How does agriculture affect coastal landscapes


Conversely, inland encroachment of agriculture on to forested land, slash and burn practices, overgrazing and inappropriate cultivation methods may increase runoff and erosion in catchment areas, with coastal land affected by increased sediment in rivers, lower dry season river flows and increased flooding.


What are the factors that affect coastal landforms?

As one coastal landform is eroded, another may form. The rock type/geology (see map below). Hard rock types are less likely to erode. The fetch of the wave and the strength of the wind. Powerful winds and a long fetch create the most damaging (erosive) waves.

What is the impact of agricultural landscape change?

Land‐cover changes cause the disappearance of traditional agricultural landscape and are responsible for vegetation modifications which have an impact on regional climate, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity losses. Agriculture also has impact on the natural systems and ecosystem services on which humans depend.

What are the challenges to the evolution of coastal ecosystems?

The evolution of the coastal form in many low-lying areas is hindered by many flood and other defences, which prevent the natural migration of intertidal habitats, as a consequence of which intertidal habitats will continue to be lost and dune systems and shingle areas may breakdown as space for them to migrate is unavailable.

What are the benefits of coastal areas?

Coastal areas are also home to species and habitats that provide many benefits to society and natural ecosystems. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) projects that sea level rise will increase flooding in Charleston, South Carolina. Source: NOAA Coastal Services Center (2012) Click the image to see a larger version.


How do human activities affect the coastal landscape?

Human activities in coastal areas have affected many of the natural environmental processes there. This has led to a wide range of issues including a loss of biodiversity, high levels of pollution, erosion, and rising sea levels due to climate change.

How does agricultural activity impact the sea?

It can also clog the gills of fish or smother fish larvae. In addition, other pollutants like fertilizers, pesticides, and heavy metals are often attached to the soil particles and wash into the water bodies, causing algal blooms and depleted oxygen, which is deadly to most aquatic life.

What are the 3 major threats of coastal ecosystem?

The threats to coastal communities include extreme natural events such as hurricanes, coastal storms, tsunamis, and landslides, as well as longer-term risks of coastal erosion and sea level rise. Floods are the most frequent natural disaster; one in three Federal disaster declarations is related to flooding.

What is the impact of agriculture on the water?

Agricultural practices may also have negative impacts on water quality. Improper agricultural methods may elevate concentrations of nutrients, fecal coliforms, and sediment loads. Increased nutrient loading from animal waste can lead to eutrophication of water bodies which may eventually damage aquatic ecosystems.

How does agriculture affect the environment?

Agriculture contributes to a number larger of environmental issues that cause environmental degradation including: climate change, deforestation, biodiversity loss, dead zones, genetic engineering, irrigation problems, pollutants, soil degradation, and waste.

How does agriculture affect ocean acidification?

However, it is not just carbon dioxide that is to blame for the rise in the acidity levels of the water. Agricultural waste, fertilisers, sewage and chemicals from water treatment facilities can also cause a rise in pH levels, as it causes a bloom in the amount of zooplankton and phytoplankton.

Which is the biggest problems of coastal areas?

Storms, flooding and erosion Storms are one of the major hazards that are associated to coastal regions. Storms, flooding, and erosion are closely associated and can happen simultaneously. Tropical storms or hurricanes especially can devastate coastal regions.

What are the problems faced by coastal areas?

The major problems in coastal fisheries are overfishing, habitat destruction and degradation, pollution, post- harvest damages due to lack of infrastructure, fishing during monsoon, conflicts among mechanized and traditional sectors, inter-state problems etc.

How does land affect coastal waters?

Modifications on land including dams, sand and gravel mining, and paving many coastal watersheds continuously diminish sediment input into coastal areas, while coastal armoring and placement of hard structures along the coast exacerbate coastal erosion and impede natural sediment transport.

How does agriculture contribute to groundwater depletion?

How does agriculture contribute to groundwater depletion? Agriculture contributes to groundwater depletion by using irrigation. Water is being drained for irrigational uses.

How does agricultural runoff affect the environment?

As agricultural runoff enters bodies of water it can have negative impacts on the environment. Not only can it contaminate sources of drinking water but the chemicals in the fertilizers can be absorbed into aquatic plants, contribute to algae blooms and effect animals’ ability to find food and reproduce.

How can agriculture improve water quality?

Improve Filtration In field practice can help reduce runoff, but filtering the runoff to remove sediment, chemicals, and waste can improve downstream water quality.


Coastal areas provide excellent soil and climatic conditions for agriculture. They play an important role in the economy, providing food and raw material for industry. Agricultural products find markets in tourism and craft, while port facilities facilitate trade.


The author is grateful to Drs. S N Nigam and S P S Beniwal, former colleagues from International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Telangana, India, for their critical review of the manuscript and improving it with valuable suggestions.

About this chapter

Singh A.K. (2020) Coastal Agriculture and Future Challenges. In: Singh A., Fernando R.L.S., Haran N.P. (eds) Development in Coastal Zones and Disaster Management. Disaster Research and Management Series on the Global South. Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore.

How did technological advances affect New Zealand farming?

Technological advances had a big impact on New Zealand farming practices. Road and rail construction made it easier to get products to market, making it financially viable#N#7#N#to farm remote areas. Electricity and machinery made it easier to manage increased crop#N#8#N#or animal numbers. Refrigeration opened up export markets.

What causes erosion of steep hill country pasture?

The erosion of steep hill country pasture has occurred in most regions of the North Island. It occurs when bush has been replaced by pasture. The slips are then caused by saturated soil following rainfall.

What is farming in New Zealand?

Farming is a way of life in New Zealand. Farms cover about half of the country’s land and are important to our economy. Agriculture has shaped who we are as a nation, but it has also had a big impact on the country’s natural landscape and environment.

What is the process of water being carried away from land to streams and rivers?

run-off: Water carried away from land to streams and rivers. eutrophication: A process where waterways, lakes and shallow sea areas receive excess nutrients that stimulate excessive plant or algae growth. This excessive growth depletes the available oxygen in the water and causes other organisms to die off.

What is the process of wearing away of land?

erosion: Wearing away of the land by mechanical action, such as by wind, water and glaciers, and by material carried in them. It can also be the gradual wearing away of a surface due to friction, particle collisions or chemical attack. Part of the process of erosion transports material away.

What were the crops that New Zealand introduced?

Almost all of the country’s agricultural crops and livestock were introduced from outside New Zealand. Māori settlers introduced kūmara, taro, yams and gourds. European settlers brought fruits, vegetables, grains and livestock such as sheep and cattle.

When did the bush cover the wetlands?

In 1840, bush covered about half of the land area. By 1930, about half of that bush area and a large part of the tussocklands had been turned into pasture. By the Second World War (1939), about 85% of the wetlands had been drained. Land was cleared through:

Why is fertilizer used in lakes?

Fertiliser and slurry are used to increase the nitrogen content of the soil so encouraging healthy plant growth. If too much is used then it can be leached into underground water supplies and rivers. This is called eutrophication. It then encourages algal and plant growth in the river or lake.

What happens if you remove a hedgerow?

The soil itself is an ecosystem and inappropriate farming techniques can lead to soil erosion. Overgrazing, over cultivation and deforestation all damage the soil making it more prone to the effect of erosion. This can be made worse if hedgerow has been removed.

What are the arguments against hedgerows?

The following table outlines the arguments for and against hedgerows: For hedgerow preservation: Against hedgerow preservation: They are a unique and balanced ecosystem. They may harbour pests but they also harbour the predator of that pest. They can provide homes for pests and weeds which damage crops.

Why are hedgerow birds beneficial to farmers?

P.S: 39 out of 42 hedgerow birds are beneficial to farmers. Farmers to increase the available land and reduce the potential disease from stagnant water have drained ponds. This removes another habitat for birds, fish, insects and plants.

How does mechanization affect agriculture?

Increased mechanisation in agriculture encourages farmers to increase the size of their fields. This they do by removing hedgerows. The UK has lost over 25% of its hedgerows in the last fifty years.

Why are windbreaks important in agriculture?

Evidence to suggest that they act as a natural barrier to the spread of disease. They also act as wind breaks that protect crops and reduce soil erosion. They need to be maintained which is costly.

What is the most significant natural habitat in the UK?

One of the most significant natural habitats for the UK’s flora and fauna is the hedgerow. However thousands of miles of hedgerow have been removed and the rest is still under threat. The total amount of hedgerow removed or damaged is 6 x the circumference of the globe. This is destroying natural habitats and changing the very nature and look …

What are the processes that affect the rate of coastal erosion?

Coastal processes. Processes called erosion, mass movement and weathering break down and remove material from the coast. Many factors affect the rates of coastal erosion and the landforms created. Part of. Geography. Landscapes and physical processes.

Why is coastal erosion a concern?

The amount of human interference – if there are no man-made structures (eg sea walls) to protect the coast, then the coast is more vulnerable to attack. However, the construction of houses, industry and other man-made structures in the first instance are the reasons why coastal erosion is a concern.

Is the British coastline vulnerable to erosion?

Some areas of the British coastline are more vulnerable to coastal erosion than others. Coastal landforms are affected by a range of factors. Some of these factors slow down or speed up the rate that landforms are being created.

Which type of rock is less likely to erode?

Hard rock types are less likely to erode. The fetch of the wave and the strength of the wind. Powerful winds and a long fetch create the most damaging (erosive) waves. The angle of the slope – steep slopes erode more violently and frequently.


Human expansion throughout the world caused that agriculture is a dominant form of land management globally. Human influence on the land is accelerating because of rapid population growth and increasing food requirements.

1. Introduction

Land cover and land‐use patterns on Earth reflect the interaction of human activities and the natural environment [ 1 ]. Human population growth together with competitive land use causes land scarcity, conversion of wild lands to agriculture and other uses.

3. Results and discussion

With the growing world population the requirements are grown to cover the food demand. Human expansion throughout the world caused that agriculture is a dominant form of land management globally, and agricultural ecosystems cover nearly 40% of the terrestrial surface of the Earth.

4. Conclusion

Agriculture is a dominant form of land management globally. Rapid population growth as primary driving force connected with increasing food requirements generate great pressure on future land use, environment, natural resources, and ecosystem services.


This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under Grant No. APVV‐0098‐12 Analysis, modeling and evaluation of agro‐ecosystem services. The research of abiotic soil parameters was done by the equipment supported by Operational Programme Research and Development via contract No.

What happens when algae sinks?

When the algae sink and decompose, the process depletes the oxygen in the water. As increases in spring runoff bring more nitrogen, phosphorus, and other pollutants into coastal waters, many aquatic species could be threatened. [1] Decreases in precipitation could also increase the salinity of coastal waters.

What are dead zones in the Gulf of Mexico?

Some coastal areas, such as the Gulf of Mexico and Chesapeake Bay, are already experiencing “dead zones.”. Dead zones occur when land-based sources of pollution (e.g., agricultural fertilizers) contribute to algal blooms. When the algae sink and decompose, the process depletes the oxygen in the water.

What areas of New York were flooded by the storm surge?

For example, low-lying areas of New York City, Long Island, and New Jersey were flooded by several feet of water by the storm surge from Superstorm Sandy in 2012. [2][5] Sea level rise could magnify the impacts of storms by raising the base on which storm surges build. [7]

How does acidic water affect corals?

A more acidic ocean adversely affects the health of many marine species, including plankton, mollusks, and other shellfish. In particular, corals can be very sensitive to rising acidity, as it is difficult for them to create and maintain the skeletal structures needed for their support and protection.

What are the impacts of storm surge?

Storm surges flood low-lying areas, damage property, disrupt transportation systems, destroy habitat, and threaten human health and safety.

How many square miles of wetlands have been lost in Louisiana?

For example, coastal Louisiana lost approximately 2000 square miles of wetlands in recent decades due to human alterations of the Mississippi River’s sediment system and oil and water extraction that has caused land to sink.

What is relative sea level?

The terms “local” or “relative” sea level refer to both the global change in sea level and the effects of land motion. Where the land is sinking, the rate of relative sea level rise is larger than the global rate. Some of the fastest rates of relative sea level rise in the United States are occurring in areas where the land is sinking, …


Sustainable management of coastal resources requires that future generations of people and wildlife enjoy an ongoing and equitable level of environmental quality ( Crooks & Turner 1999 ).


Rising sea-level results in a spatial shift of coastal geomorphology, manifest through the redistribution of coastal landforms comprising subtidal bedforms, intertidal flats, saltmarshes, shingle banks, sand dunes, cliffs and coastal lowlands ( Pethick & Crooks 2000 ).


Thus, large-scale coastal landforms are currently adjusting to two major perturbations: rising sea-level and the loss of floodplains with their hydraulic functions. Coastal ‘roll-over’ (the landward migration of coastal landforms) and redistribution of sediments means that fossilizing the coast into its present state is not a management option.


from Bush, Swamp and Tussock to Farmland

  • Initially, New Zealand was mainly a bush-clad country that included some swamps, wetlandsand tussocklands. Māori burned and cleared bush to make hunting easier and to make way for kūmara plots and other crops. The Europeans followed, and eventually the bush was replaced by farms such as dairy, beef, deer, sheep and crops, orchards and vineyards. In 1840, bush covered …

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Introducing New Plant and Animal Species

  • Almost all of the country’s agricultural crops and livestock were introduced from outside New Zealand. Māori settlers introduced kūmara, taro, yams and gourds. European settlers brought fruits, vegetables, grains and livestock such as sheep and cattle. Although farmers tried to adapt their practices to local conditions, it wasn’t always feasible. For example, when native vegetatio…

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Technological Advances and Agricultural Expansion

  • Technological advances had a big impact on New Zealand farming practices. Road and rail construction made it easier to get products to market, making it financially viable to farm remote areas. Electricity and machinery made it easier to manage increased cropor animal numbers. Refrigeration opened up export markets. Geologically, New Zealand is a y…

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Environmental Impacts and Farming

  • Concerns about farming and the environment are not new. A Parliamentary commission of inquiry in 1920 investigated environmental damage to the South Island’s high country. In 2004, the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment linked a number of issues to intensified farming, such as: 1. loss of biodiversitydue to land clearance 2. soil compactiondue to high stoc…

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Resource Management Act 1991 and Other Regulations

  • The Resource Management Act 1991 (RMA) was enacted to promote sustainable environmental management of land through the careful use of resources. The resource consent process has affected how farmers operate their farms. They now need to seek permission to use water for irrigation and to discharge waste into streams and rivers. The RMA passed on most resource m…

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