South Africa’s agricultural regions South Africa is a rich and diverse country. It has a vibrant cultural diversity and a spectacular range of vegetation types, biodiversity, climates and soil types.
How can South Africa’s agriculture contribute to its economic development?
South Africa (SA), as one such economy, must therefore foster a healthy agricultural industry that contributes to the country’s gross domestic product (GDP), food security, social welfare, job creation and ecotourism, while adding value to the country’s wealth of raw materials.
What happened to South Africa’s agricultural sector post 1994?
South Africa’s decision to play by the global rules of free trade post 1994 put the country’s agricultural sector in a difficult position. While it was expected to compete against the best in the world, the support that could have helped it was taken away.
How common is agriculture in Gauteng?
Since agriculture is not so common in Gauteng, this finding might point to the fact that many households engage in agriculture as a last option. Of the households that were engaged in agricultural production, 50,6% cultivated grains, and 53,3% grew fruit and vegetables.
Why choose South Africa for small scale farming?
The country’s biodiversity ensures that products such as grains, fruit and wine are exported and preferred for its exceptional quality. There is a growing demand to improve subsistence farming or informal small-scale farming in South Africa.
How did agriculture affect culture?
When early humans began farming, they were able to produce enough food that they no longer had to migrate to their food source. This meant they could build permanent structures, and develop villages, towns, and eventually even cities. Closely connected to the rise of settled societies was an increase in population.
What role does agriculture play in South Africa?
Agriculture is central to fostering economic growth, reducing poverty, and improving food security in the Southern African region. More than 70 percent of the rural population depends on agriculture for their livelihoods, and regional economic growth has been constrained by poor performance in the agriculture sector.
How is culture connected with agriculture?
Cultural practices and patterns can be traced to our agrarian backgrounds e.g. Baishaki, Ugadi etc. The variations in agriculture and culture are reflected in the different regional culture like -Celebration of new year festivals in different regions of India – Pongal, Bihu, Onam etc.
What is the impact of agriculture in Africa?
Agriculture is by far the single most important economic activity in Africa. It provides employment for about two-thirds of the continent’s working population and for each country contributes an average of 30 to 60 percent of gross domestic product and about 30 percent of the value of exports.
How agriculture contribute to the economy of South Africa?
The agricultural sector contributed around 10 percent to South Africa’s total export earnings in FY2020 at a value of $10.2 billion. Citrus, wine, table grapes, corn and apples accounted for the largest exports by value. South Africa also exports wool, nuts, sugar, mohair, and pears to name just a few products.
Why the agriculture is important?
Agriculture provides most of the world’s food and fabrics. Cotton, wool, and leather are all agricultural products. Agriculture also provides wood for construction and paper products. These products, as well as the agricultural methods used, may vary from one part of the world to another.
Why is agriculture significant in economic development in Africa?
Agriculture constitutes the main source of employment of the majority of the world’s poor. In total, the share of agriculture in total employment in developing countries constitutes 53% of the total workforce in 2004. In Sub-Saharan Africa 60% of the economically active population works in the agricultural sector14.
Which country is the best in agriculture in Africa?
As of 2020, Sierra Leone registered the highest contribution of the agricultural sector to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Africa, at over 61 percent.
Which country is good in agriculture in Africa?
According to the survey, Kenya’s scored 64.8 out of 100, which is higher than the average score observed globally (61.47), higher than the average score observed across countries in Sub-Saharan Africa2(40.69), and higher than the average score observed in lower-middle-income countries (50.58).
Regional Development in Africa
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Africa continent has been said to lag behind in agricultural growth and development which has led to organizational and structural failures. Many factors have been investigated to this effect such as poor infrastructure, inadequate factors of production, poor energy, lack of modern agricultural facilities, etc.
Agriculture, among all other sectors, has proven to have a closer relationship with natural resources and her impacts have been significant to mankind over the centuries [ 1 ]. Livestock farming has contributed tremendously to the livelihood and social status of humans [ 2 ].
2. Materials and methods
The study was conducted at Umsinga Municipality, KwaZulu-Natal province, Southeastern part of South Africa. The study site is located on the geographical coordinates 28.7461° S, 30.4525° E [ 6 ].
Majority of homesteads (84%) has goats compared to cattle (69%). The population of goats in possession by homesteads was higher compared to other livestock (cattle, poultry, and sheep) ( Table 1 ). The gender ratio (male to female) of owners was 2:5, while the ratio of the animal population owned by these genders was 4:6 ( Table 1 ).
There was a decrease in goats’ population among female owners over 12 months (1.4) while it increases among the male owners (5.6) ( Table 2 ). The disparity in the population of goats owned is very wide compared to the gender of owners. This is due to some biased gender factors which had favored the men such as (a) cultural position of men.
Livestock gender ownership has a great influence on goats and cattle productivity in Umsinga Municipality. Gender differences based on the cultural views, purposes and norms are affecting the commercialization of goats and cattle. The input of ownership by gender also made a difference in livestock productivity.
What is the role of agriculture in the economy?
Agriculture plays an important role in the process of economic development and can contribute significantly to household food security. The National Development Plan (NDP) sets out a broad vision of eliminating poverty and reducing inequality by 2030.
What is the purpose of the SA farmers project?
The project, which is conducted in collaboration with Stats SA, is aimed at improving the accuracy of agricultural statistics, including information on smallholder farmers across South Africa.
What are the sources of credit for farmers?
Credit and financial assistance. The six major sources of credit for farmers are banks (56%), agricultural cooperatives and agribusinesses (9%), the Land and Agricultural Development Bank of South Africa (the Land Bank) (30%), private creditors (3%), and other creditors and financial institutions (2%).
How many hectares of land will be used for farming in 2030?
By 2030, as per the NDP, government aims to ensure that one million hectares are used to produce crops including fruit and livestock, and provide superior breeding animals to targeted smallholder and subsistence farmers. In 2019/20, government planned to finalise a register of farmers and agriculture statistics.
What is an agricultural holding account?
Agricultural Land Holding Account (ALHA): The ALHA was established in terms of the Provision of Land and Assistance Act of 1993, which gives legal effect to the proactive acquisition of land, where the Minister may , from money appropriated by Parliament for this purpose, acquire land for the purposes of this Act.
What is the Agricultural Research Council?
Agricultural Research Council (ARC) , as the main agricultural research institution in South Africa, is to conduct research and development, and effect the transfer of technology to promote agriculture and industry, contribute to a better quality of life, and facilitate and ensure the conservation of natural resources.
What is Agri SA?
Agri South Africa (Agri SA) Agri SA. (link is external) promotes the development, profitability, stability and sustainability of agriculture in South Africa by means of its involvement and input on national and international policy, and the implementation thereof.
Why is agriculture important in South Africa?
Agriculture is one of the major drivers of biodiversity loss, environmental degradation and water usage in South Africa. Some of the food we consume is from farms that fall within strategic water source areas . Therefore, it is important to ensure that the soils and biodiversity around these critical areas are conserved through sustainable farming …
What is sustainable agriculture?
By 2011, WWF started a sustainable agriculture programme – funded by Nedbank – to address the broader impacts of other areas of farming. This included fruit, sugar, beef, dairy and grain as priority sectors that have the most impact on ecosystem functioning in the priority conservation areas.
What was South Africa’s decision to play by the global rules of free trade post 1994?
South Africa’s decision to play by the global rules of free trade post 1994 put the country’s agricultural sector in a difficult position. While it was expected to compete against the best in the world, the support that could have helped it was taken away. At the same time, the countries it was competing against were very supportive …
Why are hectares planted for wheat now one third of what they were in the late 1980s?
Hectares planted for wheat are now one third of what they were in the late 1980s. This is because it is cheaper to import wheat than to grow it. The same is true of cotton.
Why did the new democratic government need to address the challenges of rural development?
The focus at the time was on transforming the sector to achieve these political goals rather than to prepare for global competition.
What sectors absorb the majority of the workforce?
The agriculture and mining sectors absorb the majority. Employment in the sector has declined substantially over time. In the 1970s agriculture used to employ over 2 million people on farms alone, or about a quarter of the employed. By 2014, fewer than 700,000 were employed on farms, less than 5% of the employed.
What is the average rainfall in South Africa?
It is classified as a semi-arid area, meaning its rainfall is low and erratic. The country has an average annual rainfall of less than 500 mm compared with the global average of 860 mm. Only 12% of its 1.2 million square kilometres is suitable for agricultural use.
Is South Africa a trading partner?
South Africa has also found new markets. Its biggest trading partners are now in Africa, overtaking the EU which used to dominate most facets of trade. There has also been more diversification in terms of products such as soybeans. These are in high demand globally and investment is increasing to support production.
What is SA agricultural export?
The SA agricultural sector remains a net exporter, with exportable volumes of various commodities growing annually, subject to weather conditions. In 2020, SA’s agricultural exports hit $10.2 billion, a 3% increase from the prior year and the second largest level on record. At the same time, agricultural imports fell 8%, leading to a 26% annual increase in the agricultural trade surplus, which widened to $4.3 billion in 2020. The top 10 export products were citrus, grapes, wine, apples and pears, maize, nuts, sugar, wool and fruit juices, with Africa and Europe serving as the largest markets for SA agricultural exports (followed closely by Asia).
What is the long term health of agriculture?
The long-term health of the agricultural sector relies heavily on the sustainability of farming methods. Farming practices must not only ensure profitable yields but also the wellbeing of the factors of production: the environment, the farm workers and the surrounding communities.
How many farms will be there in 2020?
In October 2020 the Minister of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development announced that the government would be making 896 farms (totaling 700 000 hectares of under-utilised or vacant agricultural State land) available for emerging farmers.
How much maize will be exported in 2021?
Industry estimates suggest the country could export 2.8 million tons of maize in 2021/2022, the largest volume since the 1994/1995 season.
What causes volatility in crop prices?
1. Volatility influenced by climate change, political actions, and social change, amongst other factors. Variable weather conditions and climate change cause a fluctuation in yields, which impacts local and global supply dynamics. This creates volatility in volumes and crop prices.
Is agriculture homogeneous?
Complexity: Agriculture is not homogenous – there are many different crops and food types, each with their own unique and fragmented supply chains. There is diversity within each crop, in terms of how and where it is produced, and by whom.
Is the SA agricultural market in need of alternative sources of funding?
In the wake of the Land Bank saga – which in April 2020 saw the biggest agricultural funder in the country default on its debt, precipitating a severe liquidity challenge – the SA agricultural market is in need of alternative sources of funding.
What are the constraints of small scale agriculture?
Common constraints to successful small-scale and emerging commercial agriculture include lack of access to finance, challenges regarding land governance in the communal areas, access to water, the need for effective extension services, and poor infrastructure, such as roads, electricity and access to markets.
Why are crops exposed to higher temperatures?
Crops are exposed to higher temperatures which many can endure. But it’s the increase in extremely hot days (and warm nights) that can cause the most damage. The threat of changing rainfall seasons leading to shifting rainfall dates plays havoc with planting dates and crop management.
How does rainfall affect plants?
This affects rainfall and seasonal patterns on a global scale. It also affects plants’ phenological growth (phases in the plant’s development which require certain thresholds of sunlight, heat and moisture) and physical growth, as well as animal growth and exposure to pests and diseases. Ultimately it contributes directly to yield.
How to reduce post harvest losses?
Focus on reducing post-harvest losses through heat as well as excessive or unseasonal rainfall. Use an ecologically beneficial combination of crops and livestock to restore soil productivity and balance income and expenditure, especially during times of drought, in a financially sound way.
Do farmers know every year is profitable?
As a result, farmers understand that not every year will be profitable but over the long run, all things being equal, the good years should outnumber the bad.
Why is agriculture negatively affected?
Because of the unpredictability in weather conditions, production on farms will be negatively impacted. The shifts in rainfall distribution can either cause drought or it can cause excessive floods resulting in crop damage.
What are farmers forced to do?
Farmers are being forced to make changes to the infrastructure on their farms. For instance, they may now have to start building additional water reservoirs on their farms to increase contingency plans in the event of drought disasters. 5. Imports of agricultural equipment, technology and machinery.
Why do farmers need to use fertilizer?
Farmers are very dependent on soil moisture and soil fertility. Climate change, however, causes the soil to become dryer. When this happens the fertility of the soil is jeopardized, resulting in farmers having to make use of additional fertilisers to ensure that their crops continue growing.
How can technology help farmers?
For example, because of the environmental changes and the impacts thereof on farm life, technology can help farmers to better manage their water usage during severe drought periods. 4. Infrastructure changes on the farm. Farmers are being forced to make changes to the infrastructure on their farms.
Does South Africa have electricity?
According to Professor Simatele, South Africa continues to rely on coal-powered electricity, which is spewing huge volumes of carbon dioxide into our atmosphere. This, he explains, has resulted in the country being considered as one of the major contributors to the world’s total greenhouse gas emissions.
Does South Africa have a warming climate?
South Africa has already seen severe warming due to climate change, according to the National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy published by the department of environmental affairs.
Does Mzansi use fertilizer?
Mzansi’s agricultural system, especially commercial farming, still makes use of chemical fertilisers during the cultivation of large farming zones. “This then releases carbon, which is trapped in the soil, back into the atmosphere,” Simatele explains.
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