How does agriculture industry and shipping affect our coastline


What are the adverse effects of the shipping industry on Environment?

A few of the adverse effects of this industry on the environment are as follows: Noise produced by ships often travels long distances and interferes with the normal behavior of marine species like whales that rely on sound for their activities. Oil spills into the ocean have devastating effects on marine life.

How does transportation affect the global food supply?

Transportation changes such as these reduce the ability of farmers to export their grains to international markets, and can affect global food prices. Impacts to the global food supply concern the United States because food shortages can cause humanitarian crises and national security concerns. They also can increase domestic food prices.

How does industrial development affect coastal ecosystems?

Industrial development has altered, disturbed and destroyed coastal ecosystems, including sensitive habitats. Many important industrial centres are situated on estuaries and in the vicinity of urban areas and ports. Main industrial activities affecting coastal areas include iron ore smelting and processing,…

How do ships affect the marine environment?

Human wastes loaded with harmful microorganisms enter the waters through the sewage discharged by the ships into the water. Whales, manatees, and other large marine fauna are at risk of collisions with ships. Collisions with ships moving at high speeds can definitely kill or injure such marine animals.


Which are the greatest impact that is affecting our coastline?

Key PointsClimate change threatens coastal areas, which are already stressed by human activity, pollution, invasive species, and storms.Sea level rise could erode and inundate coastal ecosystems and eliminate wetlands.Warmer and more acidic oceans are likely to disrupt coastal and marine ecosystems.More items…•

How does agriculture affect the environment?

Agriculture contributes to a number larger of environmental issues that cause environmental degradation including: climate change, deforestation, biodiversity loss, dead zones, genetic engineering, irrigation problems, pollutants, soil degradation, and waste.

How does coastal development affect our coastlines?

Coastal development can cause chronic sedimentation, sewage effluent, industrial discharge, changes waterflow and run off which can harmfully affect coral growth rates and metabolic activities as well as directly kill corals. The damage doesn’t end with the construction of tourist infrastructure.

What are the major impacts in the development of coastal area?

Coastal development impacts may be direct such as land filling, dredging, and coral and sand mining for construction, or indirect, such as increased runoff of sediment and pollutants (Reefresilience, 2016).

How industrial agriculture affects our water?

High quantities of nutrients in water from industrial crop fertilizers and animal waste cause excessive aquatic plant growth — a process known as “eutrophication,” which, in turn, causes “hypoxia,” or water that is low in oxygen. Harmful algal blooms (or HABs) occur when aquatic algae grow rapidly out of control.

How industrial agriculture affects our soil?

This practice depletes the soil of nutrients (making the soil less productive over time), reduces organic matter in soil and can cause significant erosion. In the US, industrial farming practices often include the rotation of soybeans and corn.

What are the threats to coastline?

The threats to coastal communities include extreme natural events such as hurricanes, coastal storms, tsunamis, and landslides, as well as longer-term risks of coastal erosion and sea level rise. Floods are the most frequent natural disaster; one in three Federal disaster declarations is related to flooding.

How does human activities affect our coastlines?

Human activities in coastal areas have affected many of the natural environmental processes there. This has led to a wide range of issues including a loss of biodiversity, high levels of pollution, erosion, and rising sea levels due to climate change. In fact, coasts are one of the Earth’s most threatened environments.

How do humans affect coastlines?

Coastal Degradation Human actions that lead to the destruction of dune grasses and the disturbance of coastal landforms promote increased erosion and movement of beach materials.

How does land affect coastal waters?

Modifications on land including dams, sand and gravel mining, and paving many coastal watersheds continuously diminish sediment input into coastal areas, while coastal armoring and placement of hard structures along the coast exacerbate coastal erosion and impede natural sediment transport.

What problems do coastal areas frequently face?

Threats to the coastal zone Climate change. Fisheries. Water quality/pollution. Land use and coastal defences. 4.1 Land use and human populations. … Land-sea flows. 5.1 River runoff and load. … Recreation and tourism. 6.1 Beaches, swimming, recreational boating. … Coastal hazards. Threats to biodiversity.More items…•

What are the causes of destruction of coastal resources?

The most important causes for coral reef degradation are coastal development and excessive exploitation of its resources. Migration towards coasts led to strong development on land, which often lead to destruction of important coastal ecosystems like mangroves and sea grass beds.

What are the positive and negative effects of agriculture?

While negative impacts are serious, and can include pollution and degradation of soil, water, and air, agriculture can also positively impact the environment, for instance by trapping greenhouse gases within crops and soils, or mitigating flood risks through the adoption of certain farming practices.

How can agriculture damage the environment of the region?

Significant environmental and social issues associated with agricultural production include changes in the hydrologic cycle; introduction of toxic chemicals, nutrients, and pathogens; reduction and alteration of wildlife habitats; and invasive species.

How does agriculture affect the climate change?

Agriculture contributes to climate change At every stage, food provisioning releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Farming in particular releases significant amounts of methane and nitrous oxide, two powerful greenhouse gases.

Why is agriculture good for the environment?

In addition to preserving the earth’s natural resources, sustainable agriculture benefits the environment through helping maintain soil quality, reducing erosion, and preserving water.

How does shipping affect the environment?

Being associated with water, most of these effects cause damage to marine flora and fauna and that indirectly affects humans. The shipping industry also contributes significantly to air pollution.

How do ships contribute to the environment?

Ships also contribute to air pollution. The combustion of fuels releases great volumes of smoke and dust into the air. Many of these gases are greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change on Earth.

What are the dangers of collisions with ships?

Loss Of Marine Life. Whales, manatees, and other large marine fauna are at risk of collisions with ships. Collisions with ships moving at high speeds can definitely kill or injure such marine animals.

Why do seabirds get stuck in oil?

This kills numerous marine life. Seabirds also get stuck in the oil as they swoop down on the water to catch the dead fish resulting from the oil spill. The birds also die a painful death.

How does tourism affect the coastal environment?

Tourism, a major source of income for many coastal communities, can have major effects on coastal environments unless the scale and type of activities are controlled.

Why is the coastal zone so poor?

The underlying cause is the lack of an integrated approach to coastal zone management, leading to impoverished functioning. As a consequence, the productivity of fisheries and such important ecosystems such as mangroves and coral reefs has been depressed, with detrimental impact on local human communities.

How does groundwater discharge into the ocean?

Like surface water, groundwater flows down-gradient. Therefore, groundwater flows directly into the ocean wherever a coastal aquifer is connected to the sea. Furthermore, artesian aquifers can extend for considerable distances from the shore, underneath the continental shelf. In some cases, these deeper aquifers may have fractures or other breaches in the overlying confining layers, allowing groundwater to flow into the sea. If polluted, groundwater flow into the sea will contribute to marine pollution. See for further details the article Submarine groundwater discharge and its influence on the coastal environment .

What is the effect of seawater intrusion on the coastal aquifer?

Seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifer. Conversely, seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer causes salinisation of fertile soil in low-lying parts of the inland coastal zone. These areas can therefore become unsuitable for agriculture, especially in arid regions, with considerable social and economic consequences.

What is the reader referred to as the separate pages Effects of Fisheries on Marine Biodiversity and

Fisheries. The reader is referred to the separate pages Effects of fisheries on marine biodiversity and Mariculture. These articles discuss how and why ecosystems are at risk, while the human demand of resources from the sea is increasing, particularly in coastal areas.

How does a hurricane affect tourism?

Wind or water damage from a cyclone (hurricane), flooding by tsunami, wreckage from an earthquake, or coastal erosion from storms can affect tourism, fishing, port operations, public works, transportation, housing and industry. For a more extensive discussion, see the article Shoreline management .

Why is the composition of the coastal seas changing?

The composition and structure of the fauna, flora and habitats of coastal seas has been changing at an unusual rate in the last few decades, due to changes in the global climate, invasive species and an increase in human activities. The unusual rapid rate of change, rather than the nature of the change itself, is the reason for the deterioration of many environments; over the last 50 years the rate and extent of this deterioration has been unprecedented, as were the consequences on biological diversity. The term biodiversity is used by the Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) to refer to all aspects of variability evident within the living world, including diversity within and between individuals, populations, species, communities, and ecosystems. The term is commonly used loosely to refer to all species and habitats in some given area, or even on the Earth overall. In fact, it relates to environmental attributes, often species or species groups, which can be sampled and whose modification is supposed to reflect a change of biological diversity.

Ballast water

Ballast water discharges by ships can have a negative impact on the marine environment.

Sound pollution

Noise pollution caused by shipping and other human enterprises has increased in recent history. The noise produced by ships can travel long distances, and marine species who may rely on sound for their orientation, communication, and feeding, can be harmed by this sound pollution.

Wildlife collisions

Marine mammals, such as whales and manatees, risk being struck by ships, causing injury and death. For example, a collision with a ship traveling at only 15 knots has a 79% chance of being lethal to a whale.

Atmospheric pollution

Exhaust gases from ships are considered to be a significant source of air pollution, both for conventional pollutants and greenhouse gases.

Oil spills

Most commonly associated with ship pollution are oil spills. While less frequent than the pollution that occurs from daily operations, oil spills have devastating effects.

Solid waste

Solid waste generated on a ship includes glass, paper, cardboard, aluminium and steel cans, and plastics. It can be either non-hazardous or hazardous in nature. Solid waste that enters the ocean may become marine debris, and can then pose a threat to marine organisms, humans, coastal communities, and industries that utilize marine waters.

Bilge water

On a ship, oil often leaks from engine and machinery spaces or from engine maintenance activities and mixes with water in the bilge, the lowest part of the hull of the ship. Though bilge water is filtered and cleaned before being discharged, oil in even minute concentrations can kill fish or have various sub-lethal chronic effects.

What are the effects of agriculture on the environment?

Pollutants such as pesticides are also a major part of agriculture that negatively impacts the environment. It is self-explanatory; these products are chemicals that can have a long-lasting effect on soil and plants if used continuously.

What are the environmental impacts of agriculture?

This environmental impact of agriculture is the effect of various farming practices, and it can vary greatly depending on the country we are looking at. Many critical environmental issues are tied to agriculture, such as climate change, dead zones, genetic engineering, pollutants, deforestation, soil degradation, waste, and many others.

How does deforestation affect agriculture?

Because of deforestation, many animal species lose their habitat, and as previously mentioned, it leads to climate change. Climate change and deforestation are the two biggest and most important ways through which agriculture impacts our environment.

What are the two things that agriculture releases?

Various types of agriculture also use fertilization and pesticides, which releases phosphorus and nitrate in the air , among other things. Various types of agriculture also use fertilization and pesticides, which releases phosphorus and nitrate in the air, among other things.

How does irrigation affect the environment?

It can lead to the depletion of underground layers of water that are crucial for the environment. Agriculture can have a massive impact on the ecosystems surrounding it. This environmental impact …

What is deforestation caused by?

Farmers often cause deforestation by clearing land for their crops. Most of the deforestation happens because of slash-and-burn farming.

Why is irrigation important?

Irrigation, the process of applying controlled amounts of water to plants, can also create various problems for the environment. It can lead to the depletion of underground layers of water that are crucial for the environment.

How does agriculture affect coastal ecosystems?

The contribution of agriculture to the pollution of coastal ecosystems affects biogeochemical cycles, notably in terms of : Discharge of methane and ammonia contributing to the greenhouse effect. Use of insecticides and other pesticides affecting species, cultivated or not. Pollution, from use of oil, for instance.

What happens to contaminants after entering the sea?

After entering the sea, contaminants are usually diluted and widely dispersed. However, the adsorption of contaminants to suspended solid material in the sea leads to the occurrence of elevated concentrations in the seabed in areas where this material settles.

Why is it so difficult to estimate the relative contribution of each human activity to the overall pollution impact?

Quantitative estimates are difficult because of the lack of reliable data and the extreme complexity of biogeochemical cycles, especially at the sea-land and sea-atmosphere interfaces.

How does pollution affect the estuarine ecosystem?

Coastal and estuarine ecosystems have been, and still are, heavily influenced by humans through pollution and habitat loss worldwide. Over 80% of all marine pollution originates from land-based sources which are primarily industrial, agricultural and urban . Pollution accompanies most kinds of human activities, including offshore oil and gas production and marine oil transportation. Besides altering the marine environment, pollution also causes economic losses .

How can anthropogenic chemicals affect wildlife?

It is now well established that there are anthropogenic chemicals released to the environment that can disrupt the endocrine systems of a wide range of wildlife species. The reproductive hormone-receptor systems appear to be especially vulnerable. Indeed, changes in sperm counts, genital tract malformations, infertility, an increased frequency of mammary, prostate and testicular tumours, feminisation of male individuals of diverse vertebrate species and altered reproductive behaviours, have all been reported . With regard to environmental management, the problem of endocrine disrupting chemicals is extremely difficult to address. Basic research is required to strengthen the scientific foundation for risk assessment: e.g., baseline studies on endocrine dysfunction across classes of animals to reduce the uncertainty associated with species extrapolations . See also articles under the Ecotox Portal.

What are the effects of halogenated hydrocarbons on the environment?

It has emerged that some highly stable organic compounds – chiefly halogenated hydrocarbons – can have serious environmental effects in the sea. Such substances have in common the presence of a halogen in their molecule (chlorine, iodine, fluorine, astatine), have a low polarity and low water solubility.

How can algal biomass be prevented?

An algal biomass related phenomenon such as oxygen depletion of the water column and consequent mortality of animals can be prevented by a general reduction of nutrient discharges. At present, mathematical models on ecosystem dynamics are reliable enough to estimate dose-effect relationships.

When will the shipping industry be able to reduce sulphur?

Climate challenges in the. shipping industry. July 15, 2020. From January 1, 2020, allowable sulphur levels in marine fuel oil were slashed under the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) Annex VI, more widely-known as IMO 2020, as the shipping industry plays its part in achieving a more sustainable …

What are the impacts of the Mississippi River?

Record water levels on the Mississippi river in 2019 resulted in damage to vessels and shore side infrastructure, as well as causing major disruption for supply chains . As weather becomes more unpredictable with climate change, such events are likely to have a greater impact on trade and marine insurance claims. The Mississippi River and its tributaries form one of the most important commercial waterways in North America, and a river system that is critical to the transport of agricultural and manufactured goods across the country (for example, 60% of all export-bound US corn and soybeans are shipped along the river to terminals on the Gulf Coast) [5]. However, 2019 saw year-long disruption on the Mississippi River from high water levels, floods, fog and ice jams.

How to remove sulphur oxide from a ship?

The main alternative to using compliant fuel is to fit exhaust gas cleaning systems, also known as scrubbers, which remove sulphur oxides from the ship’s engine and boiler exhaust gases. There are two types of scrubber, open-loop and closed-loop. Open-loop scrubbers return washwater to the sea while residues in washwater from closedloop scrubbers must be discharged onshore. Discharge from open-loop scrubbers, however, must meet strict criteria and a growing number of ports and countries restrict or prohibit the discharge of washwater from open-loop scrubbers within their waters.

What is the importance of IMO 2020?

“The implementation of IMO 2020 has gone smoother than some predicted, however, the cap on sul phur creates uncertainty for risks of bunkering, machinery breakdown and the use of scrubbers. This is an issue that we have on our radar and are raising with companies.”

What fuel do ships use?

An increasing number of new vessels are opting for such fuels, although most existing ships are expected to use “blended” low sulphur fuel, where a refinery combines non-compliant fuel oil with low-sulphur oil to achieve a compliant fuel oil. Ship owners will need to balance the pros and cons of each fuel type.

Can you use distillate fuel in IMO?

IMO has not defined which specific fuels shippers should use to comply, so vessels are using blended fuel and not distillate. If you want cleaner emissions then use cleaner fuel. If you want to reduce what comes out the stack then put cleaner fuel in the tank,” says Kinsey.

What are the processes that affect the rate of coastal erosion?

Coastal processes. Processes called erosion, mass movement and weathering break down and remove material from the coast. Many factors affect the rates of coastal erosion and the landforms created. Part of. Geography. Landscapes and physical processes.

Why is coastal erosion a concern?

The amount of human interference – if there are no man-made structures (eg sea walls) to protect the coast, then the coast is more vulnerable to attack. However, the construction of houses, industry and other man-made structures in the first instance are the reasons why coastal erosion is a concern.

Is the British coastline vulnerable to erosion?

Some areas of the British coastline are more vulnerable to coastal erosion than others. Coastal landforms are affected by a range of factors. Some of these factors slow down or speed up the rate that landforms are being created.

How has the exploitation of rivers affected agriculture?

In some cases, this lowering of the river bottom has caused the water table of the surrounding area to drop, which has adversely affected agriculture. Also, canalization, with its extensive system of locks and navigation dams, often seriously disrupts riverine ecosystems.

Why do algae die?

Under normal conditions, algae contribute to the oxygen balance in rivers and also serve as food for fish, but in excessive amounts they crowd out populations of other organisms, overgrow, and finally die owing to the exhaustion of available nutrients and autointoxication.

What is the problem with water pollution?

The widespread use of such biocides and the universal nature of water makes it inevitable that the toxic chemicals would appear as stream pollutants.

What are the main sources of pollution in rivers?

Still another major source of pollutants is industry. Untreated industrial chemical wastes can alter the normal biological activity of rivers, and many of the chemicals react with water to raise the acidity of rivers to a point where the water becomes corrosive enough to destroy living organisms.

How much of the US is hydroelectric?

It has been estimated that 75 percent of the potential hydropower in the contiguous United States has been developed, and about 13 percent of the total annual electrical energy demands of the country are met by hydroelectric power plants.

How much land is controlled irrigation?

With a history of at least 5,000 years, controlled irrigation now affects roughly 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 square miles) of land, three-quarters of it in East and South Asia and two-fifths in mainland China alone.

Where is the barge on the Rhine River?

Barge on the Rhine River, with vineyards in the background, at the town of Kaub, Germany. Demand on open-channel water increases as population and per capita water use increase and as underground water supplies fall short. Irrigation use constitutes a comparatively large percentage of the total supply.

How does acidification affect the ocean?

Carbon dioxide is absorbed by oceans, resulting in ocean acidification. Acidification reduces the size and abundance of shellfish, which in turn leads to decreased harvest and eventually to changes in prices for consumers. Source: US EPA (2015). Climate Change in the United States: Benefits of Global Action.

What are the stresses that fisheries face?

Many fisheries already face multiple stresses, including overfishing and water pollution. Climate change may worsen these stresses. In particular, temperature changes could lead to significant impacts. This map shows the annual centers of biomass for three species in the northeastern United States from 1968 to 2015.

What are the potential changes in veterinary practices?

Potential changes in veterinary practices, including an increase in the use of parasiticides and other animal health treatments, are likely to be adopted to maintain livestock health in response to climate-induced changes in pests, parasites, and microbes.

What are the challenges of droughts?

Changes in the frequency and severity of droughts and floods could pose challenges for farmers and ranchers and threaten food safety. [3] . Meanwhile, warmer water temperatures are likely to cause the habitat ranges of many fish and shellfish species to shift, which could disrupt ecosystems. Overall, climate change could make it more difficult …

How does heat affect livestock?

Drought may threaten pasture and feed supplies. Drought reduces the amount of quality forage available to grazing livestock.

How does drought affect pasture?

[1] More extreme temperature and precipitation can prevent crops from growing. Extreme events, especially floods and droughts, can harm crops and reduce yields.

Does temperature affect crops?

For any particular crop, the effect of increased temperature will depend on the crop’s optimal temperature for growth and reproduction. [1] . In some areas, warming may benefit the types of crops that are typically planted there, or allow farmers to shift to crops that are currently grown in warmer areas.


Climate Change


Water Quality/Pollution

Land Use and Coastal Defences

Land-Sea Flows

  • River runoff and load
    Flow of fresh water and entrained materials to the coastal zone has been grossly altered by human activities. In some arid regions where freshwater is diverted for irrigation, the discharge to the coastal zone has diminished to a small fraction of the natural flow. In other regions the issu…
  • Groundwater discharge into the coastal waters
    Although not as obvious as river discharge, continental ground waters also discharge directly into the sea. Like surface water, groundwater flows down-gradient. Therefore, groundwater flows directly into the ocean wherever a coastal aquifer is connected to the sea. Furthermore, artesian …

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Recreation and Tourism

Coastal Hazards

Threats to Biodiversity


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