How does agriculture affect the coastline

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Emissions and inputs from agriculture are a significant source of pollution to the coastal zone and to the atmosphere throughout the world. The contribution of agriculture to the pollution of coastal ecosystems affects biogeochemical cycles, notably in terms of : Discharge of methane and ammonia contributing to the greenhouse effect

One of the most widespread adverse effects associ- ated with agriculture is the pollution of waterways. Fertilizers, pesticides, and eroded soils have substantial ecological impacts on natural waterways.

Full
Answer

Why do farmers migrate from coastal areas?

Salty soil drives changes in agriculture, migration, study finds. FULL STORY. Rising sea levels driven by climate change make for salty soil, and that is likely to force about 200,000 coastal farmers in Bangladesh inland as glaciers melt into the world’s oceans, according to estimates from a new study.

How does agriculture affect the environment?

These gases have a negative effect on climate change and include carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Various types of agriculture also use fertilization and pesticides, which releases phosphorus and nitrate in the air, among other things.

How can agriculture affect lakes and rivers?

How can agriculture affect lakes and rivers? Improperly managed agricultural activities may impact surface water by contributing nutrients, pesticides, sediment, and bacteria, or by altering stream flow. Fertilizer and pesticide use, tillage, irrigation, and tile drainage can affect water quality and hydrology.

What is the contribution of Agriculture to the pollution of coastal ecosystems?

The contribution of agriculture to the pollution of coastal ecosystems affects biogeochemical cycles, notably in terms of : Eutrophication results from the increase of nutritional resources to a particular water body and includes the supply of mineral nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, trace elements) as well as organic carbon.

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What does agriculture do to the ocean?

Essentially, the once-fresh inputs of clean, natural water into the ocean are being replaced by flows of polluted farm runoff. And on a massive scale. It’s no wonder that animal agriculture is the leading cause of species extinction, ocean dead zones, water pollution and habitat destruction, according to the EPA.


What are the threats to coastline?

The threats to coastal communities include extreme natural events such as hurricanes, coastal storms, tsunamis, and landslides, as well as longer-term risks of coastal erosion and sea level rise. Floods are the most frequent natural disaster; one in three Federal disaster declarations is related to flooding.


What are the major factors affecting coastal ecosystems?

Salinity, temperature and currents all play an important role in shaping the communities of organisms that are able to live in coastal waters. Coastal waters are also affected by weather patterns and tides.


How does coastal development affect our coastlines?

Coastal development can cause chronic sedimentation, sewage effluent, industrial discharge, changes waterflow and run off which can harmfully affect coral growth rates and metabolic activities as well as directly kill corals. The damage doesn’t end with the construction of tourist infrastructure.


How do humans affect coastlines?

Coastal Degradation Human actions that lead to the destruction of dune grasses and the disturbance of coastal landforms promote increased erosion and movement of beach materials.


What causes the destruction of coastal resources?

The most important causes for coral reef degradation are coastal development and excessive exploitation of its resources. Migration towards coasts led to strong development on land, which often lead to destruction of important coastal ecosystems like mangroves and sea grass beds.


How does land affect coastal waters?

Modifications on land including dams, sand and gravel mining, and paving many coastal watersheds continuously diminish sediment input into coastal areas, while coastal armoring and placement of hard structures along the coast exacerbate coastal erosion and impede natural sediment transport.


Which is the biggest problems of coastal areas?

Storms, flooding and erosion Storms are one of the major hazards that are associated to coastal regions. Storms, flooding, and erosion are closely associated and can happen simultaneously. Tropical storms or hurricanes especially can devastate coastal regions.


What problems do coastal areas frequently face?

Threats to the coastal zone Climate change. Fisheries. Water quality/pollution. Land use and coastal defences. 4.1 Land use and human populations. … Land-sea flows. 5.1 River runoff and load. … Recreation and tourism. 6.1 Beaches, swimming, recreational boating. … Coastal hazards. Threats to biodiversity.More items…•


How does pollution affect the coastline?

Ecological consequences of pollution in coastal rivers and estuaries include loss or change of biodiversity , habitat , ecosystem function and ecological processes (Johnston & Roberts 2009, Johnston et al. 2015).


Why are coastlines important?

Coasts help us understand natural events, such as weather and changing sea levels. During storms, coasts are the first places to be flooded. Some coasts have coastal plains. Coastal plains are pieces of flat, low-lying land that can become visible when sea levels start decreasing.


What are the causes and effects of coastal erosion?

Coastal erosion is a result of human activities and natural environment changes making the coastal dynamic action (wave, current, wind) lose balance in the coastal process, and the long-term loss of sediments of coastal zone results in the destruction process of coastline retreat and beach erosion.


How does agriculture affect coastal ecosystems?

The contribution of agriculture to the pollution of coastal ecosystems affects biogeochemical cycles, notably in terms of : Discharge of methane and ammonia contributing to the greenhouse effect. Use of insecticides and other pesticides affecting species, cultivated or not. Pollution, from use of oil, for instance.


How does pollution affect the estuarine ecosystem?

Coastal and estuarine ecosystems have been, and still are, heavily influenced by humans through pollution and habitat loss worldwide. Over 80% of all marine pollution originates from land-based sources which are primarily industrial, agricultural and urban . Pollution accompanies most kinds of human activities, including offshore oil and gas production and marine oil transportation. Besides altering the marine environment, pollution also causes economic losses .


Why is it so difficult to estimate the relative contribution of each human activity to the overall pollution impact?

Quantitative estimates are difficult because of the lack of reliable data and the extreme complexity of biogeochemical cycles, especially at the sea-land and sea-atmosphere interfaces.


What happens to contaminants after entering the sea?

After entering the sea, contaminants are usually diluted and widely dispersed. However, the adsorption of contaminants to suspended solid material in the sea leads to the occurrence of elevated concentrations in the seabed in areas where this material settles.


How can anthropogenic chemicals affect wildlife?

It is now well established that there are anthropogenic chemicals released to the environment that can disrupt the endocrine systems of a wide range of wildlife species. The reproductive hormone-receptor systems appear to be especially vulnerable. Indeed, changes in sperm counts, genital tract malformations, infertility, an increased frequency of mammary, prostate and testicular tumours, feminisation of male individuals of diverse vertebrate species and altered reproductive behaviours, have all been reported . With regard to environmental management, the problem of endocrine disrupting chemicals is extremely difficult to address. Basic research is required to strengthen the scientific foundation for risk assessment: e.g., baseline studies on endocrine dysfunction across classes of animals to reduce the uncertainty associated with species extrapolations . See also articles under the Ecotox Portal.


What are the effects of halogenated hydrocarbons on the environment?

It has emerged that some highly stable organic compounds – chiefly halogenated hydrocarbons – can have serious environmental effects in the sea. Such substances have in common the presence of a halogen in their molecule (chlorine, iodine, fluorine, astatine), have a low polarity and low water solubility.


How can algal biomass be prevented?

An algal biomass related phenomenon such as oxygen depletion of the water column and consequent mortality of animals can be prevented by a general reduction of nutrient discharges. At present, mathematical models on ecosystem dynamics are reliable enough to estimate dose-effect relationships.


How does fertilizer affect water quality?

Fertilizer and pesticide use, tillage, irrigation, and tile drainage can affect water quality and hydrology. Livestock production practices, including riparian grazing, confined feeding operations, and manure management can also impact water quality.


Why is Minnesota drained?

Thousands of acres of agricultural land in Minnesota have been tiled and drained to improve productivity. Drainage carries excess nutrients and pesticides and moves water more quickly off the landscape.


What happens when animals are allowed to access streams and lakes?

When animals are allowed continuous, unrestricted access to streams and lakes, manure ends up in the water and riparian vegetation may be severely damaged. Exposed, compacted soil is more susceptible to erosion and is more difficult to revegetate.


What is the purpose of BMPs?

Appropriate BMPs to collect, handle, and apply manure according to nutrient management plans have been adopted by many producers. However, there is still much work to address feedlots and manure management, including state and local policy development and implementation, education, and adoption of BMPs.


What is the cause of phosphorus in water?

Phosphorus is generally bound to soil particles and may be carried to surface water through erosion or in solution. Nutrients cause excessive plant and algae growth in lakes and streams. Crop production may also contribute pesticides to surface or ground water. Pesticides include herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, …


How does agriculture affect lakes?

How can agriculture affect lakes and rivers? Improperly managed agricultural activities may impact surface water by contributing nutrients, pesticides, sediment, and bacteria, or by altering stream flow. Fertilizer and pesticide use, tillage, irrigation, and tile drainage can affect water quality and hydrology.


How does row crop production affect the water quality in lakes?

Row-crop production can also increase the sediment load in lakes and rivers. Exposed soil is more susceptible to wind and water erosion. Cultivation near shorelines or on Highly Erodible Lands (HEL) can intensify erosion and sedimentation. Increased sediment can reduce flood capacity, instream flows, habitat, and aesthetics.


What are the effects of agriculture on the environment?

Pollutants such as pesticides are also a major part of agriculture that negatively impacts the environment. It is self-explanatory; these products are chemicals that can have a long-lasting effect on soil and plants if used continuously.


What are the environmental impacts of agriculture?

This environmental impact of agriculture is the effect of various farming practices, and it can vary greatly depending on the country we are looking at. Many critical environmental issues are tied to agriculture, such as climate change, dead zones, genetic engineering, pollutants, deforestation, soil degradation, waste, and many others.


How does deforestation affect agriculture?

Because of deforestation, many animal species lose their habitat, and as previously mentioned, it leads to climate change. Climate change and deforestation are the two biggest and most important ways through which agriculture impacts our environment.


What are the two things that agriculture releases?

Various types of agriculture also use fertilization and pesticides, which releases phosphorus and nitrate in the air , among other things. Various types of agriculture also use fertilization and pesticides, which releases phosphorus and nitrate in the air, among other things.


How does irrigation affect the environment?

It can lead to the depletion of underground layers of water that are crucial for the environment. Agriculture can have a massive impact on the ecosystems surrounding it. This environmental impact …


What is deforestation caused by?

Farmers often cause deforestation by clearing land for their crops. Most of the deforestation happens because of slash-and-burn farming.


Why is irrigation important?

Irrigation, the process of applying controlled amounts of water to plants, can also create various problems for the environment. It can lead to the depletion of underground layers of water that are crucial for the environment.


What are the processes that affect the rate of coastal erosion?

Coastal processes. Processes called erosion, mass movement and weathering break down and remove material from the coast. Many factors affect the rates of coastal erosion and the landforms created. Part of. Geography. Landscapes and physical processes.


Why is coastal erosion a concern?

The amount of human interference – if there are no man-made structures (eg sea walls) to protect the coast, then the coast is more vulnerable to attack. However, the construction of houses, industry and other man-made structures in the first instance are the reasons why coastal erosion is a concern.


Is the British coastline vulnerable to erosion?

Some areas of the British coastline are more vulnerable to coastal erosion than others. Coastal landforms are affected by a range of factors. Some of these factors slow down or speed up the rate that landforms are being created.


What happens when algae sinks?

When the algae sink and decompose, the process depletes the oxygen in the water. As increases in spring runoff bring more nitrogen, phosphorus, and other pollutants into coastal waters, many aquatic species could be threatened. [1] Decreases in precipitation could also increase the salinity of coastal waters.


What are dead zones in the Gulf of Mexico?

Some coastal areas, such as the Gulf of Mexico and Chesapeake Bay, are already experiencing “dead zones.”. Dead zones occur when land-based sources of pollution (e.g., agricultural fertilizers) contribute to algal blooms. When the algae sink and decompose, the process depletes the oxygen in the water.


What areas of New York were flooded by the storm surge?

For example, low-lying areas of New York City, Long Island, and New Jersey were flooded by several feet of water by the storm surge from Superstorm Sandy in 2012. [2][5] Sea level rise could magnify the impacts of storms by raising the base on which storm surges build. [7]


How does acidic water affect corals?

A more acidic ocean adversely affects the health of many marine species, including plankton, mollusks, and other shellfish. In particular, corals can be very sensitive to rising acidity, as it is difficult for them to create and maintain the skeletal structures needed for their support and protection.


What are the impacts of storm surge?

Storm surges flood low-lying areas, damage property, disrupt transportation systems, destroy habitat, and threaten human health and safety.


How many square miles of wetlands have been lost in Louisiana?

For example, coastal Louisiana lost approximately 2000 square miles of wetlands in recent decades due to human alterations of the Mississippi River’s sediment system and oil and water extraction that has caused land to sink.


What is relative sea level?

The terms “local” or “relative” sea level refer to both the global change in sea level and the effects of land motion. Where the land is sinking, the rate of relative sea level rise is larger than the global rate. Some of the fastest rates of relative sea level rise in the United States are occurring in areas where the land is sinking, …


How can fertilizer affect coral reefs?

For example, excess nitrogen from wastewater or fertilizer enables the overgrowth of algae which can kill corals by smothering them, blocking their access to sunlight and promoting the growth of harmful bacteria.


What are the major threats to coral reefs?

Coral reefs face many threats from local sources, including: Physical damage or destruction from coastal development, dredging, quarrying, destructive fishing practices and gear, boat anchors and groundings, and recreational misuse (touching or removing corals ).


What environmental factors affect coral reefs?

Factors that affect coral reefs include the ocean’s role as a carbon dioxide sink, atmospheric changes, ultraviolet light, ocean acidification, viruses, impacts of dust storms carrying agents to far-flung reefs, pollutants, algal blooms and others. Reefs are threatened well beyond coastal areas.


How does agriculture affect the GBR?

It is well recognised that pollutant runoff (particularly sediment, nutrients and pesticides) from agriculture to the GBR is causing serious widespread damage to the reef’s ecosystems, including coral reefs and seagrass meadows. The degradation is compounded by climate change impacts.


Do coral reefs filter water?

As sessile organisms, corals filter the surrounding water with their tentacles subsisting on plankton and organic matter. Coral reefs are highly productive ecosystems hosting a high diversity of species, but apparently thrive in a nutrient poor environment.


Does coral reef clean water?

Coral reefs are nature’s water filtration system In turn, this enhances the clarity and quality of the ocean’s waters. Clean and clear water makes our beaches more beautiful and also allows coral reefs to continue to thrive.


What are 4 reasons coral reefs are disappearing?

Despite their importance, warming waters, pollution, ocean acidification, overfishing, and physical destruction are killing coral reefs around the world.


Why is the shift from rice to seafood a challenge?

The shift from rice to seafood also presents a challenge for those looking to curtail the encroaching seawater, because shrimp and other seafood farmers now need and want it to maintain their livelihoods. Balancing those competing interests is something policymakers must consider, Chen said.


How much will internal migration increase in Bangladesh?

Another interesting finding from the study: While internal migration will likely increase by about 25 percent, migration abroad is estimated to decrease by 66 percent as soil salinity increases, because the resulting aquaculture produces jobs that are likely to keep Bangladesh residents in the country, she said.


How many farmers are forced to live in Bangladesh?

Rising sea levels driven by climate change make for salty soil, and that is likely to force about 200,000 coastal farmers in Bangladesh inland as glaciers melt into the world’s oceans, according to estimates from a new study.


Is salt water flooding in Bangladesh?

Frequent flooding with salt water is already pushing farmers in Bangladesh to shift from growing rice to raising shrimp and other seafood, but not all coastal residents will be able to stay put and maintain their agricultural livelihoods, said study co-lead author Joyce Chen of The Ohio State University.


Does salty soil affect rice?

Salty soil impedes growth of rice and most other crops. It’s the first study of its kind. The researchers found that the farming potential lost with increased soil salinity is and will be a large driver of migration.


What are the effects of land use changes on agriculture?

In almost every case, land use changes — say, deforestation, or paving over green space for suburban expansion — result in more surface warming.


How much carbon dioxide does organic farming remove from the air?

We’ve said it before and we’ll say it again: Organic agriculture can remove from the air and sequester 7,000 pounds of carbon dioxide per acre per year. The Rodale Institute study that found that staggering number also found that, when properly executed, organic agriculture does not compromise yield.


Does drought increase yield?

As a matter of fact, in drought years, it increases yield, since the additional carbon stored in soil helps it to hold more water. In wet years, the additional organic matter in the soil wicks water away from plant roots, limiting erosion and keeping plants in place.

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Background


Agriculture

  • Emissions and inputs from agriculture are a significant source of pollution to the coastal zone and to the atmosphere throughout the world. The contribution of agriculture to the pollution of coastal ecosystems affects biogeochemical cycles, notably in terms of : 1. Discharge of methane and ammonia contributing to the greenhouse effect 2. Use of in…

See more on coastalwiki.org


Industry

  • Since most contaminants enter the sea by flows from the surrounding land, in particular via rivers, the highest concentrations are often found in estuaries and coastal areas and thus maximal effects of contaminants on the ecosystemcould be expected to occur here. This general picture can be influenced by additional inputs from sources at sea – ships, off-shore platforms – and by i…

See more on coastalwiki.org


Conclusion

  • The effects of contaminants on coastal ecosystemsare very difficult to assess. In the estimation of possible effects, the actual concentrations are compared with the levels that can cause effects. Results of laboratory experiments give only limited information in relation to the field situation, due to the complexity of natural systems and (in general) the co-occurrence of a multitude of co…

See more on coastalwiki.org


Related Articles


Further Reading

  • Clark R. (2001). Marine pollution, Oxford University Press. Frankel E.B. (1995). Ocean Environmental Management, Pearson Professional Education. Garbuny Vogel C. (2003). Human Impact (Restless Sea), Franklin Watts. Gardes L.I. (2003). Endangered Oceans, Greenhaven Press. Gorman M. (1993). Environmental Hazards: Marine Pollution, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, CA. Gre…

See more on coastalwiki.org

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