How does agriculture affect network


Agricultural information is transferred through social interactions; therefore, ties to agricultural informants and network structures within farmers’ local neighborhoods determine their information-gathering abilities.


How does agriculture affect the environment?

For agricultural land demand, people tend to clear forests. Therefore, natural ecosystems lost. For palm oil, for instance, people convert natural ecosystems into palm tree plantations in Far Eastern Countries.

What are the effects of agricultural land demand?

For agricultural land demand, people tend to clear forests. Therefore, natural ecosystems lost. For palm oil, for instance, people convert natural ecosystems into palm tree plantations in Far Eastern Countries. Natural ecosystems have been diminishing in size and their functions. Often, this is irreversible.

Does farm size affect the adoption of agricultural technology?

The review of existing literature shows that farmers with large farm holdings have a higher probability of adopting agricultural technology (Bjornlund et al., 2009; Anderson et al., 1999). Farm size is a common proxy variable for income (Wozniak, (Anderson et al., 1999).

How has technology changed the farm industry?

While large-scale farm equipment has long since moved past the days of lightweight wheelbarrows and hand plows, new technological advancements are continuing to change the industry. The impact of technology is becoming especially critical as increased populations result in a reduced availability of suitable land.


How does agriculture affect technology?

Today’s agriculture routinely uses sophisticated technologies such as robots, temperature and moisture sensors, aerial images, and GPS technology. These advanced devices and precision agriculture and robotic systems allow businesses to be more profitable, efficient, safer, and more environmentally friendly.

What is Network in agriculture?

Networking in the agricultural industry is about making connections and building enduring and mutually beneficial relationships with fellow farmers, input suppliers, agribusinesses and other industry role-players.

How does the Internet of things affect agriculture?

With IoT, companies can enjoy benefits like better crop productivity and improved worker safety. They can use less fertilizer, water and pesticides. Because farmers can decrease the fertilizers and pesticides they use, there is less runoff into groundwater and rivers. This results in a lower impact on the ecosystem.

What are the main impacts of agriculture?

Agriculture contributes to a number larger of environmental issues that cause environmental degradation including: climate change, deforestation, biodiversity loss, dead zones, genetic engineering, irrigation problems, pollutants, soil degradation, and waste.

What are agricultural research networks?

An Agricultural Research Network (ARNET) is a cluster of scientists or institutions linked together. by a common interest in working dependently or interdependently on an identified shared problem or. problems. ARNETs are popular with agricultural research scientists, administrators, and donors as.

What are the benefits of networking in agricultural information institutions?

It provides an effective way for extension and other agricultural professionals to reach and increase the success of agricultural producers; Data suggest that when farmers convene, new opportunities arise for increased economic viability, improved quality of life, and greater community interaction.

Why do farmers use the internet?

A sizable portion of America’s largest farmers “are unable to take advantage of many applications and services” on the internet because they don’t have a connection or it is of poor quality, said a Purdue University survey released on Tuesday.

What are the challenges of IoT in agriculture?

The biggest challenges faced by IoT in the agricultural sector are lack of information, high adoption costs, and security concerns, etc. Most of the farmers are not aware of the implementation of IoT in agriculture.

What are the negative effects of IoT in agriculture?

If IoT solutions are in place, remote hackers can seize control of applications. If a hacker were to gain control of a pesticide dispersal system, for example, it could prove disastrous. Theoretically, they could spray more chemicals than needed, poisoning or killing crops.

How does agriculture affect the economy?

What is agriculture’s share of the overall U.S. economy? Agriculture, food, and related industries contributed $1.055 trillion to the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) in 2020, a 5.0-percent share. The output of America’s farms contributed $134.7 billion of this sum—about 0.6 percent of GDP.

How does agriculture affect ecosystem?

Agriculture produces more than just crops. Agricultural practices have environmental impacts that affect a wide range of ecosystem services, including water quality, pollination, nutrient cycling, soil retention, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity conservation.

How does agriculture affect the world?

Agriculture is the world’s largest industry. It employs more than one billion people and generates over $1.3 trillion dollars worth of food annually. Pasture and cropland occupy around 50 percent of the Earth’s habitable land and provide habitat and food for a multitude of species.

How long does it take to download a movie on 4G?

This means that while it would normally take six minutes to download a two-hour movie on 4G, that same download would take less than four seconds on 5G. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) develops technical standards for 5G (IMT-2020).

How much of the world’s crops are lost annually due to pests and diseases?

Due to pests and diseases, an estimate of 20–40% of crops are lost annually according to a report by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) ( FAO, 2020 ). IoT devices such as robots, drones, and sensors are employed to detect pests and diseases, allowing precise usage of pesticides.

What is 4G in agriculture?

4G/3G/NB-IoT wireless network technology is used to provide connectivity between IoT-based smart devices for data sharing, precise assessment, accurate estimation, etc., in the agricultural field ( Dahlman et al., 2011, Huang et al., 2012, Akyildiz et al., 2010, Hassebo et al., 2018 ). While the 3G/4G connectivity paradigm has shown great promise, there exist some limitations that can constrain the usage of the technology in the agricultural sector from its maximum potential. The operating area is one of the largest constraints. The existing wireless networks do not cover remote areas or parts of the city with several buildings. Facilitating quality of service (QoS) in 4G ( Payaswini and Manjaiah, 2014, Tragos et al., 2008, Iera et al., 2005, Dell’Uomo and Scarrone, 2002) networks poses a significant challenge due to channel conditions, resource allocation, changing data rates, and handoff issues between heterogeneous networks. The multiple antennas and transmitters used in mobile devices in this network lead to poor battery life. Since many moving devices used in modern agricultural sectors, such as drones and robots, are battery powered, they cannot operate for long durations in remote crop fields. Several devices and a massive amount of research work on IoT devices for smart farming are steadily increasing and require more intelligence, speed, scalability, secure communication capabilities and processing power to perform heavy computational tasks and run loaded services. To achieve fast performance and low costs for IoT devices, ultralow latency combined with high connectivity is required. The current 4G network (LTE) cannot support such features because it allows IP-based packet switching connectivity only ( Zhaogan et al., 2007, Martin et al., 2011 ). These limitations of the current generations of cellular networks will be overcome by transitioning to the next generation: 5G.

How does 5G help farming?

The advent of 5G will considerably change the nature of jobs in farming and agriculture. The internet of things (IoT)-based cloud computing service in the 5G network provides flexible and efficient solutions for smart farming. This will allow the automated operation of various unmanned agricultural machines for the plowing, planting, and management phases of crop farming and will ultimately achieve secure, reliable, environmentally friendly, and energy-efficient operations and enable unmanned farms. This paper provides a complete survey on 5G technology in the agricultural sector and discusses the need for and role of smart and precision farming; benefits of 5G; applications of 5G in precision farming such as real-time monitoring, virtual consultation and predictive maintenance, data analytics and cloud repositories; and future prospects.

What is the main source of income for developing countries?

Agriculture is the primary source of livelihood and plays a vital role in most countries’ economies. Agriculture is not only associated with crop production but also includes animal breeding and land cultivation to offer food, fiber, and medicine. Different types of agriculture are practiced in different regions across the world, focusing primarily on providing healthy food to feed the population worldwide. Agriculture is the main source of income for developing countries. It ensures food security for a country and produces material for industry. Modern farming started approximately in the 18th century, referred to as the British Agricultural Revolution, when in a short period, many improvements were made to farming, leading to a major yield increase and more efficient methods. A four-field system and selective cross-breeding program were implemented to increase crop size as well as yields, replacing the three-field crop rotation system. The first subsequent revolution in agriculture took place between 1900 and the 1930s, when mechanized agriculture allowed each farmer to produce enough for 26 people. This agricultural revolution brought techniques such as soil management and the advent of various new farming tools. After many decades, a second revolution, known as the Green Revolution, took place in the 1990s. Genetically modified crops that are pest resistant and need less water were introduced with the help of scientific advancements, allowing each farmer to feed 155 people. The second revolution promoted the use of mechanized tools in farming practices, increasing the rate of production as well as the quantity of crop yield. The third revolution, also described as a green revolution, was the phase when genetically modified crops began to be used by almost everyone, leading to greater produce output.

Why is the IoT network failing?

The current generation of mobile networks is failing because of poor connectivity in rural regions , and even in the regions where high-speed connectivity is present, failure occurs due to enormous demands. A recent report found that almost 80% of rural areas, even in the United Kingdom, lie outside of the 4G range. In most countries, the current level of network availability in rural regions is insufficient ( USDA, 2019 ). In addition, in some developed countries, there are multiple farms with a large number of IoT devices and machines that require a constant reliable high-speed internet connection to exchange a large amount of data, and the technologies of the current generation of mobile networks cannot cope with these demands. To fulfill these goals, many promising technologies, such as massive MIMO, network slicing, and smaller cells, are needed to provide reliable connectivity over a larger distance. Therefore, the 5G mobile network is well suited to support smart farming by enabling wide coverage, low energy consumption, low-cost devices, and high spectrum efficiency. In 2017, for the first time, the 5G Rural First project successfully planted and harvested a crop using autonomous tractors to sow seeds, drones to monitor crops, and machines to apply water, fertilizer, and pesticides. The whole process was performed without any laborers stepping into the field. In 2018, another project titled Hands-Free Hectare reported a successful harvest. With more advancements in technology, 5G is expected to promote precision farming. As 5G coverage expands, agricultural sector producers are highly beneficial, providing the ability to manage farms, livestock, etc. from the comfort of their home, thanks to their large capacity, high data speed, and low latency. 5G technology will aid in supporting IoT sensor connectivity to the next level, providing a path to drive groundbreaking innovation in smart farming components ( Akpakwu et al., 2018, Modesta et al., 2019, Antony et al., 2020, Ayaz et al., 2019, Mavromoustakis et al. ). The key areas where the deployment of a 5G mobile network is beneficial in the agricultural sector are shown in Fig. 4. The application of 5G in agriculture for unmanned aerial vehicles, real-time monitoring, virtual consultation and predictive maintenance, augmented reality and virtual reality, AI-powered robots, data analytics and cloud repositories are discussed in this section. 5G technology makes it much easier to deploy, monitor, and manage IoT devices and farms.

When was 5G released?

5G is the 5th generation mobile network technology; the formal standard was established in December 2017 by 3GPP to define the specification of the 5G network, and the second phase of 5G, 3GPP Release 16, is expected to be released shortly.

What happens when a farmer rents a crop?

When a farmer share-rents, the farmer and the landowner share the costs and profits from crop production. On the other hand, a farmer who cash-rents bears all the financial risk involved with crop production. It is also common for a landowner with multiple landholdings to rent fields to several farmers.

What is the factor that influences whether a farmer is likely to adopt water conservation technology?

Land ownership stake is another factor that influences whether a farmer is likely to adopt water-conservation technology. Researchers theorize that the ownership stake of a field influences the amount and type of investment a farmer is willing to make.


The social-ecological effects of agricultural intensification are complex.


Agriculture is undergoing a transformation, mainly through intensification, worldwide [ 1 ]. This is reflected in the increased numbers of industry-oriented farms, characterized by large-scale monocultures with high use of pesticides and fertilizers and, which often go hand in hand with investments into irrigation technology.

Materials and methods

We studied a farming community from a village of the Navarre region in Spain ( Fig 1 ). The name of the village will remain anonymous to protect the identity of the participants in the study.


We found different levels of awareness among farmers regarding how they can affect NCP within the agricultural landscape given their land management decisions. Not surprisingly, the provision of food was the most highly cited material contribution of farmers to NCP.

Discussion and conclusions

We found that most farmers were aware of their co-production of NCP through their land management decisions, though modern and traditional farmers’ awareness of their contributions differed.


A.A. wishes to express her gratitude to her mother, Gloria Aguinaco Otxaran, who has taken care of her first baby while she working on this project. We would also like to thank two anonymous reviewers and the editor for helpful comments and advice to improve the paper.

How is agricultural information transferred?

Agricultural information is transferred through social interactions; therefore, ties to agricultural informants and network structures within farmers’ local neighborhoods determine their information-gathering abilities. This paper uses a spatial autoregressive model that takes account of spatial autocorrelation to examine such network connections, including friendship networks and advice networks, upon farmers’ knowledge-gathering abilities during formal agricultural training. We found that peer advice networks are important to support knowledge-gathering activities, while friendship networks are not. Further examination of network structures confirms that farmers who occupy a central position in their local neighborhood networks are found to perform better in learning outcomes to some extent, indicating that local network position is positively related to problem-solving ability in an unknown environment outside their locale.

How many people are in a farmers group?

Farmers cultivating the same commodity and residing in the same or nearby neighborhoods are encouraged to form a farmers’ group, which usually comprises 20–30 people. One or two extension workers are assigned to each group; they monitor farmers’ progress and advise them at least once a month during group meetings.

What is an official advice network?

Official advice networks are a function of the number of government officials or local extension service workers whom farmers consult regarding coffee and/or cocoa cultivation. Officials are considered an annex of farmers’ local networks.

Where does nitrogen come from in fertilizer?

Roughly half the nitrogen in synthetic fertilizers escapes from the fields where it is applied, finding its way into the soil, air, water, and rainfall. After soil bacteria convert fertilizer nitrogen into nitrates, rainstorms or irrigation systems carry these toxins into groundwater and river systems.

What is the effect of nitrogen on soil?

In addition, fertilizer application in soil leads to the formation and release of nitrous oxide, one of the most harmful greenhouse gases.

How does irrigation affect water?

Irrigation causes increases in water evaporation, impacting both surface air temperature and pressure as well as atmospheric moisture conditions . Recent studies have confirmed that cropland irrigation can influence rainfall patterns not only over the irrigated area but even thousands of miles away.

What is irrigation related to?

Irrigation has also been connected to the erosion of coastlines and other kinds of long-term ecological and habitat destruction. A huge amount of agricultural territory is used primarily as pasture for cattle and other livestock.

What causes algae blooms in China?

Nutrient pollution is a causal factor in toxic algae blooms affecting lakes in China, the United States, and elsewhere. As excessive amounts of organic matter decompose in aquatic environments, they can bring about oxygen depletion and create “dead zones” within bodies of water, where nothing can survive.

What are the consequences of irrigation?

One of the most obvious consequences is the depletion of aquifers, river systems, and downstream ground water. However, there are a number of other negative effects related to irrigation.

How do cattle damage soil?

Cattle and other large grazing animals can even damage soil by trampling on it. Bare, compacted land can bring about soil erosion and destruction of topsoil quality due to the runoff of nutrients. These and other impacts can destabilize a variety of fragile ecosystems and wildlife habitats. Chemical Fertilizer.

What are sensors for crops?

Sensors for Crops and Soil. It can be difficult to determine the condition of your crops and soil until something goes wrong, but recent advancements in technology have resulted in sensors that can automatically monitor a number of critical factors that can influence growth.

How do drones help farmers?

Agriculture is a perfect example, as drones can help farmers manage their land more effectively. Where crop monitoring once required farmers to physically walk through their fields and check for things like a lack of water, pests, or disease, drones allow them to do much of this work remotely.

What can sensors monitor?

Current sensors can monitor everything from nitrogen levels and plant health to the temperature and moisture in the soil, and some advanced models can go even further to details such as ground elevation, pH, and organic matter content .

How does technology affect the Earth?

The impact of technology is becoming especially critical as increased populations result in a reduced availability of suitable land. Roughly a third of Earth’s arable land has disappeared in just the last forty years, underscoring the importance of finding more and more efficient ways of producing food.

How much is smart agriculture worth?

Smart agriculture alone is expected to reach a market value of nearly $27 billion just next year, and it represents only one of many exciting examples of agricultural innovation.


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