How does agriculture cause flooding

image

Full
Answer

What is the impact of flooding on agriculture?

Flooding deposits fine silt (alluvium) onto the floodplain, making it very fertile and excellent for farming. Low-income countries (LICs) are usually affected more than High-income countries (HICs) by the impacts of flooding.

How do farmers cause floods in upland areas?

Some upland farmers have caused soil and water to flush into rivers by leaving fields bare and compacting land with cattle and heavy machinery. Environmentalists say grants should be withheld if farms are managed in a way that encourages floods – but farmers don’t want more regulations.

What increases the risk of flooding?

This will increase the flood risk, as the water will not be intercepted and more will flow into the river. Urban land use – when an area surrounding a river is built on, it increases the amount of tarmac and concrete, which are impermeable surfaces. Drains and sewers take water directly and quickly to the river which increases the flood risk.

How do maize fields contribute to flooding?

Three quarters of the maize fields in the south-west contribute to flooding, a report in the journal Soil Use and Management says. Farm vehicles tend to compact the soil of maize fields, causing massive run-off. “Personally I think the best thing would be simply to ban the cultivation of maize on steep fields,” Prof Brazier told BBC News.

image


Can agriculture cause flooding?

Rivers can create prized farmland, but they also flood fields and the communities built alongside them. What’s more, farming practices may contribute to an increase in the magnitude and intensity of river flooding. This video segment adapted from NOVA explains the flooding problem and suggests possible solutions.


How does agriculture affect floods?

Flooding on farmlands can cause many types of damage. They may include crop loss, contamination, soil erosion, equipment loss, debris deposition, and the spread of invasive species. In New England, farms are important to the regional economy and food supply.


Why do farmers flood their fields?

This winter, some California farmers will be flooding their fields to replenish groundwater. El Niño is expected to deliver a warmer, wetter winter season to California, and farmers are hoping to capitalize on the extra water by directing floodwater and stormwater to their fields.


Can planting crops make flooding worse?

Although local conditions influence the effects, 36 to 48 hours is often the tolerable limit. Soil drainage properties can aggravate the flooding effect. Soils high in clay content or with other drainage restrictions prolong the flooding and remain waterlogged after floodwaters recede.


How does agriculture affect a watershed?

How do farms affect watersheds? Land uses in rural areas affect water quality in other ways: Fertilizers and pesticides from crop fields are often found in runoff in rural areas. Septic systems that are not properly constructed or maintained can send bacteria into streams.


What are the causes of flooding?

What Causes a Flood?Heavy rainfall.Ocean waves coming on shore, such as a storm surge.Melting snow and ice, as well as ice jams.Dams or levees breaking.


Is flooding good for farmland?

Floods cause disasters, but they can also be beneficial. Whenever a river overflows its banks, it dumps sand, silt and debris that it has carried downstream onto the surrounding land. After the flood waters move away, the soil is more fertile, because of the organic matter and minerals in this material.


How does deforestation cause flooding?

When deforestation takes place, the top layer of soil can be dislodged – this is also known as soil erosion. When the top layer of soil is unstable, it is unable to retain any of the water that falls on it, resulting in increased surface run-off, which, in turn, increases the risk of flooding.


What crop grows in flooded fields?

Sorghum.Sugar beets.Weeds.


How does drought and floods affect agriculture?

As for agricultural production, drought is a major reason for soil dryness in fields (inducing agricultural drought), and flood usually brings excessive soil water; both of them severely restrict field crop yields.


What are the effects of flooding on community and farm land?

Flooding in key agricultural production areas can lead to widespread damage to crops and fencing and loss of livestock. Crop losses through rain damage, waterlogged soils, and delays in harvesting are further intensified by transport problems due to flooded roads and damaged infrastructure.


Agriculture

Depending on the time of year and the growth stage of plants, flooding and severe weather can be devastating to Michigan’s family farms. The following information will help farmers deal with the impacts of flooding and severe weather in their fields.


USDA’s disaster program available for weather-related crop losses

Published on September 11, 2020
Producers with crop losses due to drought in 2018 or excessive rain in 2019 may qualify for USDA’s WHIP+ disaster program.


Significant flooding in Michigan has caused hardships for agriculture, MSU Extension responds

Published on June 5, 2020
MSU Extension has developed a resource a document to help support agricultural producers making flood-related decisions.


Southwest Michigan field crop update – May 28, 2020

Published on May 28, 2020
Warm air from the south pushes tropical rainfall and armyworm moths into Michigan.


How does flooding affect soybean germination?

Published on May 21, 2020
Important information about soybean fields planted prior to the recent heavy rain events.


MSU Extension Farm Stress Program partners to connect farmers with mental health services

Published on April 14, 2020
Farmers can now access counseling with licensed therapists via teletherapy.


Repairing your flood-damaged fields

Published on July 7, 2017
Management options for restoring productivity in flood-damaged areas.


How did the floods affect agriculture?

The effects of floods on agriculture. The Midwest floods this spring and summer damaged crops, reducing farmer returns with record-high input costs and substantially higher crop prices.


How does flooding affect crops?

Finally, flooding moves soil that can further damage crops . Erosion washes the fertile top soil away, increasing input costs and reducing yields in future years. Soil deposition is another significant problem.


How does temperature affect crop damage?

Four factors increase oxygen depletion in flooded crops and hence imply more crop damage. First, temperature determines plant respiration rates (oxygen consumption), so warmer floodwaters imply faster depletion of dissolved oxygen and more crop damage. Spring flooding, therefore, can be less damaging to crops than summer flooding because …


How does flooding affect soil nitrogen?

Flooding also cause loss of soil nitrogen because of enhanced denitrification during anaerobic soil conditions which persist during flooding. Nitrogen is important for crop growth, and most farmers apply some additional nitrogen to their crops, especially corn. Because denitrification is an anaerobic microbial process, the same flood factors that determine oxygen depletion for crops—temperature, duration and water movement—also determine the soil oxygen level; the less soil oxygen, the more soil nitrogen lost via denitrification. Methods exist to estimate nitrogen losses, and if the soil is not too wet for machinery, nitrogen can be reapplied, though this increases costs and nitrogen prices have been rising rapidly.


What happens to crops after a flood?

Even after floodwaters recede, crops can continue to suffer damage and yield resulting losses. Flooding not only weakens plant defenses, but the soil and water conditions prevalent during flooding favor the development of many plant pathogens, so crops suffer increased disease problems after floods. Among these diseases are root rots and stalk rots, which are caused by several different microorganisms, “crazy top” and various foliar diseases. Some of these diseases can be controlled by application of fungicides, but this increases production costs.


Why are floods important?

Flooded crops can be developmentally delayed and unable to achieve canopy closure , critical for crops to out-compete weeds and achieve high yields. Farmers may need to use additional weed control (chemical or mechanical), which increases costs, and late-spring control is often less effective or causes greater crop damage. Also, floodwaters can bring in new weed seeds that increase control costs and reduce yields in future years.


Why is spring flooding less damaging than summer flooding?

Spring flooding, therefore, can be less damaging to crops than summer flooding because the water is cooler. Second, the duration of crop submersion is an important factor—the longer a crop is underwater, the longer it goes with low oxygen, and so more damage occurs.


How do upland farmers cause soil and water to flush into rivers?

Some upland farmers have caused soil and water to flush into rivers by leaving fields bare and compacting land with cattle and heavy machinery.


Why is there pressure for landowners to capture more rain where it falls in upper catchments of rivers?

There is pressure for landowners to capture more rain where it falls in upper catchments of rivers by causing localised mini-floods so the water can seep into the soil instead of flushing into the river system.


Why is maize run off?

Farm vehicles tend to compact the soil of maize fields, causing massive run-off. “Personally I think the best thing would be simply to ban the cultivation of maize on steep fields,” Prof Brazier told BBC News.


Why should maize be banned from steep slopes?

Some experts want maize to be banned from steep slopes altogether because its bare rows contribute so much to flooding and silt. image caption. Scientists at Cranfield University are testing a range of soils.


What is the National Farmers Union?

The National Farmers Union (NFU) is trying to reduce the number of rules on farmers. Mr Humphry agreed that farmers should do more to protect soils from run-off but said housing, roads and airports were also responsible for making floods worse in Somerset. image caption.


What river flooded the Somerset levels?

But experts say more needs to be done to protect vulnerable soils, like those around the River Parrett which flooded the Somerset Levels.


What is South West Water doing on Exmoor?

In a related project on Exmoor, South West Water is working with landowners to restore the peat bog to improve its water storage.


How does deforestation affect agriculture?

Research from the World Resources Institute suggests that large-scale deforestation in any of our major tropical forests, including the Amazon or Africa’s Congo basin, could impact water cycles and lead to severe agricultural disturbances across the globe. This means deforestation in Brazil can affect the yield of wheat crops in Ohio.


How does the construction of roads affect the Amazon rainforest?

The construction of roads throughout forests, especially the Amazon rainforest, increases the probability of animal deaths caused by loss of habitat and motor accidents. New roads make the process of illegal logging and poaching more convenient as well. Infrastructural expansion not only displaces animals and increases the risk of deforestation, it also encroaches on local residents’ homes and livelihoods.


What are the effects of deforestation on the rainforest?

This extreme clearing of land results in habitat loss, amplification of greenhouse gases, disruption of water cycles, increased soil erosion, and excessive flooding. A significant amount of total deforestation occurs in rainforests, which are home to over 50 percent of plant and animal species on the planet.


What is logging in the forest?

Logging is the process of cutting and processing trees to create wood-based products. Large portions of our forests are cut down in order to build houses and produce paper products. Deforestation in tropical regions from logging and timber conversion accounts for 15 percent of annual global greenhouse gas emissions.


Why is meat important to deforestation?

Meat production is a leading cause of deforestation. It destroys animal habitats, cripples biodiversity, and increases GHG emissions in our atmosphere. Consumers often unknowingly support deforestation by purchasing foods, animal byproducts, and wood products sourced from unsustainable operations.


How much deforestation is there in South America?

Around 6.7 million acres of tropical forests are bulldozed or burned for cattle production each year. This accounts for over half of deforestation in South America and is more than five times as destructive as any other commodity in the region.


What is the term for clearing land for agriculture, industry, or transportation?

Deforestation is the large-scale clearing of land, generally for agriculture, industry, or transportation.


What is the cause of floods?

Flood risk – the causes of flooding. Flooding occurs when a river bursts its banks and overflows onto the surrounding land. There are many factors which can cause a flood – often the natural landscape can influence flooding and human interactions can increase the risk.


How does urban land use affect flood risk?

This will increase the flood risk, as the water will not be intercepted and more will flow into the river. Urban land use – when an area surrounding a river is built on, it increases the amount of tarmac and concrete, which are impermeable surfaces.


What is it called when there is more rainfall?

If there is more rainfall it cannot be soaked up, so it runs along the surface this is known as surface run-off. Heavy rainfall – if there is heavy rainfall there is less chance of it being soaked up by the soil (infiltration) so it runs off into the river.


Which is more likely to flood a steep valley or a flatter valley?

Relief – a steep valley is more likely to flood than a flatter valley because the rainfall will run off into the river more quickly.


Is flooding good for agriculture?

However, flooding can also have positive impacts. Flooding deposits fine silt (alluvium) onto the floodplain, making it very fertile and excellent for farming. Low-income countries (LICs) are usually affected more than High-income countries (HICs) by the impacts of flooding.


Why do floods affect the ecosystem?

Floods transport vital nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic material, to the surrounding land. When the water recedes , it leaves sediment and nutrients behind on the floodplain. This rich, natural fertilizer improves soil quality and has a positive effect on plant growth, thus increasing productivity in the ecosystem. Ancient civilizations first arose along the deltas of seasonally flooded rivers, such as the Nile in Egypt, because they provided fertile soil for farmland.


How does floodwater affect the landscape?

Floodwaters can also alter the landscape, for instance, by eroding riverbanks and causing them to collapse. As floodwaters carry material from the eroded banks, sediment becomes suspended in the water, which can degrade water quality and lead to harmful blooms of algae. Suspended sediment eventually settles out of the water in a process called sedimentation, which can clog riverbeds and streams, smother aquatic organisms, and destroy habitats. Erosion and sedimentation have a more negative impact on ecosystems that are already degraded or heavily modified.


What is the term for a natural substance that kills organisms that threaten agriculture or are undesirable?

natural or manufactured substance used to kill organisms that threaten agriculture or are undesirable. Pesticides can be fungicides (which kill harmful fungi), insecticides (which kill harmful insects), herbicides (which kill harmful plants), or rodenticides (which kill harmful rodents.)


How do floods affect fish?

Small seasonal floods can be beneficial to native fish stocks and can help them outcompete invasive species that are not adapted to the river’s cycles. Sediment deposited on riverbeds during floods can provide a nursery site for small fish. Nutrients carried by floodwater can support aquatic food webs by boosting productivity.


How does flood water replenish the ground?

Floods can replenish underground water sources. Floodwater gets absorbed into the ground and then percolates through layers of soil and rock, eventually reaching underground aquifers. These aquifers supply clean freshwater to springs, wells, lakes, and rivers. Ecosystems rely heavily on groundwater during dry spells when it may be the only supply of freshwater available. A good supply of groundwater has a positive impact on soil health and leads to more productive crop and pasture lands.


What causes the Tonle Sap river to flood?

In Cambodia, monsoon rains cause an annual flood pulse on the Mekong River that prompts migrations for some animals. The floodwaters cause the Tonle Sap river, which connects the Mekong River to Tonle Sap lake, to reverse its flow, filling the lake. When floodwaters enter the lake, it triggers fish migrations, supporting one of the world’s most productive fisheries.


What are the causes of weather-related infectious diseases?

Floods are the leading cause of weather-related infectious disease outbreaks. Flooding events increase the chance of spreading waterborne diseases, such as hepatitis A and cholera. Receding floodwaters can create stagnant pools of water, which provide the perfect breeding ground for mosquitoes, which can transmit malaria and other diseases. Flood events also lead to an increase in some forms of zoonosis (diseases humans can catch from animals), such as leptospirosis.

image


Flooding & Oxygen Depletion

Image
From a plant perspective, the immediate cause of damage and death is oxygen depletion, as water contains less oxygen than air. Four factors increase oxygen depletion in flooded crops and hence imply more crop damage. First, temperature determines plant respiration rates (oxygen consumption), so warmer floodwaters …

See more on estormwater.com


How Flooding Impacts Disease & Nitrogen Loss

  • Even after floodwaters recede, crops can continue to suffer damage and yield resulting losses. Flooding not only weakens plant defenses, but the soil and water conditions prevalent during flooding favor the development of many plant pathogens, so crops suffer increased disease problems after floods. Among these diseases are root rots and stalk rots, which are caused by s…

See more on estormwater.com


The Effects of Flooding on Competition & Erosion

  • Flooded crops can be developmentally delayed and unable to achieve canopy closure, critical for crops to out-compete weeds and achieve high yields. Farmers may need to use additional weed control (chemical or mechanical), which increases costs, and late-spring control is often less effective or causes greater crop damage. Also, flooded farms can bring in new weed seeds that …

See more on estormwater.com


Resources

  • For more information, contact local county extension agents in affected areas or extension state specialists in departments of agronomy, crop science or related disciplines at the appropriate land-grant university.

See more on estormwater.com

Leave a Comment