How does agriculture consume or produce the energy in hydropower

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The Colorado Energy Oce has identi -fied three components of agricultural water conveyance that have the capacity to har-ness hydropower: 1) on-farm pressurized irrigation systems, 2) conduit drops on ir-rigation ditches, and 3) existing agricultural dams. This publication will only address on-farm pressurized irrigation systems. Small scale hydropower generation, also referred to as micro-hydro, is a way of harnessing the energy of flowing water and putting that energy to mechanical or electrical use. Typical small-hydro systems are designed to generate 2 megawatts (MW) of energy or less. Harnessing the energy of water as it flows downhill has long been used to power industrial and agricultural operations. Flour mills, for ex-ample, used the water of a flowing stream to turn a waterwheel and mechanically drive the flour grinders. Today there are new technologies that allow energy to be captured from moving water and used to mechanically turn a center pivot, or even create electricity. The main benefit of small hydropower generation is the ability to use a device, called a turbine, to extract energy from moving water and convert that energy to power or electricity. Here it is important to distinguish between power, energy, and electricity. Power is the amount of work that gets done over time, energy is the ability to do work, and electricity is a charged cur-rent. To better understand how power and electricity are created we need to first look at the source of this energy.

Full
Answer

How does hydropower produce electricity?

Hydropower utilizes turbines and generators to convert that kinetic energy into electricity, which is then fed into the electrical grid to power homes, businesses, and industries. HOW EXACTLY IS ELECTRICITY GENERATED AT HYDROPOWER PLANTS?

What happens to the energy used in agriculture?

A part of the direct, indirect and solar energy used in agriculture is transformed into produce storing it as chemical energy. The rest of the energy is wasted. In the case of direct energy, it is wasted as heat of the machinery used, indirect energy is wasted as fertilizers and pesticides miss their target.

How does hydroelectric power affect the environment?

Hydropower generators do not directly emit air pollutants. However, dams, reservoirs, and the operation of hydroelectric generators can affect the environment. A dam that creates a reservoir (or a dam that diverts water to a run-of-river hydropower plant) may obstruct fish migration.

What is direct energy used in agriculture?

Direct energy used in agriculture refers to energy that is consumed directly in agriculture activities such as, operating farm machinery, trucks, vehicles, equipment, drying operations, overhead and marketing. [2]

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How does agriculture produce hydropower?

Mechanical hydropower systems utilize the pressure of an irrigation system to spin the turbines and drive a hydraulic pump that is responsible for advancing the center pivot around the field. In this instance, no electricity is generated, or needed, to move the center pivot.


How is energy produced in hydropower?

Hydroelectric power is produced with moving water At hydropower plants water flows through a pipe, or penstock, then pushes against and turns blades in a turbine to spin a generator to produce electricity.


How is hydroelectricity produced step by step?

Hydropower plants capture the energy of falling water to generate electricity. A turbine converts the kinetic energy of falling water into mechanical energy. Then a generator converts the mechanical energy from the turbine into electrical energy.


Which method is used to produce electricity in a hydroelectric power plant?

By running dynamo, the kinetic energy of water is used to produce electricity in hydro electric power plant.


Where does hydropower come from?

Hydropower Explained Hydropower is a renewable energy source that converts flowing water into electricity. Turbine rotors are connected to generators and when water flows through them, causing them to spin— the generators create electricity.


Where is hydroelectric energy used?

Hydropower is the most important and widely-used renewable source of energy. Hydropower represents about 17% (International Energy Agency) of total electricity production. China is the largest producer of hydroelectricity, followed by Canada, Brazil, and the United States (Source: Energy Information Administration).


How do hydroelectric dams work?

A conventional dam holds water in a man-made lake, or reservoir, behind it. When water is released through the dam, it spins a turbine connected to a generator that produces electricity. The water returns to the river on the downstream side of the dam.


What is hydroelectric energy and what type of energy does it produce?

Hydroelectric energy, also called hydroelectric power or hydroelectricity, is a form of energy that harnesses the power of water in motion—such as water flowing over a waterfall—to generate electricity. People have used this force for millennia.


What is the energy transformation in a hydropower dam?

A hydroelectric dam converts the potential energy stored in a water reservoir behind a dam to mechanical energy—mechanical energy is also known as kinetic energy. As the water flows down through the dam its kinetic energy is used to turn a turbine.


How do dams produce electricity?

Near the bottom of the dam wall there is the water intake. Gravity causes it to fall through the penstock inside the dam. At the end of the penstock there is a turbine propellor, which is turned by the moving water. The shaft from the turbine goes up into the generator, which produces the power.


Which method is used to produce electricity in hydroelectric power plant Examveda?

Solution(By Examveda Team) Hydro power Projects work on the principle of harnessing the potential energy of water stored at some height. As the water is released from the dam through narrow channel it falls on the tubine and produced motion in turbine to produce electricity.


How efficient is hydroelectric power?

Converting over 90% of available energy into electricity, hydropower is the most efficient source of electrical energy. By comparison, the best fossil fuel power plants operate at approximately 60% efficiency. Hydropower facilities have a very long service life, which can be extended indefinitely, and further improved.


Why is hydropower considered a renewable resource?

Worldwide, hydropower is the most widely used renewable energy resource due to its significant advantages over other renewable resources: high energy density, low cost and reliability in particular. Hydropower plants are available from very small sizes of only few Kilowatts (kW) to multi-Gigawatts (GW). Small hydropower plants, generally in kW range, are used for rural electrification in many countries and have high potential to be integrated into the agriculture value chain in those locations.


How does a hydro turbine work?

Because it is powered by kinetic energy and not with potential energy it is known as a so-called “zero-head” or “in-stream” turbine. As such, no dams and/or height differences are necessary for the operation of this device; the course of a river remains in its natural state and no high investments in infrastructure are required. Because the amount of kinetic energy (velocity) varies from river to river, the capacity of an in-stream turbine ranges: from a minimum of a few watts to a maximum of 5 kW.


What is the name of the process that turns water into electricity?

When flowing water is captured and turned into electricity, it is called hydroelectric power or hydropower. There are several types of hydroelectric facilities; they are all powered by the kinetic energy of flowing water as it moves downstream.


How does water move?

Water constantly moves through a vast global cycle, evaporating from lakes and oceans, forming clouds, precipitating as rain or snow, then flowing back down to the ocean. The energy of this water cycle, which is driven by the sun, can be tapped to produce electricity or for mechanical tasks like grinding grain.


What is the energy used in farming?

Energy Consumption of Farm Equipment. Each stage of farming requires the use of equipment and machinery that burn fossil fuels. When we burn these fuels, we add to the greenhouse gasses in the air – such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide – that result in raising the Earth’s temperature.


Why is agriculture important?

With governments placing more restrictions on carbon emissions, it’s important for farmers to do their part in reducing their carbon emissions. By doing so, they can also reduce their dependence on fossil fuels and save more money.


Why is nitrogen important for crops?

Nitrogen is necessary for photosynthesis to occur, so in order for crops to grow, the soil must have nitrogen. More nitrogen in the ground results in a better harvest. The easiest way to increase the amount of nitrogen is to apply fertilizer.


How much water does a slaughterhouse use?

Slaughtering just one animal can use up to 132 gallons of water. That matters because the water doesn’t just appear – it has to be pumped in and out of the slaughterhouse. Those pumps run on electricity, which runs on fossil fuels.


What is energy consumption?

Energy Consumption in Processing, Packaging, and Transporting Food. Producing food, whether it be through growing crops or raising cattle for slaughter, is only part of the equation. How the food makes it to your plate also factors into agriculture’s dependence on fossil fuel.


What is the energy central power industry?

The Energy Central Power Industry Network is based on one core idea – power industry professionals helping each other and advancing the industry by sharing and learning from each other.


Why do we plant alfalfa in the fall?

For example, he plants alfalfa and soybeans in the fall because there is nitrogen-fixing bacteria found in the roots of these plants. When the plants die in the spring, the nitrogen is released into the soil, free to be used by the next crop planted.


What is small hydropower?

Small hydropower generation is the most feasible when added to existing wa-ter delivery infrastructure and an existing, decreed water use. In this sense, the ad-ditional use of the water for hydropower generation would be considered an “in-cidental and non-consumptive use” and would not require a new water right, so long as the hydropower is only generated during the deliveries for the original and decreed water use. For example, if a small hydropower system is added to the water delivery infrastructure of a center pivot, the water used in irrigation could also be used to generate electricity without needing a new water right as long as the amount of water used does not exceed the amount of water decreed for irriga-tion. Unless a new water right is issued to divert more than the historical amount for irrigation, the amount of water diverted to irrigate, and incidentally to run a center pivot, must remain the same as before the small hydropower system was installed. It is important to note that relying on already-decreed water could affect the availability of power production, depend-ing on the seniority of the water right. If new diversions are needed for the sole purpose of generating electricity, then a new water right would need to be obtained. If you are unsure if a new water right is needed, contact the Colorado Division of Water Resources to clarify.


Is hydroelectric power regulated in Colorado?

Although small hydropower genera-tion may be easier to implement than be-fore, hydroelectric facilities are still subject to regulation by the State of Colorado and the FERC. By streamlining regulatory pro-cesses in 2013, the FERC offered irrigators the ability to add a hydroelectric facility to an irrigation ditch or pipeline where the primary purpose of the ditch or pipeline is to deliver irrigation water to fields rather than generating electricity. Mechanical hydropower projects do not produce electricity and therefore do not need to go through the FERC permitting process.Hydroelectric projects are only feasible because of the Hydropower Regulatory Eciency Act of 2013. Before this Act was signed, the FERC permitting pro-cess would take years and cost tens of thousands of dollars for even the small-est hydroelectric projects. Among other things, the Act exempts certain conduit hydropower facilities from the licensing requirements of the Federal Power Act


Why were dams built?

Most dams in the United States were built mainly for flood control, municipal water supply, and irrigation water. Although many of these dams have hydroelectric generators, only a small number of dams were built specifically for hydropower generation. Hydropower generators do not directly emit air pollutants. …


How much does a turbine reduce fish deaths?

The U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the research and development of turbines that could reduce fish deaths to lower than 2%, in comparison with fish kills of 5% to 10% for the best existing turbines.


What is the effect of dams on fish?

A dam and reservoir can also change natural water temperatures, water chemistry, river flow characteristics, and silt loads .


What are the gases that form in water?

Greenhouse gases (GHG) such as carbon dioxide and methane form in natural aquatic systems and in human-made water storage reservoirs as a result of the aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of biomass in the water.

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Quick Facts

  1. Colorado is leading the Nation in developing incentives for small hydropower generation
  2. Located mostly in mountainous areas, 7 percent of Colorado’s irrigated farm land (roughly 170,000 acres) has pressurization potential to produce a total of 30 megawatts of hydropower
  3. On-farm hydropower generation can be used to power center pivots directly or can be connec…
  1. Colorado is leading the Nation in developing incentives for small hydropower generation
  2. Located mostly in mountainous areas, 7 percent of Colorado’s irrigated farm land (roughly 170,000 acres) has pressurization potential to produce a total of 30 megawatts of hydropower
  3. On-farm hydropower generation can be used to power center pivots directly or can be connected to the electrical grid to offset on-farm electricity consumption
  4. Most on-farm small hydropower projects will not need to obtain a new legal water right if small hydropower generation is combined with an existing water use


Background

  • The Colorado Energy Office has identified three components of agricultural water conveyance that have the capacity to harness hydropower: 1) on-farm pressurized irrigation systems, 2) conduit drops on irrigation ditches, and 3) existing agricultural dams. This publication will only address on-farm pressurized irrigation systems. Small scale hydropower generation, also referre…

See more on extension.colostate.edu


Motivations

  • There are many reasons for implementing small hydropower generation at the farm scale, including: economic incentives (including low interest loans, grants from the State of Colorado, net metering, and utility rebates or incentives), the need to reduce pipe pressure, or to simply transition to a more sustainable energy source. The benefits of small hydropower systems exte…

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Permitting A Hydroelectric Facility

  • Although small hydropower generation may be easier to implement than before, hydroelectric facilities are still subject to regulation by the State of Colorado and the FERC. By streamlining regulatory processes in 2013, the FERC offered irrigators the ability to add a hydroelectric facility to an irrigation ditch or pipeline where the primary purpose of the ditch or pipeline is to deliver irr…

See more on extension.colostate.edu


Financing A Small Hydropower System

  • In addition to regulatory incentives for hydropower, financial incentives are now more abundant for on-farm hydropower projects. One of the biggest incentives for an irrigator is a free program offered through the Colorado Department of Agriculture (CDA) in which CDA performs a site assessment and, when funds allow, can help reimburse the cost of a feasibility assessment. A si…

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Water Rights

  • Small hydropower generation is the most feasible when added to existing water delivery infrastructure and an existing, decreed water use. In this sense, the additional use of the water for hydropower generation would be considered an “incidental and non-consumptive use” and would not require a new water right, so long as the hydropower is only generated during the deliveries f…

See more on extension.colostate.edu


Additional Resources

  • Colorado Small Hydropower Handbook 1. https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/SmallHydroHandbook.pdf Recommendations for Developing Agricultural Hydropower in Colorado 1. https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/AgHydroRoadmap.pdf E3A: Exploring Energ…

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