Declining biodiversity threatens food security The scale and breathtaking pace of biodiversity loss make agriculture more vulnerable to climate change, pests and diseases. Nutrition is becoming more and more unbalanced. A farmer with a cow in a rice field in Vietnam.
How does biodiversity affect agriculture?
· How does a loss in crop biodiversity affect agriculture? A. It reduces the number of pests in a field. B. It reduces a crop’s ability to develop disease resistance. C. It increases a crop’s ability to develop disease resistance. D. It improves the soil’s nutrient content.
What are the factors that affect biodiversity loss?
· Rainforests are hotspots of biodiversity, with the Amazon alone containing nearly 25 percent of all living terrestrial species. 8 80 percent of deforestation worldwide is attributed to the expanding footprint of agriculture. 9 While “slash and burn” agriculture — where farmers cut and burn small areas of forest, and farm them for a few seasons before moving on to another …
How do agricultural activities affect the environment?
Economic and societal effects Biodiversity loss affects economic systems and human society. This lack of biodiversity among crops threatens food security, because varieties may be vulnerable to disease and pests, invasive species, and climate change.
How do perennial crops affect soil biodiversity?
The rapid expansion of industrial and “green revolution” agriculture over the last 100 years has resulted in the loss of more than 90 per cent of crop varieties from farmers’ fields, and more than half of the breeds of domestic farm animals. Locally diverse food production systems—the basis of agricultural biodiversity—are under threat globally and, with them, the accompanying local …
How does biodiversity contribute to agriculture?
Benefits. The benefits of incorporating biodiversity into agriculture range from enhancing soil health, habitat establishment, biological pest control, nutrient cycling, erosion resistance, fertilizer reduction, infiltration, and the prevention of runoff into waterways.
How does biodiversity loss affect food?
Biodiversity for food and agriculture is vital for food security. The erosion of biodiversity will undermine the capacity of agricultural systems to adapt to changing conditions and shocks, such as climate change, and outbreaks of pests and diseases that may jeopardise food security and livelihoods.
How biodiversity loss Affects Crop Diversity?
Crop plants are derived from wild plants, and genes from wild relatives are frequently brought into crop varieties by plant breeders to add valued characteristics to the crops. If the wild species are lost, then this genetic variation would no longer be available.
Why is biodiversity important for agriculture quizlet?
Biodiversity provides raw materials for food, medicine, agriculture. Insects, bats, birds, and other animals pollinate plants and crops. Micro-organisms make nutrients available and break down toxic substances in water and soil.
Does increased biodiversity increase food production?
Biodiversity is essential to food and agriculture Biodiversity makes production systems and livelihoods more resilient to shocks and stresses, including those caused by climate change. It is a key resource in efforts to increase food production while limiting negative impacts on the environment.
How is biodiversity linked to food security?
Biodiversity underpins all food production and strengthens agricultural resilience to shocks and stresses that can lead to crop failure. But many of species of plants, animals, and microorganisms, that make up the Earth’s biosphere are disappearing.
What are two ways that pollution impacts food security?
The report found that soil pollution has an adverse impact on food security in two ways –it can reduce crop yields due to toxic levels of contaminants, and crops grown in polluted soils are unsafe for consumption by animals and humans.
How is biodiversity related to human health?
Biodiversity supports human and societal needs, including food and nutrition security, energy, development of medicines and pharmaceuticals and freshwater, which together underpin good health. It also supports economic opportunities, and leisure activities that contribute to overall wellbeing.
How does agriculture affect biodiversity?
On a global scale, industrial agriculture threatens biodiversity, by being a major contributor to climate change. Agriculture-related emissions, mainly from chemical fertilizers and factory-farmed livestock, make up more than 20 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions annually. 22 Climate change is one of the most serious threats to biodiversity, and affects even remote areas scarcely touched by humans. Warming temperatures already have a demonstrated impact on the way migratory birds and other animals reproduce, and extreme weather cycles can completely change the makeup of plant and soil communities. 23 Overall, the pressures of a warming climate favor adaptable invasive species that could overtake millions of highly specialized plants, animals, and microorganisms. Scientists modeling these changes say that climate change-related biodiversity loss could be one of the largest mass extinctions in the history of the Earth. 24
How does sustainable agriculture help biodiversity?
Sustainable agriculture embraces biodiversity by minimizing its impact on wild ecosystems and incorporating numerous plant and animal varieties into complex, on-farm ecosystems.
What are the innovations that helped farmers produce more food per acre?
Widespread adoption of steel plows, hybrid seeds, GMOs, chemical fertilizers and pesticides helped farmers produce more food per acre than ever before. More recently, the adoption of genetically modified seeds helped to increase yields even further. This productivity comes at a great cost, however. Wide fields of a single crop (called monocultures) provide simplicity for farmers and a steady supply of feed to factory farms, but they are biodiversity deserts. Maintaining monocultures requires intense chemical inputs that reduce the abundance of wild species both on and off the farm.
How does monocropping destroy biodiversity?
Industrial agriculture’s impacts are not limited to habitat destruction through its expanding footprint: its reliance on heavy chemicals to create giant stands of single crops has serious consequences for plant, animal and microorganism biodiversity.
How does extensification affect biodiversity?
One of the most dramatic examples of biodiversity loss through extensification is the ongoing destruction of the tropical rainforest. Rainforests are hotspots of biodiversity, with the Amazon alone containing nearly 25 percent of all living terrestrial species. 8 80 percent of deforestation worldwide is attributed to the expanding footprint of agriculture. 9 While “slash and burn” agriculture — where farmers cut and burn small areas of forest, and farm them for a few seasons before moving on to another plot — is often blamed for this deforestation, these approaches actually do less harm than the industrially scaled agriculture, which is permanently replacing forest. Growing crops like soy and oil palms or raising cattle offers farmers more income than preserving forest, which drives the permanent deforestation of over 100,000 square miles a year, an area about the size of the UK. 1011
What is the process of bringing more wild land into agriculture called?
This process of bringing more wild land into agriculture is called extensification.
How does agriculture take up space?
Whether it’s growing fruits and vegetables, grains or animals, agriculture takes up space. Prime farmland — land with good soil and water access — is a limited resource. These same areas often support rich wild ecosystems like prairies and forests; converting these areas into farms eliminates much of that wild biodiversity. Unfortunately, agriculture’s continually expanding footprint places these sensitive and important wild areas at risk of destruction. This process of bringing more wild land into agriculture is called extensification.
What are the causes of biodiversity loss?
Habitat destruction is a major cause of biodiversity loss. Habitat loss is caused by deforestation, overpopulation, pollution, and global warming. Species that are physically large and those living in forests or oceans are more affected by habitat reduction.
How does loss of biodiversity affect ecosystems?
Loss of biodiversity appears to affect ecosystems as much as climate change, pollution and other major forms of environmental stress, according to results of a new study by an international research team. Studies over the last two decades demonstrated that more biologically diverse ecosystems are more productive.
Why is biodiversity declining?
The main cause of the loss of biodiversity can be attributed to the influence of human beings on the world’s ecosystem, In fact human beings have deeply altered the environment, and have modified the territory, exploiting the species directly , for example by fishing and hunting, changing the biogeochemical cycles and
What are the effects of the loss of trees?
The loss of trees and other vegetation can cause climate change, desertification, soil erosion, fewer crops, flooding, increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere , and a host of problems for indigenous people.
What is the basis of agriculture?
Biodiversity is the basis of agriculture and our food systems. Agricultural biodiversity also performs ecosystem services such as soil and water conservation, maintenance of soil fertility, conservation of biota and pollination of plants, all of which are essential for food production and for human survival.
How does biodiversity affect human health?
Biodiversity loss can have significant direct human health impacts if ecosystem services are no longer adequate to meet social needs. Indirectly, changes in ecosystem services affect livelihoods, income, local migration and, on occasion, may even cause or exacerbate political conflict.
What is agricultural biodiversity?
Agricultural biodiversity is defined as the variety and variability of animals, plants and micro-organisms used directly or indirectly for food and agriculture (including, in the FAO definition, crops, livestock, forestry and fisheries). It comprises the diversity of genetic resources (varieties, breeds, etc .) and species used for food, fodder, fibre, fuel and pharmaceuticals. It also includes the diversity of non-harvested species that support production ( e.g. soil micro-organisms) and those in the wider environment that support agro-ecosystems (agricultural, pastoral, forest and aquatic), as well as the diversity of the agro-ecosystems themselves.
What has resulted in the decline of many animal species?
The reduced integration of livestock in arable production, whether as stock or work animals, has resulted in the serious decline of many animal species. The development of mono-crop aquatic production systems in replacement of mixed and natural pond systems has resulted in a breakdown of the fish production environment and the supporting ecosystem.
What has modernization done to agriculture?
The rapid modernisation of northwest European agriculture has resulted in intensification, marginalisation, concentration and specialisation of farming. This modernisation continues today in southern Europe—and has begun, and is certain to increase, in central and eastern Europe. It has resulted in a fundamental imbalance between farming and the environment.
Why did wildlife adapt to the agricultural environment?
In the past, wildlife had been able to adjust and exploit the agricultural situations because modifications to the environment had been gradual. However, in the last century and particularly in recent decades, this has changed. Modern machinery and agro-chemicals allow rapid changes to the farmed environment over huge areas, to impose a high-input, standard, factory landscape over the previous characteristic regional features. Other areas have been abandoned.
What has led to the widespread cultivation and rearing of fewer varieties and breeds?
Globalisation of the food system and intensive international marketing have led to the widespread cultivation and rearing of fewer varieties and breeds for a more uniform, less diverse, competitive global market.
How much of the crop variety has been lost in the Green Revolution?
The rapid expansion of industrial and “green revolution” agriculture over the last 100 years has resulted in the loss of more than 90 per cent of crop varieties from farmers’ fields, and more than half of the breeds of domestic farm animals.
Is agriculture under threat?
Locally diverse food production systems—the basis of agricultural biodiversity—are under threat globally and, with them, the accompanying local knowledge, culture and skills of the food producers. With this decline, agricultural biodiversity, including harvested and unharvested species, is disappearing.
Why does biodiversity decrease?
This is because when humans change the environment, some species will not be able to adapt and will die. As the number of species decreases, biodiversity is reduced.
What are the factors that influence biodiversity?
It varies globally with in the regions. The various factors that influence biodiversity include- temperature, soils, precipitations, altitude & their relation with other species.
How many ecosystem services have been in decline in the last 50 years?
The reason we are concerned, or should be concerned, is that the MA (2005) found that 15 of the 24 ecosystem services assessed for the last 50 years are in a state of decline (i.e. 63%), 5 remained steady, and only 4 were improving (http://www.maweb.org/en/index.aspx). And this at a point in time when the impacts of climate change have been fairly mild compared to what the future holds (http://www.ipcc.ch/).
Why is the biosphere so diverse?
It is diverse because the earth itself differs from place to place and it also changes with time. So life has to be diverse to fit every niche over time. Humans are just part of this diversity. If they choose to do so, they could understand it. Beyond that there is nothing to do. Even if the environment changes, biodiversity will adjust to it. Where humans have a concern is with domestication. Humans have taken control from nature and are responsible to respond to change.
How does biodiversity affect human health?
Biodiversity & human health: The storage of drinking water is expected to create a big global crisis .Biodiversity also plays an important role in drug discovery & medicine resources. Medicine’s from nature account for usage by 80% of the world’s population.
What is biodiversity in biology?
Biodiversity also refers to number of different species living in a particular region. It represents the wealth of biological resources available to us.
What is the definition of biodiversity?
Biodiversity or biological diversity is a term that describes the variety of living beings on earth.
What is the threat of the decline of natural plant and animal species?
The decline in natural plant and animal species poses a severe threat to the world’s capacity to produce food for a growing population. And there is mounting evidence that global food production is itself a contributory factor to the continuing loss of biodiversity.
What is the challenge for farmers and agri-scientists?
The challenge for farmers and agri-scientists is how to increase food production more sustainably while optimising land use and water management and reducing our dependence on agrochemicals that damage biodiversity . There is an urgent need to improve collaboration across the food, agriculture and environmental sectors.
How can consumers help reduce biodiversity?
But, as the report points out, consumers could play a key role in reducing pressures on biodiversity for food and agriculture by, for example, opting for sustainably grown products, buying from farmers’ markets and boycotting foods from unsustainable sources. That’s perhaps something we all need to chew on.
What is the FAO report?
The FAO report call s on governments and the international community to do more to strengthen enabling frameworks, create incentives and benefit-sharing measures, promote pro-biodiversity initiatives and address the core drivers of biodiversity loss.
How does the Earth’s ecosystem help the climate?
Planet Earth’s oceans, forests and other land-based ecosystems play a vital role in regulating the climate and soaking up around half the carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by human activities. At the same time the continuing loss of biodiversity through over-exploitation of forests and degradation of ecosystems through widescale monoculture farming limits ecosystems’ ability to provide essential carbon capture.
What is the role of BFA in agriculture?
BFA depends on the wilder relatives of domesticated plant and animal species and the vast range of microorganisms that purify water and air, fertilise soils, pollinate plants and fight crop and livestock diseases. Biodiversity is as essential for BFA as BFA is to food production and security. Yet the global transition to more intensive agricultural …
What is biodiversity for food and agriculture?
Biodiversity for food and agriculture (BFA) is a subset of biodiversity that contributes to food production. It includes domesticated plants (crops), animals (livestock), aquaculture systems (fish farms) and forestry (timber) and other essentials such as cotton for clothing, materials for biofuels and plants for medicines.
What is biodiversity in agriculture?
Biodiversity for food and agriculture includes the domesticated plants and animals raised in crop, livestock, forest and aquaculture systems, harvested forest and aquatic species, the wild relatives of domesticated species, other wild species harvested for food and other products. Furthermore, it also entails “associated biodiversity” which makes …
What are the main drivers of biodiversity loss?
Yet while crop and livestock agriculture, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture are made up of and rely on a complex web of living organisms, they have become one of the major drivers of biodiversity loss. Agrobiodiversity.
How can we fight the erosion of biodiversity?
Fighting the erosion of biodiversity for food and agriculture requires its more sustainable management, use and conservation. This implies a shift to more biodiversity friendly production methods, favouring a greater diversity of crop and livestock species, maintaining well connected habitats for pollinators and natural enemies of pests, practising sustainable soil management and reducing the use of pesticides and fertilisers.
What are the main factors that affect biodiversity?
Population growth, climate change, urbanisation and trends in global markets and trade are the main indirect driving forces putting pressure on biodiversity. Changes in land use and water management, intensification of production systems, deforestation, overfishing, excessive use of pesticides and fertilisers, pollution and ecosystem degradation are some of the major direct threats to biodiversity for food and agriculture.
Why is it important to study biodiversity?
There is therefore an urgent need to improve our knowledge on ecosystems for food and agriculture, and in particular, to study the role of associated biodiversity. This will help us to better understand, conserve and manage the diversity that underpins our food systems. The motto must be to work with biodiversity and not against it.
What percentage of wild species are threatened?
Valuable wild relatives of domesticated animals and crops in natural ecosystems are dwindling too. Close to 20% of the wild species recorded in The International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN 2021) as sources of human food are classed as threatened. Almost a third of ocean fish stocks are overfished and a third of freshwater species are threatened.
How many species of plants are used in food production?
The statistics are alarming: out of the 6,000 different plant species used as food, only nine (sugarcane, wheat, rice, maize, potatoes, sugar beet, cassava, oil palm and soybean) contribute 66% of total crop production. Livestock production is concentrated mainly on eight species (pig, chicken, cattle, sheep, goat, turkey, duck and buffalo) accounting for 97% of global meat production.
What are the negative impacts of biodiversity?
Most negative impacts are the results of inappropriate agricultural practices. Bad land and water management is by far the driver with the highest negative impact.
How does biodiversity change?
These services, also known as ecosystem services, support human food and agricultural production. Besides climate change, also international markets and demography cause major impacts on biodiversity. They result for example in change of land-use, increased pollution, over harvesting, and proliferation of invasive species. The reason why this happens, depends mostly on urbanisation, trade markets, and of course our own food preferences. However, the impacts are not solely negative. It also provides changes for more sustainable development, using biodiversity friendly products on markets.
What is biodiversity friendly?
This means a sustainable use and conservation of resources, integrated in agricultural management at ecosystem level. Four out of five countries confirm to implement at least one of these practices.
What are the risks of extinction?
Increasing numbers of agricultural species, such as livestock breeds are at risk of extinction. Plant species for crops are decreasing and people overfish the fish stocks dramatically. As a result, vital species for pollination, pest control and soil health are disappearing.
What are the negative impacts of land management?
Bad land and water management is by far the driver with the highest negative impact. Forest logging, aquatic depletion, and intensive production fields all lead to reduction of species, breeds and thereby biodiversity.
Why is biodiversity important?
Biodiversity ensures a certain level of resilience of ecosystems. This means that an ecosystem can better cope with disruptions and stresses. For example, such stresses can be weather extremes, increasing average temperature, and climate change in general. Humans tend to use biodiversity to maximise our food production, …
How does biodiversity help the planet?
It contributes to the biodiversity on our planet. Think about domesticated plants and animals for crop, livestock, forest and aquaculture productions. Even wildlife that is hunted for consumption, contributes to our food supply. Yet, biodiversity is not only existing to serve the human hunger. Biodiversity ensures a certain level of resilience …
What are the effects of agriculture on wild animals?
Agricultural activities such as tillage, drainage, intercropping, rotation, grazing and extensive usage of pesticides and fertilizers have significant implications for wild species of flora and fauna. Species capable of adapting to the agricultural landscape may be limited directly by the disturbance regimes of grazing, planting and harvesting, and indirectly by the abundance of plant and insect foods available. Some management techniques, such as drainage, create such fundamental habitat changes that there are significant shifts in species composition. This paper considers the relative merits of conventional tillage versus reduced, or no-till farming, and reviews the benefits of rest-rotation grazing, crop rotation and intercropping in terms of maintaining wild species populations.
How does climatic change affect agriculture?
Agricultural production is an important factor, and climatic changes play a vital role in organic and traditional practices. The climatic change that affects agriculture then the important change on research has motivated during the last period. Organic Agriculture has been changed on climate flexibility farming system that encourages the proper administration of local knowledge, soil, biodiversity, and water. They adapt to the change of climate as a good option. The negative offset impacts of climatic condition change positively contribute to organic agriculture, to substantiate this statistic by inadequate data. Climatic change is one of the biggest threats for both traditional and organic agriculture. The production crop needs to adapt themselves to the environment; the farmer needs to take some work to avoid the disaster from climatic change. When compared with traditional agriculture, organic agriculture got a higher potential to mitigate the change of climate. This paper reveals the comparison of the effect due to the climatic change on both traditional and organic agriculture are presented and discussed.
How does pest control affect biodiversity?
Pest control, a process that maintains nuisance organisms below economic thresholds, is a complex ecological process often mediated by biodiversity. Agricultural intensification results in widespread losses of biodiversity, with important implications for pest control. This article reviews how biological diversity at several levels of biological organization (e.g., crop genetic, trait, and species diversity, predator diversity, and multitrophic interactions including ecological network interactions) and distinct spatial scales (e.g., crop field, noncrop habitats, and landscape heterogeneity) affects biological pest control. Increases in biodiversity resulting from ecological or organic farming techniques can promote pest control within agricultural landscapes, but the effects of increased diversity are highly variable.
What are the processes that occur in soil?
Soil enzymatic processes that involve the decomposition of organic matter, geochemical nutrient cycling, and removal of contaminants are essential for the functioning of the soil environment. These activities help to maintain the fertility, health, and ecology of the soil necessary for sustainable agriculture. These enzymes promote the growth and production of agriculturally valuable crops by providing an interrelation between plant–soil environments for nutrient supply. From the production of various phytohormones and the acquisition of nutrients to biocontrol of pests and plant pathogens for crop protection, a diverse group of these enzymes is present in the soil environment playing a pivotal role in crop production. They can also act as an indicator of changes in soil quality as a measure of the level of pollution while some enzymes facilitate degradation of the hazardous aromatic compounds and pesticides. Microorganisms are the major source of soil enzymes. The enzymes are produced at either intracellular or extracellular locations. The soil characteristics such as the quantity and structure of organic matter along with the inhabitant organisms influence the enzyme levels and activities. Understanding of these microbial enzymes for their biotechnological application to increase production in the agriculture sector is necessary to provide sufficient food and fodder while giving a boost to the economy.
Why are grain crops important?
Grain crops are an important part of the human diet, accounting for a third of the consumed calories. Throughout human history, annual grain crops with high yields have been obtained through domestication. However, the “annual” characteristic brings associated a series of economic and environmental disadvantages, such as soil erosion or low soil resources use, that can be solved if the agriculture of annual varieties evolves towards perenniality. For this reason, there are numerous research groups dedicated to study and obtain perennial varieties of the most cultivated grain crops. In this review article, we have summarized the most important advances related to the subject, focusing on the domestication and hybridization of the most productive grains globally: wheat, rice, maize, rye and sorghum. We highlight their benefits for sustainable agriculture worldwide due to perennial grains may contribute to reducing erosion, acting avoiding carbon losses, reducing nutrient losses to waters or capturing nutrients deeper in soil when they are scarce, reducing farm costs and thus, increasing the effectiveness of agricultural grain crops. Despite perennial grain crops having disadvantages, they possess outstanding characteristics which make them resilient crops to deal with the imminent climate change. However, maintaining the perenniality trait without reducing genetic biodiversity is a great challenge of current scientific importance that must be deeply considered.
How does distance to crop affect microhabitats?
Distance to crop significantly affected microhabitat quality. A patchy structure of herbaceous and shrub was found outside crops in all sampling dates, with more shrub cover and less herbaceous cover as the distance to crops increased.
What is the most important crop in India?
Cotton is the most important commercial crop across rainfed growing regions in India. It produces kapas which has wide variety of uses in industry. Besides, it leaves lot of residues which include stalks, locules, leaves and roots in the field after picking kapas. A huge quantity of residue is being generated across different cotton growing states in India and a large portion of it is being burnt on-farm primarily to clear the field for sowing succeeding crops and for clean cultivation. But, it is leading to environmental pollution and emission of green houses gases. Further, valuable plant material is being lost which otherwise can be used for productive purposes. Many researchers found that insitu incorporation of crop residue would enrich soil fertility, enhances crop productivity and conserves the environment. This paper discussed various machinery with main emphasis on multi crop shredder and also different options for managing the cotton residues effectively.