Base-catalyzed transesterification reacts lipids (fats and oils) with alcohol (typically methanol or ethanol) to produce biodiesel and an impure coproduct, glycerol. If the feedstock oil is used or has a high acid content, acid-catalyzed esterification can be used to react fatty acids with alcohol to produce biodiesel.
How is biodiesel produced?
Biodiesel Production and Distribution Production Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils, yellow grease, used cooking oils, or animal fats. The fuel is produced by transesterification—a process that converts fats and oils into biodiesel and glycerin (a coproduct).
Why should we use biodiesel as a fuel?
Using biodiesel as a fuel: 1 Reduces our nation’s dependency on foreign oil 2 Increases our homeland security 3 Promotes rural and agricultural economic development 4 Improves environmental quality and public health 5 Increases lubricity of petrodiesel fuel 6 Conserves our fossil fuels
What are the main effluents from biodiesel production?
The main effluents from biodiesel production are streams rich in unreacted oil, water, ethanol and glycerine. Some alternatives to the treatment of these effluents were proposed, including hydrous or anhydrous ethanol production, production and recycle of pure glycerol and unreacted oil recycle.
What is the main feedstock for biodiesel?
Most of U.S. biodiesel production uses raw vegetable oils, used cooking oils, yellow grease, and animal fats as feedstocks for transesterification. Vegetable oils are the main feedstocks for U.S. biodiesel production.
How does agriculture produce biodiesel?
It is commonly sold in two forms: pure B100 and oxygenate additive B20 (20 percent biodiesel, 80 percent petroleum diesel). Biodiesel production involves using an alcohol, usually methanol, to convert vegetable oils, commonly from soy or rapeseed.
How is biodiesel produced?
Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils, yellow grease, used cooking oils, or animal fats. The fuel is produced by transesterification—a process that converts fats and oils into biodiesel and glycerin (a coproduct).
What are some common agricultural sources for biodiesel production?
Soybean and rapeseed oil has a 70% share of the total feedstocks used in biodiesel production worldwide. Oilseeds such as rapeseed or canola and soybeans represent the most common source of vegetable oil feedstocks for biodiesel production.
How is biofuel made from crops?
Background. First generation biofuels are made from sugar crops (sugarcane, sugarbeet), starch crops (corn, sorghum), oilseed crops (soybean, canola), and animal fats. Sugar and starch crops are converted through a fermentation process to form bioalcohols, including ethanol, butanol, and propanol.
How do you make biodiesel from plants?
1:245:39The process is relatively simple combined a certain amount of alcohol. And catalyst mixture withMoreThe process is relatively simple combined a certain amount of alcohol. And catalyst mixture with your feedstock. Then heat and agitate for a short period of time. The result is a layer of biodiesel.
How biodiesel is produced from oil?
Biodiesel is made through a chemical process called transesterification whereby the glycerin is separated from the fat or vegetable oil. The process leaves behind two products – methyl esters and glycerin. Methyl esters is the chemical name for biodiesel and glycerin is used in a variety of products, including soap.
Which fuel is obtained from agriculture?
At present, the most important substitutes for fossil motor fuels on the market are biofuels, especially ethanol made from agricultural products.
Which of the crops are used for biodiesel production?
Currently, rapeseed (canola) is the dominant feedstock for biodiesel in Europe, and soybeans are the dominant feedstock for biodiesel in the United States. Warmer countries such as Malaysia often use palm oil for biodiesel production.
What crops are used to make biodiesel?
In the United States, soybeans are the dominant biodiesel feedstock.Soybeans.Rapeseed and Canola.Mustard.Camelina.Safflower and Sunflower.Warm Climate Feedstocks.Jatropha.Potential Oilseed Crops.More items…•
What is a biofuel and how are they made?
Biodiesel is a liquid fuel produced from renewable sources, such as new and used vegetable oils and animal fats and is a cleaner-burning replacement for petroleum-based diesel fuel. Biodiesel is nontoxic and biodegradable and is produced by combining alcohol with vegetable oil, animal fat, or recycled cooking grease.
How is oil made from plants?
Oils are extracted from plants by using pressure or solvents, usually the petroleum fraction hexane. Olive oil, for example, is a typical seed coat oil and is extracted by multiple pressings of the fruit pulp. The oil from the first pressing has the best quality and is termed virgin oil.
What agricultural crop is used to produce ethanol as a clean energy fuel for cars?
Corn is the leading U.S. crop and serves as the feedstock for most domestic ethanol production. Corn ethanol meets the renewable fuel category of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which is limited to 15 billion gallons.
Why is biodiesel used in agriculture?
dependence on imported oil since fuel feedstocks can be grown domestically.
How is biodiesel made?
Biodiesel is made by reacting vegetable oil or animal fat with an alcohol (usually methanol or ethanol) and a catalyst (usually sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide). This process separates the glycerin from the oil or fat.
What is biodiesel blend?
The term “biodiesel” refers to 100 percent pure fuel, designated as B100, that meets the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) requirements for biodiesel fuel in its D6751 standard.
What are the feedstocks used in biodiesel?
Commonly used feedstocks for the production of biodiesel include soybean, rapeseed/canola, used (waste) vegetable oils, and tallow (animal fat). Mustard biodiesel is being studied at the University of Idaho, and Montana State University is conducting research on camelina for biodiesel production. Safflower, sunflower, and hazelnut produce oil …
What is the percentage of biodiesel used in diesel engines?
Biodiesel can be used in standard diesel engines in any percentage — from B1, which is 1-percent biodiesel mixed with 99-percent petro-diesel, to pure biodiesel, known as B100.
What is the main feedstock for biodiesel?
Currently, edible rapeseed oil — called canola in the United States and Canada — is the dominant feedstock for biodiesel production in Europe, and soybean oil is the major feedstock in the United States.
Why is biodiesel important?
Fuel quality is important to consumers. Due to its nature, biodiesel has different properties than petro-diesel. These properties include cold flow characteristics and oxidative and storage stabilities. A voluntary BQ-9000 Quality Assurance Program is available for biodiesel producers to help ensure fuel quality from production through transportation and storage to final use. Click here for details.
What is biodiesel made of?
All of these products consist of chemicals called triglycerides, so biodiesel can be made from soybean oil, canola oil, beef tallow, and pork lard, and even from such exotic oils as walnut oil or avocado oil. Even used cooking oil or waste oil can be used to make biodiesel.
What is the chemical reaction used to make biodiesel?
The chemical reaction used to make biodiesel requires a catalyst. A catalyst is usually a chemical added to the reaction mixture to speed up the reaction. Since the catalyst is not consumed in the reaction, it will be left over at the end in some form. In biodiesel production, the actual compound that catalyzes the reaction is called methoxide.
Why is biodiesel preferred over SVO?
Biodiesel is usually preferred over SVO and WVO because the chemical reaction converts the oil or fat into compounds that are closer to the hydrocarbons found in regular diesel fuel. The chemical reaction that converts a vegetable oil or animal fat to biodiesel is called “transesterification.”.
What is the chemical reaction that converts vegetable oil to biodiesel?
The chemical reaction that converts a vegetable oil or animal fat to biodiesel is called “transesterification.”. This is a long name for a simple process of combining a chemical compound called an “ester” and an alcohol to make another ester and another alcohol. Oils and fats are included in the ester family.
What is high quality biodiesel?
High-quality biodiesel is defined by compliance with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specification D6751. Fuel testing to verify compliance can be expensive, especially for small producers, but it is the most reliable way to ensure that fuel consumers will have access to high-quality fuel.
Is biodiesel a chemical?
The process to make biodiesel involves a chemical reaction. This means that the biodiesel industry is a chemical industry. Those involved in making biodiesel must have a good understanding of the underlying chemistry to ensure they are making quality fuel in a safe manner.
Can you use cooking oil to make biodiesel?
Even used cooking oil or waste oil can be used to make biodiesel. However, these oils present special challenges for biodiesel production because they contain contaminants such as water, meat scraps, and breading that must be filtered out before the oil is converted to biodiesel.
Who was the first farmer to develop biodiesel?
So when a friend suggested a big leap toward growing oilseed crops and producing biodiesel on the farm, Williamson grabbed hold of the notion. With his creation of State Line Biofuels, Williamson became the first farmer in Vermont to develop an on-farm facility for processing biodiesel from oilseed crops grown on his own farm and those …
How did Williamson make biodiesel?
To make biodiesel from the oil, Williamson mixed it with sodium hydroxide and alcohol. The reactor, or mixing container, was a plastic tank salvaged from the farm’s existing line of equipment.
When did Williamson disband his dairy farm?
Then came falling milk prices, and in 2003, Williamson was forced to disband the herd started by his grandfather in 1936. The void in economic diversity created by the abandoned dairy beckoned to be filled. So when a friend suggested a big leap toward growing oilseed crops and producing biodiesel on the farm, Williamson grabbed hold of the notion.
What was the purpose of the meal produced by the pressing process?
The meal (or grain-like pellets) resulting from the pressing process was just as valuable as the oil. This meal provided feed for the farm’s beef cattle.
Does Williamson still use biodiesel?
Williamson continues to process biodiesel from used frying oil at a production cost of 60¢ a gallon. He remains poised to again process biodiesel from oilseed crops. “We continue to power our farm with biodiesel,” he says. “It’s important to me to remain energy independent and to provide our own source of fuel.”
Can biodiesel be used in Vermont?
In Vermont’s cold winters , the biodiesel can gel. Blending the fuel half and half with diesel fuel prevents the gelling. Williamson has also found gelling not to be a problem when a biodiesel-burning machine is kept in a heated shop. “Once it’s running, the engine keeps the fuel warm,” he says.
Does biodiesel smell good?
A benefit of the biodiesel is the nonirritating scent of the exhaust. “It’s almost a pleasant smell,” says Williamson. “If you’re burning biodiesel processed from used frying oil collected from restaurants – as we have done, as well – the exhaust takes on the smell of whatever food was fried in the oil.
How much biodiesel is produced in the US?
In 2019, the United States produced about 41 million barrels (1.7 billion gallons) of B100, …
What are the main feedstocks for biodiesel?
Rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and palm oil are major feedstocks for biodiesel production in other countries. Algae is also a potential source for biodiesel production. Algae contain fat pockets that help keep them afloat. This fat can be collected and processed into biodiesel.
Why are biomass fuels called biomass fuels?
They are both called biomass-based diesel fuels because they are mostly produced for use in diesel engines, but they can also be used as heating fuels. Both fuels are made from biomass or materials derived from biomass, but they differ in how they are produced and in their physical properties. Biodiesel meets the American Society for Testing …
Why is biodiesel called biodiesel?
It is called biodiesel because it is mostly used in diesel engines. Pure biodiesel (B100) can also be used in many applications. Petroleum diesel fuel tanks and equipment can also store and transport biodiesel. Learn more about use of biodiesel made from different feedstocks. Biodiesel blends may also be used as heating oil.
What is biodiesel made of?
Biodiesel can be made from nearly any feedstock (raw material) that contains adequate free fatty acids. Most of U.S. biodiesel production uses raw vegetable oils, used cooking oils, yellow grease, and animal fats as feedstocks for transesterification.
How much oil is reacted with 10 pounds of alcohol?
Approximately 100 pounds of oil or fat are reacted with 10 pounds of a short-chain alcohol (usually methanol) in the presence of a catalyst (usually sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide) to form 100 pounds of biodiesel and 10 pounds of glycerin (or glycerol).
When was biodiesel first used?
History of biodiesel. Before petroleum diesel fuel became popular, Rudolf Diesel, the inventor of the diesel engine in 1897, experimented with using vegetable oil (biodiesel) as fuel. Until 2001, the United States consumed only small amounts of biodiesel.
How is biodiesel distributed?
Biodiesel is distributed from the point of production to fuel terminals and wholesalers by truck, train, or barge. B5 is sometimes shipped by pipeline. Most biodiesel distributors will deliver B20 or B100 depending on the retailer’s preference. Find biodiesel distributors.
How is biodiesel made?
Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils, yellow grease, used cooking oils, or animal fats . The fuel is produced by transesterification—a process that converts fats and oils into biodiesel and glycerin (a coproduct).
Where is the largest home run on biodiesel?
America’s Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina
Is algae a biofuel?
Research is being conducted on developing algaeas a potential biodiesel feedstock. It is expected to produce high yields from a smaller area of land than vegetable oils.
How is Biodiesel Made?
Biodiesel is produced by mixing the feedstock oil (usually soybean oil in the U.S.), with methyl or ethyl alcohol, and a lye catalyst (sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide). This process – known as transesterification – breaks the glycerin from the fatty acid molecules of the feedstock oil and then each fatty acid molecule attaches itself to an alcohol molecule. If methyl alcohol is used as one of the ingredients along with soybean oil and a catalyst, then the more technical name for biodiesel is soy methyl ester; if ethyl alcohol is used, then the name is soy ethyl ester. Biodiesel (the ester) will rise to the top and glycerin with alcohol will settle to the bottom. After several scrubbings with water, the biodiesel (B100) can be marketed as a fuel and the glycerin can be used as an ingredient for making soaps, detergents, shampoos, and cosmetics. Glycerin must be disposed of properly as a waste product or used as a coproduct.
What is Biodiesel?
Biodiesel is a renewable alternative to petroleum-based diesel fuel (hereafter referred to as “petrodiesel”). Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level with petrodiesel. Biodiesel can be made from any plant oil, animal oil, or even used cooking oil. Animal oils (tallow and lard) and used cooking oil are generally the least expensive feedstocks to purchase; however, there may be considerable additional expenses for the logistics to transport and handle these materials. In the U.S., soybean oil is used for about 90% of the biodiesel that is produced today. Canola oil and rapeseed oil are the most common feedstocks for making biodiesel in Canada and Western Europe, respectively.
Why is B100 used as a fuel?
B100 is seldom used as a fuel because of cost factors and availability. Furthermore, no engine manufacturers at this time warrant their engines and engine components if B100 is used as the fuel. Biodiesel blends of B2 to B20 are most common. Even at low blends of B1 or B2, biodiesel provides environmental benefits and greatly improves the lubricity of low-sulfur diesel fuel. Lubricity of a fuel is the ability of the fuel to provide lubrication to reduce wear between moving parts of the diesel engine.
What are the benefits of biodiesel?
Biodiesel is an alternative, renewable fuel with significant promise for addressing major energy problems. While biodiesel is not a “silver bullet” solution to our energy problems, it can provide 3 – 6 % of the energy required in this country. Effective energy management systems are needed to optimize energy use throughout all sectors of our economy. Using biodiesel as a fuel: 1 Reduces our nation’s dependency on foreign oil 2 Increases our homeland security 3 Promotes rural and agricultural economic development 4 Improves environmental quality and public health 5 Increases lubricity of petrodiesel fuel 6 Conserves our fossil fuels
What is the name of the ingredient in biodiesel?
If methyl alcohol is used as one of the ingredients along with soybean oil and a catalyst, then the more technical name for biodiesel is soy methyl ester ; if ethyl alcohol is used, then the name is soy ethyl ester. Biodiesel (the ester) will rise to the top and glycerin with alcohol will settle to the bottom.
How do biofuels help the economy?
The use of biofuels holds real promise to: 1) decrease our country’s dependency on foreign nations for energy; 2) improve environmental conditions; and 3) provide an additional income stream to the agricultural sector. Biofuels are derived from biological materials such as food crops, crop residues, forest residues, animal wastes, and landfills. Major biofuels are biodiesel, ethanol, and methane. Biofuels-by their very nature-are renewable over a period of less than one year for those based on crops, crop residues, and animal wastes or about 35 years for those based on forest residues, as compared to the hundreds of millions of years for fossil fuels. This fact sheet explores biodiesel as one of our nation’s “homegrown” energy sources.
How is soybean oil extracted?
Soybean oil is extracted from soybeans by crushing and pressing the beans to expel the oil. In some cases, a chemical solvent is used to obtain a greater oil yield. One bushel of soybeans (60 pounds) yields about 1.4 – 1.5 gallons of crude oil which can be processed into about 1.2 – 1.4 gallons of B100 biodiesel.
What is the process used to make biodiesel?
The type of processes and equipment used to make the biodiesel is determined by the feedstocks you plan to use in producing the biodiesel. There are a number of processes and operating parameters that affect the transesterification reaction used to produce biodiesel and are feedstock—and other reactant-dependent.
Why is biodiesel produced in two stages?
Biodiesel production implies therefore a two-stage process to avoid undesirable soap formation, which is difficult in biodiesel purification (Betiku et al., 2014).
How to reduce biodiesel production cost?
Minimizing the biodiesel production cost by using inexpensive and inedible feedstock like Jatropha oil is more practical as it is readily available and also not competes with edible oils. However, Jatropha oil contains high free fatty acid content, which causes operational problems in biodiesel production via alkaline-based transesterification reaction. This study aims to design a biodiesel production process from Jatropha oil. A hydrolysis reactor is applied to convert triglyceride in Jatropha oil to fatty acid. The fatty acid obtained then reacts with methanol to produce methyl ester (biodiesel product) using an esterification process. A reactive distillation is employed to intensify reaction and separation tasks for the esterification process. In order to minimize energy consumption, the heat integration of a reactive distillation process is considered. The simulation result using a flowsheet simulator indicates that the heat-integrated reactive distillation can improve the biodiesel production by minimizing the energy requirements, compared with a conventional process.
What is the bottleneck in biodiesel production?
The major bottleneck for producing microalgal biodiesel is the huge consumption of water resources in addition to inorganic nutrients for large-scale cultivation. One promising approach is to couple biodiesel production with wastewater treatment as algae can successfully be cultivated in wastewaters.
How is biodiesel determined?
The properties of biodiesel are largely determined by the structure of its component fatty acid esters.
What is biodiesel made of?
However, the majority of the biodiesel production is from energy crops, such as palm oil and soybean, while waste animal fat and vegetable oils have been proposed as suitable feedstock for biodiesel production only in recent years. Dufour and Iribarren (2012) claimed that the biodiesel from waste vegetable oils, beef tallow, poultry fat, and sewage sludge showed overall lower environmental impacts (global warming, acidification, eutrophication, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidant formation) compared to the conventional low-sulfur diesel and the soybean and rapeseed biodiesel. Moreover, the biodiesel production from grease trap waste was investigated, and it showed that when the lipid concentration was greater than 10%, environmental savings can be achieved compared to biodiesel from soybean ( Hums et al., 2016 ). Even though waste cooking oil has been widely used for biodiesel production, the collecting system was identified to be an important factor influencing the environmental impacts of the final biodiesel, thus the collecting efficiency and the collecting system characteristics are of great importance to a collecting system ( Caldeira et al., 2016 ). Therefore decentralized and centralized, small- and medium-scale biodiesel plants were also investigated, while the results were different case by case ( Iglesias et al., 2012; McManus, 2011 ).
How is biodiesel produced from palm oil?
Biodiesel production from oil palm by a process that use ethanol produced from the solid residues of the same palm instead of methanol, offers high degree of integration and decrease of environmental impacts compared to the individual production of biodiesel and bioethanol. This option is very attractive taking into account not only the energy consumption, but also the decrease of the solid wastes generated during the processing of oil palm. In particular, palm press fiber produced during oil extraction have a high content of lignocellulosic biomass making them very suitable materials for their conversion into ethanol.
Environmental pollution and the depletion of fossil fuels have created a growing interest in the world community for renewable energy. Large-scale production of liquid biofuels is supported by governments. Iran is a developing country that supplies its energy needs from fossil fuels.
The international community has a growing interest in becoming independent of fossil fuels and achieving the ability to produce clean fuels, including biofuels [ 1 ], but large-scale production has many problems and obstacles [ 2 ]. The use of fossil fuel sources can cause environmental and security problems [ 3 ].
Liquid biofuel potential in Iran
The Islamic Republic of Iran is located between Turkey and Iraq, bordering Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east, the Oman Sea and the Persian Gulf to the south, and the Caspian Sea, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan to the north. The total area of the country is 1648,000 km 2. The country’s major rivers include Karun, Sefidrud, Karkheh, and Zayandehrud.
Golestan province capacity in liquid biofuel production
Golestan is a province with an area of 21,000 km 2 in northeastern Iran. The climate of this province is temperate and the average temperature changes in the north-south direction are 14.9–18.1 °C and in the west-east direction 18–18.2 °C.
Production of liquid biofuels in Golestan province
Golestan province is one of the leading provinces in the field of oilseeds (Table 2 ). According to the reports of this province in rapeseed and soybean production with 39% and 75%, respectively, in the first rank is cotton production with 10.3% after Khorasan Razavi with 36.7% and South Khorasan with 10.6% is in the third rank.
Assessing the use of liquid biofuels in the transportation sector
Golestan province with an area of approximately 21,000 km 2 is 21 provinces in terms of area. This province is estimated to have a population of 1.6 million people.
Due to the increasing growth of transportation in the world, the amount of fuel consumption in the world has greatly increased. As a result, many environmental, social, energy, and food security problems have been imposed on countries.
Feedstocks For Biodiesel
Commonly used feedstocks for the production of biodiesel include soybean, rapeseed/canola, used (waste) vegetable oils, and tallow (animal fat). Mustard biodiesel is being studied at the University of Idaho, and Montana State University is conducting research on camelina for biodiesel production. Safflower, sunflower, and hazelnut produce oil that could be used for biodiesel. Warm climate tree oils such as palm oil and jatrophaare used as bio…
What Biodiesel Is Not
Biodiesel is not the same as straight vegetable oil or animal fat. A normal diesel engine will eventually be damaged through the use of straight vegetable oil or straight animal fat fuel. Vegetable oils or animal fats must be converted into biodiesel by reacting the oil or fat with an alcohol and a catalyst. This process is referred to as “transesterification.” Biodiesel is also not the same as bioethanol. Bioethanol is an alcohol made from fermente…
Biodiesel is made by reacting vegetable oil or animal fat with an alcohol (usually methanol or ethanol) and a catalyst (usually sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide). This process separates the glycerin from the oil or fat. The resulting product, biodiesel, is thinner than the original oil or fat and thus works better in a diesel engine. For mor…
Biodiesel Is Produced and Used in The United States
Biodiesel is an accepted fuel and fuel additive in the United States and around the world. It is registered as a fuel with the Environmental Protection Agency. The National Biodiesel Board lists over 200 firms that produce biodiesel commercially in the United States and Canada. Hundreds of governments, national parks, school districts and utility companies in the United States use biodiesel blends to run their fleets.
The term “biodiesel” refers to 100 percent pure fuel, designated as B100, that meets the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) requirements for biodiesel fuel in its D6751 standard. The term “biodiesel blend” refers to a blend of pure biodiesel with petro-diesel, typically represented by the letter B followed by a number. The number refers to the volumetric percentage of biodiesel. Biodiesel can be used in standard diesel engines in any …
Challenges with Using Biodiesel Fuel
Cold temperaturescan be a problem for high-percentage blends of biodiesel. B100 made from soybean oil will cloud at temperatures slightly above freezing and can clog fuel filters if the temperature drops below 28˚F. Biodiesel blends with diesel fuel are preferred in such conditions. Because biodiesel is a strong solvent, it will probably loosen debris in pipes and tanks, clogging filters initially. Remedy this problem by changing filters soo…
Biodiesel as A Lubricant Additive
Since 2006, petro-diesel fuel used for highway transportation in the United States has been required to contain less than 15 parts per million of sulfur. The processing to remove the sulfur from petro-diesel decreases the fuel’s lubricity. Biodiesel is an excellent lubricator. As little as 1-percent biodiesel added to petro-diesel will improve the fuel’s lubricating properties and thus will help diesel engines to last longer.
Sheehan, J., Camobreco, V., Duffield, J., Graboski, M., and Shapouri, H. (1998). Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus.Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, NREL/SR-580-24089.
Additional Topics on Biodiesel
- Farm Energy Biodiesel Table of Contents
See at a glance all the biodiesel articles in the Farm Energy section.
- Oilseed Crops for Biodiesel Production
A wide variety of vegetable oils can be used for biodiesel production. Currently, edible rapeseed oil — called canola in the United States and Canada — is the dominant feedstock for biodiesel production in Europe, and soybean oil is the major feedstock in the United States. Other plant oils, such as mustard, safflower, sunflower, cottonseed, c…