only affect the farmers but also the common people life and budget because monsoon directly affects the cost of food products which we eat. It effects the overall production of our country and because of that the price for every food item will get higher.
Why is monsoon important?
Monsoon is the most important part of our farmer’s life and for the crops; it can make them or break them. Even though we have progress so much in science, there are still many villages where they are largely depending on monsoon. Their hard work on the field is at the mercy of monsoon always.
Why do farmers work on crops that don’t need much water?
Because of less rain now farmers are working on that kind of crop which doesn’t need much water so that they can continue their hard work for the country and its progress. There is always a way to come out winner when you are in trouble only thing that we should not lose our hope and this example is going to set by our farmers with total dedication towards their work.
What is the saddest thing about monsoons?
There is another very sad story about bad monsoon is that farmers earn less money and get in to debit later can’t be able to pay back even small amount which a rich man spent in the five star hotel in a day. It’s very sad that those who prepared crop and give us to eat do not have enough support from government.
Is India an agricultural country?
From our school days it’s in our mind that India is an agricultural country. We mostly depend on our agriculture and our country’s maximum part of soil being used for agriculture purpose. Now, here the farmers come in the scene, when we think of a farmer the image comes in our mind is a man with cattle in front of him and carrying plough on his shoulders.
Does rain help farmers?
Getting only rain doesn’t help our farmers instead they have to see what quantity of rains happens , enough rain or less rain both the way they have to face the problem. If there are heavy rains then flood comes and take away all their hard work. If there is less rain then drought like situation comes and ruined their life. Sometimes it’s very hard for them to come up fresh again after so much of loses.
Proxy Climate Records
There are multiple terrestrial and marine paleoclimate records, sensitive to changes in climate parameters available in the Indian subcontinent and surrounding regions. The present review is mainly focused on stable isotope-based proxy records obtained from oceanic and terrestrial sed…
Some available prominent proxy records from terrestrial and oceanic archives in and around the Indian subcontinent that are sensitive to changes in the ISM strengths along with solar changes are discussed here. The major changes of the ISM observed in the proxy records and that coincided with the global climate events and collapse of civilizations are highlighted. Solar insol…
There are two important aspects that need to be addressed to better understand the timing and causes of falls of ancient Indian civilizations. First, more archaeological data from the existing and new archaeological sites are required for understanding the timing of evolution of various civilizations and their terminations. There are many unexplored archaeological sites in the subc…
We have discussed the cultural shifts in the Indian subcontinent and reviewed some important marine and terrestrial climate data for the last 10 kyr from the ISM dominated regions to understand the role of monsoon on rise and collapse of the ancient Indian civilizations. The human settlement and agricultural activity in Indian subcontinent probably started around 9 kyr …
Data Availability Statement
The data reviewed in the present study are available with the original publications and are cited at the appropriate places of the article; further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors, and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
The authors thank the Director of the Physical Research Laboratory for his support and encouragement to conduct the present study. AHL thanks Dr. Anoop Ambili for inviting him to contribute to this article. AB acknowledges CSIR for funding through SRA fellowship (13(9024-A)/2019-POOL).