How does agriculture impact networks


The influence of farmers’ networks on management has been studied previously [ 26, 27 ]. Some studies, e.g. [ 28] have found that converting land to crop production was correlated to the addition of ties in a local producer’s network, while the diversity of land use types was correlated with the number of institutional ties.


How does agriculture affect the environment?

These gases have a negative effect on climate change and include carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Various types of agriculture also use fertilization and pesticides, which releases phosphorus and nitrate in the air, among other things.

Does farm size affect the adoption of agricultural technology?

The review of existing literature shows that farmers with large farm holdings have a higher probability of adopting agricultural technology (Bjornlund et al., 2009; Anderson et al., 1999). Farm size is a common proxy variable for income (Wozniak, (Anderson et al., 1999).

What are the effects of agricultural land demand?

For agricultural land demand, people tend to clear forests. Therefore, natural ecosystems lost. For palm oil, for instance, people convert natural ecosystems into palm tree plantations in Far Eastern Countries. Natural ecosystems have been diminishing in size and their functions. Often, this is irreversible.

How do farmers adopt new technology?

This study suggests that technology adoption takes on a two-tiered progression, beginning with early adopters who receive information from external organizations. After initial implementation by farmers involved with these organizations, the technology is then transferred either through landowner-tenant or kinship relationships.


How does agriculture impact society?

Agriculture creates both jobs and economic growth. Communities also hold agricultural-based events, such as crop and livestock judging competitions and 4-H exhibits at their county fair. Many communities benefit from having Famers Markets where smaller farmers can interact directly with consumers.

What is networking in agriculture?

Networking in the agricultural industry is about making connections and building enduring and mutually beneficial relationships with fellow farmers, input suppliers, agribusinesses and other industry role-players.

What impact does agriculture have on us?

What is agriculture’s share of the overall U.S. economy? Agriculture, food, and related industries contributed $1.055 trillion to the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) in 2020, a 5.0-percent share. The output of America’s farms contributed $134.7 billion of this sum—about 0.6 percent of GDP.

What is the impact of Internet of things in agriculture?

With IoT, companies can enjoy benefits like better crop productivity and improved worker safety. They can use less fertilizer, water and pesticides. Because farmers can decrease the fertilizers and pesticides they use, there is less runoff into groundwater and rivers. This results in a lower impact on the ecosystem.

Why Networking is important for farmers?

It provides an effective way for extension and other agricultural professionals to reach and increase the success of agricultural producers; Data suggest that when farmers convene, new opportunities arise for increased economic viability, improved quality of life, and greater community interaction.

What is extension in networking?

The Network Extension is an expansive framework. It provides a set of APIs that can be used to customize core networking features of the OS.

How does agriculture affect ecosystem?

Agriculture produces more than just crops. Agricultural practices have environmental impacts that affect a wide range of ecosystem services, including water quality, pollination, nutrient cycling, soil retention, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity conservation.

How agriculture benefits the country?

Agriculture and Food. Agriculture can help reduce poverty, raise incomes and improve food security for 80% of the world’s poor, who live in rural areas and work mainly in farming. The World Bank Group is a leading financier of agriculture.

How does agriculture improve the economy?

A strong agricultural economy brings social progress by increasing productivity, employment and income. Agriculture is the main driver of development in most rural areas. Demand for staple foods, agricultural commodities and – increasingly – processed food is growing in developing countries.

What is smart agriculture system?

Smart farming is a management concept focused on providing the agricultural industry with the infrastructure to leverage advanced technology – including big data, the cloud and the internet of things (IoT) – for tracking, monitoring, automating and analyzing operations.

How does broadband affect agriculture?

As technology continues to get smarter, precision agriculture tools that farmers use day-to-day require the internet and a lot of data. With fiber optic broadband, farmers are able to communicate with their technology and track trends in their output to reach their full potential.

Why is broadband important for agriculture?

With broadband, machinery can be updated while operating, speeding efficiency for the equipment and the farm as a whole. The agriculture industry has the opportunity to thrive with new technology, but the barrier of internet access is holding it back.

Why is rural broadband important?

Rural broadband is essential to modern agriculture. Enabling technological innovation in agriculture will improve the efficiency of the American farmer, increase environmental sustainability, and enhance the connectivity of rural communities as a whole.

What would happen if rural America didn’t have broadband?

Rural communities have been placed on the back burner for leading technology.

Is broadband internet important?

Broadband internet access is more crucial than ever for businesses and consumers. With faster internet, a booming economy follows, yet there is still a gap in broadband access between rural and metro communities. According to the FCC, in 2016, 24 million Americans lacked broadband internet speeds.

What is 4G in agriculture?

4G/3G/NB-IoT wireless network technology is used to provide connectivity between IoT-based smart devices for data sharing, precise assessment, accurate estimation, etc., in the agricultural field ( Dahlman et al., 2011, Huang et al., 2012, Akyildiz et al., 2010, Hassebo et al., 2018 ). While the 3G/4G connectivity paradigm has shown great promise, there exist some limitations that can constrain the usage of the technology in the agricultural sector from its maximum potential. The operating area is one of the largest constraints. The existing wireless networks do not cover remote areas or parts of the city with several buildings. Facilitating quality of service (QoS) in 4G ( Payaswini and Manjaiah, 2014, Tragos et al., 2008, Iera et al., 2005, Dell’Uomo and Scarrone, 2002) networks poses a significant challenge due to channel conditions, resource allocation, changing data rates, and handoff issues between heterogeneous networks. The multiple antennas and transmitters used in mobile devices in this network lead to poor battery life. Since many moving devices used in modern agricultural sectors, such as drones and robots, are battery powered, they cannot operate for long durations in remote crop fields. Several devices and a massive amount of research work on IoT devices for smart farming are steadily increasing and require more intelligence, speed, scalability, secure communication capabilities and processing power to perform heavy computational tasks and run loaded services. To achieve fast performance and low costs for IoT devices, ultralow latency combined with high connectivity is required. The current 4G network (LTE) cannot support such features because it allows IP-based packet switching connectivity only ( Zhaogan et al., 2007, Martin et al., 2011 ). These limitations of the current generations of cellular networks will be overcome by transitioning to the next generation: 5G.

How does 5G help farming?

The advent of 5G will considerably change the nature of jobs in farming and agriculture. The internet of things (IoT)-based cloud computing service in the 5G network provides flexible and efficient solutions for smart farming. This will allow the automated operation of various unmanned agricultural machines for the plowing, planting, and management phases of crop farming and will ultimately achieve secure, reliable, environmentally friendly, and energy-efficient operations and enable unmanned farms. This paper provides a complete survey on 5G technology in the agricultural sector and discusses the need for and role of smart and precision farming; benefits of 5G; applications of 5G in precision farming such as real-time monitoring, virtual consultation and predictive maintenance, data analytics and cloud repositories; and future prospects.

How much of the world’s crops are lost annually due to pests and diseases?

Due to pests and diseases, an estimate of 20–40% of crops are lost annually according to a report by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) ( FAO, 2020 ). IoT devices such as robots, drones, and sensors are employed to detect pests and diseases, allowing precise usage of pesticides.

What is the main source of income for developing countries?

Agriculture is the primary source of livelihood and plays a vital role in most countries’ economies. Agriculture is not only associated with crop production but also includes animal breeding and land cultivation to offer food, fiber, and medicine. Different types of agriculture are practiced in different regions across the world, focusing primarily on providing healthy food to feed the population worldwide. Agriculture is the main source of income for developing countries. It ensures food security for a country and produces material for industry. Modern farming started approximately in the 18th century, referred to as the British Agricultural Revolution, when in a short period, many improvements were made to farming, leading to a major yield increase and more efficient methods. A four-field system and selective cross-breeding program were implemented to increase crop size as well as yields, replacing the three-field crop rotation system. The first subsequent revolution in agriculture took place between 1900 and the 1930s, when mechanized agriculture allowed each farmer to produce enough for 26 people. This agricultural revolution brought techniques such as soil management and the advent of various new farming tools. After many decades, a second revolution, known as the Green Revolution, took place in the 1990s. Genetically modified crops that are pest resistant and need less water were introduced with the help of scientific advancements, allowing each farmer to feed 155 people. The second revolution promoted the use of mechanized tools in farming practices, increasing the rate of production as well as the quantity of crop yield. The third revolution, also described as a green revolution, was the phase when genetically modified crops began to be used by almost everyone, leading to greater produce output.

Why is the IoT network failing?

The current generation of mobile networks is failing because of poor connectivity in rural regions , and even in the regions where high-speed connectivity is present, failure occurs due to enormous demands. A recent report found that almost 80% of rural areas, even in the United Kingdom, lie outside of the 4G range. In most countries, the current level of network availability in rural regions is insufficient ( USDA, 2019 ). In addition, in some developed countries, there are multiple farms with a large number of IoT devices and machines that require a constant reliable high-speed internet connection to exchange a large amount of data, and the technologies of the current generation of mobile networks cannot cope with these demands. To fulfill these goals, many promising technologies, such as massive MIMO, network slicing, and smaller cells, are needed to provide reliable connectivity over a larger distance. Therefore, the 5G mobile network is well suited to support smart farming by enabling wide coverage, low energy consumption, low-cost devices, and high spectrum efficiency. In 2017, for the first time, the 5G Rural First project successfully planted and harvested a crop using autonomous tractors to sow seeds, drones to monitor crops, and machines to apply water, fertilizer, and pesticides. The whole process was performed without any laborers stepping into the field. In 2018, another project titled Hands-Free Hectare reported a successful harvest. With more advancements in technology, 5G is expected to promote precision farming. As 5G coverage expands, agricultural sector producers are highly beneficial, providing the ability to manage farms, livestock, etc. from the comfort of their home, thanks to their large capacity, high data speed, and low latency. 5G technology will aid in supporting IoT sensor connectivity to the next level, providing a path to drive groundbreaking innovation in smart farming components ( Akpakwu et al., 2018, Modesta et al., 2019, Antony et al., 2020, Ayaz et al., 2019, Mavromoustakis et al. ). The key areas where the deployment of a 5G mobile network is beneficial in the agricultural sector are shown in Fig. 4. The application of 5G in agriculture for unmanned aerial vehicles, real-time monitoring, virtual consultation and predictive maintenance, augmented reality and virtual reality, AI-powered robots, data analytics and cloud repositories are discussed in this section. 5G technology makes it much easier to deploy, monitor, and manage IoT devices and farms.

Will 5G be used in the future?

In the future, all countries will introduce 5G networks in all fields; hence, internet costs will be reduced considerably, and connectivity will be enhanced. The investment costs for smart farming will be reduced significantly because of 5G usage, which is a boon for farmers.

Industry Events

Through 2020, many staple industry events were not held in person. Farm Science Review, USDA’s Ag Outlook Forum, and Farm Progress Show were moved online. The 2021 National Farm Machinery Show was cancelled all together.

Video Meetings

The farmers of XtremeAg, a network of farmers who’ve organized to share their expertise with fellow farmers, found themselves in a similar position. They held their first-ever membership meeting via Zoom late in 2020. Their six founding members have varying levels of comfort with this new way of gathering.

Other ways to learn

In South Dakota, Lee Lubbers is determined not to let the pandemic slow down his learning. To supplement the online events, Lubbers commits to a lot of time to online reading and research. He also plans to “make the best of the situation” by taking advantage of some extra time in the shop and picking up the phone to talk to farmer friends.

Social Media

In addition to video calls and webinars, Garrett sees Facebook and Twitter as “very powerful tools for networking.” Even before the pandemic, farmers were using Facebook groups like My Job Depends on Ag or hashtags like #AgTwitter to connect with one another.

Cyber Fatigue

While some farmers are spending more time online than ever, others aren’t interested, or face burn out. A recent poll asked, “Have you been attending webinars and virtual events to learn from ag product and service providers?” About 30% of respondents selected, “No, and I don’t plan to participate in any.”


The social-ecological effects of agricultural intensification are complex.


Agriculture is undergoing a transformation, mainly through intensification, worldwide [ 1 ]. This is reflected in the increased numbers of industry-oriented farms, characterized by large-scale monocultures with high use of pesticides and fertilizers and, which often go hand in hand with investments into irrigation technology.

Materials and methods

We studied a farming community from a village of the Navarre region in Spain ( Fig 1 ). The name of the village will remain anonymous to protect the identity of the participants in the study.


We found different levels of awareness among farmers regarding how they can affect NCP within the agricultural landscape given their land management decisions. Not surprisingly, the provision of food was the most highly cited material contribution of farmers to NCP.

Discussion and conclusions

We found that most farmers were aware of their co-production of NCP through their land management decisions, though modern and traditional farmers’ awareness of their contributions differed.


A.A. wishes to express her gratitude to her mother, Gloria Aguinaco Otxaran, who has taken care of her first baby while she working on this project. We would also like to thank two anonymous reviewers and the editor for helpful comments and advice to improve the paper.


It has been argued that major, purposeful action often resulting in significant changes in structure or function, known as transformational adaptation, is required in some areas of the agricultural sector to adapt to climate change and other driving factors.


Action for climate change is not occurring as fast, widely or significantly as may be required to address major climate change impacts 1, 2.

Adaptive capacity and social capital

Many researchers are now calling for an extension of the traditional economic evaluation of adaptive capacity and advocating a more holistic scope of elements that form adaptation options, including social factors such as behaviour 27, 28, 29, 30. The inclusion of concepts such as social capital meets this call 24, 25.

Comparing networks

The analysis we are reporting investigated participants’ networks (knowledge/information and social support) with a focus on the structural similarities and differences between transformational and incremental adaptors.


In this study, transformational adaptors were found to have far-reaching information and knowledge network connections, yet their social links to family, friends and local and industry colleagues were less extensive.


A multi-case study approach was adopted for this research, which used a self-nominating process for participation. The research focused on two sector-level cases (wine and peanuts) as well as a primary industry dependent community (Wimmera region, Victoria), within Australia.


The authors would like to thank all the research participants and reviewers.

What are the effects of agriculture on the environment?

Pollutants such as pesticides are also a major part of agriculture that negatively impacts the environment. It is self-explanatory; these products are chemicals that can have a long-lasting effect on soil and plants if used continuously.

What are the environmental impacts of agriculture?

This environmental impact of agriculture is the effect of various farming practices, and it can vary greatly depending on the country we are looking at. Many critical environmental issues are tied to agriculture, such as climate change, dead zones, genetic engineering, pollutants, deforestation, soil degradation, waste, and many others.

How does deforestation affect agriculture?

Because of deforestation, many animal species lose their habitat, and as previously mentioned, it leads to climate change. Climate change and deforestation are the two biggest and most important ways through which agriculture impacts our environment.

What are the two things that agriculture releases?

Various types of agriculture also use fertilization and pesticides, which releases phosphorus and nitrate in the air , among other things. Various types of agriculture also use fertilization and pesticides, which releases phosphorus and nitrate in the air, among other things.

How does irrigation affect the environment?

It can lead to the depletion of underground layers of water that are crucial for the environment. Agriculture can have a massive impact on the ecosystems surrounding it. This environmental impact …

What is deforestation caused by?

Farmers often cause deforestation by clearing land for their crops. Most of the deforestation happens because of slash-and-burn farming.

Why is irrigation important?

Irrigation, the process of applying controlled amounts of water to plants, can also create various problems for the environment. It can lead to the depletion of underground layers of water that are crucial for the environment.

Why is it so hard to meet the demand for accelerated agricultural productivity?

The reasons for this have to do with ecological factors. Global climate change is destabilizing many of the natural processes that make modern agriculture possible.

What is the effect of nitrogen on soil?

In addition, fertilizer application in soil leads to the formation and release of nitrous oxide, one of the most harmful greenhouse gases.

How does irrigation affect water?

Irrigation causes increases in water evaporation, impacting both surface air temperature and pressure as well as atmospheric moisture conditions . Recent studies have confirmed that cropland irrigation can influence rainfall patterns not only over the irrigated area but even thousands of miles away.

What is irrigation related to?

Irrigation has also been connected to the erosion of coastlines and other kinds of long-term ecological and habitat destruction. A huge amount of agricultural territory is used primarily as pasture for cattle and other livestock.

What are the consequences of irrigation?

One of the most obvious consequences is the depletion of aquifers, river systems, and downstream ground water. However, there are a number of other negative effects related to irrigation.

How do cattle damage soil?

Cattle and other large grazing animals can even damage soil by trampling on it. Bare, compacted land can bring about soil erosion and destruction of topsoil quality due to the runoff of nutrients. These and other impacts can destabilize a variety of fragile ecosystems and wildlife habitats. Chemical Fertilizer.

What will happen to the world population as the population continues to skyrocket?

With the global population continuing to skyrocket, the tension will continue to grow between continued agricultural growth and the ecological health of the land upon which humans depend. More than half the planet’s suitable land has been cultivated for crops, like these terraced rice fields in Bali, Indonesia.


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