How does dna technology contribute to the agricultural industry

The development of biotechnology and molecular biology make it possible for us to regulate or even control the plant traits, by using DNA sequence information, such as the structure, function and mechanism etc. DNA technologies based on DNA molecular markers, transgenic technology and gene expression have been widely used in agricultural production which have showed great potential in improving agricultural yields and quality, reducing the loss that various biotic and abiotic stress caused …

In agriculture, recombinant DNA has improved plant growth by increasing nitrogen fixation efficiencies, by cloning bacterial genes, and inserting them into plant cells. Other plants have been engineered to be resistant to caterpillar, pests, and viruses by inserting resistant genes into plant genomes.


What is DNA technology used for in agriculture?

DNA and Agriculture. DNA technology has also been used to increase plant resistance to disease by reengineering the plant to produce viral proteins. Also, the genes for an insecticide obtained from a bacterium have been inserted into plants to allow the plants to resist caterpillars and other pests. One of the first agricultural products…

What is the impact of New Genetics on the agriculture industry?

The new genetics will connect agriculture to sectors beyond the food, feed and fibre industries; agri-business will contribute to public health and will provide high-value products to the pharmaceutical industry as well as to industries previously based on petroleum feedstocks and chemical modification processes. 1. Introduction

How has technology shaped the agriculture industry?

Technological innovations have greatly shaped agriculture throughout time. From the creation of the plow to the global positioning system (GPS) driven precision farming equipment, humans have developed new ways to make farming more efficient and grow more food.

How can recombinant DNA and biotechnology be used for plant growth?

Scientists remove the tumor-inducing genes and obtain a plasmid that unites with the plant cell without causing any harm. Recombinant DNA and biotechnology have been used to increase the efficiency of plant growth by increasing the efficiency of the plant’s ability to fix nitrogen.

How is DNA related to agriculture?

People can use genetic information to observe or monitor the growth status of crops and provide guidelines for the field management, by which we can improve the efficiency of agricultural measures such as fertilization and irrigation, and regulate the maturity and growth habits and other important growth process of …

What is the impact of the recombinant DNA technology to the food industry?

Food and Agriculture. Recombinant DNA technology has major uses which made the manufacturing of novel enzymes possible which are suitable in conditions for specified food-processing.

What are the benefits of recombinant DNA technology in industry?

Recombinant DNA technology has also proven important to the production of vaccines and protein therapies such as human insulin, interferon and human growth hormone. It is also used to produce clotting factors for treating haemophilia and in the development of gene therapy.

What are some useful agricultural products made from recombinant DNA technology?

Biochemical products of recombinant DNA technology in agriculture include: golden rice, herbicide-resistant crops, and insect-resistant crops.

How does DNA technology help agriculture?

With the development of molecular biology, some DNA-based technologies have showed great potentiality in promoting the efficiency of crop breeding program, protecting germplasm resources, improving the quality and outputs of agricultural products, and protecting the eco-environment etc., making their roles in modern agriculture more and more important. To better understand the application of DNA technologies in agriculture, and achieve the goals to promote their utilities in modern agriculture, this paper describes, in some different way, the applications of molecular markers, transgenic engineering and gene’s information in agriculture. Some corresponding anticipations for their development prospects are also made.

How does digitalization affect agriculture?

Digitalization is fundamentally changing the way of the agricultural technologies and such new technologies help farmers, manufacturers, retailers, and customers in their daily activities. The development of digital technologies with the presence of information systems is essential in altering the mode of business processes. However, on the other hand, the differences between rural and urban technological facilities broadens due to a lack of information access. To bridge the rural and urban divide, technologies can play an important role among rural entrepreneurs. This chapter is an attempt to investigate the agricultural entrepreneurs or agripreneurs use of agricultural information systems to implement innovative approaches in dynamic market conditions.

What is DNA marker?

DNA marker is a powerful technique that can be used in plant cultivar identification. However, the prevailing situation is that DNA markers have not been readily and practically used in identification of plant cultivars due to the fact the DNA fingerprint analysis strategies failed in generating referable information for direct use. We have developed, a novel analysis approach called CID strategy that can make the utilization of DNA marker more practical and workable in separation of plant individuals. A cultivar-identification-diagram (CID) was designed whereby the polymorphic maker generated from each PCR directly provided for cultivar sample separation at each step. In this study, the CID strategy was employed for identification of important loose-skin mandarin cultivars cultivated in China, and all cultivars (44) were successfully separated with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker. A CID diagram showing the polymorphic bands for the identification of all cultivars was constructed. The utilization of the CID of these 44 loose-skin mandarin cultivars was also verified by identification of three randomly chosen groups of cultivars among the 44. This identification showed some advantages in that fewer primers were used, and all the cultivars could be identified by the corresponding primers marked in the right position on the CID. This loose-skin mandarin cultivar CID could provide information needed to identify any of these 44 loose-skin mandarin cultivars, and can definitely be of great help to the loose-skin mandarin industry in China.

What is CGR in agriculture?

Concerns about the genetic erosion of crop genetic resources (CGR) were first articulated by scientists in the mid-20th century and have since become an important part of national policies and international treaties. The C-8 (Plant Genetic Resources) section of the Crop Science Society of America (CSSA) was created in 1990 in response to these concerns. Over the last 50 yr, both ex situ and in situ conservation have been set up to maintain threatened CGR. During this period, a set of tools (core collections, molecular markers, and geographic information systems) has been adopted to facilitate con- servation and utilization by breeders. Current and future trends in- clude characterization of the genotypic basis of phenotypic variation and the evolutionary, ecological, and human factors that have shaped CGR. The intellectual property regime to which CGR are subjected since 1980 has limited the exchange of germplasm. It remains to be seen if these regimes will evolve so as to achieve basic goals of con- servation of genetic diversity and traditional knowledge associated with diversity, while at the same time reward breeders and farmers. Funding of biodiversity conservation remains a critical point. Finally, broadening the conservation circle to establish closer collaborations with grassroots conservation movements and community seed banks is necessary to better conserve the broad range of CGR and as an es- sential starting point for participatory breeding efforts.

How does biotechnology help the world?

Biotechnology is considered now as a key knowledge-based business that generates products and processes for the growing global needs . Biotechnology offers modern solutions for almost every aspect of human life: economic, social, health and environment. It promotes sustainable economic growth, increasing productivity and diversity and lowering by-products and wastes generation. Modern diagnostic approaches, therapeutic solutions, vaccines and other pharmaceutical products are generated by biotechnology. These achievements are intended to increase the survival rate and to lower the resources and pain associated with a non-suitable treatment. Biotechnology also offers solutions for producing food enriched with specific nutrients, with significant contribution to a proper human health condition and even to malnutrition. Microbial processes are successfully used for improving the environmental quality by biodegradation and bioremediation. Economic prosperity is expected in rural areas or in developing countries based on agriculture, as well as in developed economies where biotechnology engenders “high-tech” solutions.

What are the challenges of growing rice?

Increasing world population, shrinking cultivable rice (Oryza sativa L.) land area, water scarcity and excess, evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases, and climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders to increase production and productivity with multiple resistances to biotic and abiotic stresses.

Why are genes inserted into plants?

Also, the genes for an insecticide obtained from a bacterium have been inserted into plants to allow the plants to resist caterpillars and other pests. One of the first agricultural products of biotechnology was the rot-resistant tomato. This plant was altered by adding a gene that produces an antisense molecule.

How do plants insert genes?

The major method for inserting genes is through the plasmids of the bacterium called Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This bacterium invades plant cells, and its plasmids insert into plant chromosomes carrying the genes for tumor induction. Scientists remove the tumor-inducing genes and obtain a plasmid that unites with the plant cell without causing any harm.

Where do nitrogen fixation genes come from?

Scientists have obtained the genes for nitrogen fixation from bacteria and have incorporated those genes into plant cells. The plant cells can then perform a process that normally takes place only in bacteria.

What inhibits the rotting of tomatoes?

The antisense molecule inhibits the tomato from producing the enzyme that encourages rotting. Without this enzyme, the tomato can ripen longer on the vine. Previous Quiz Searching for DNA. Next Quiz DNA and Agriculture. Introduction to Biology.

How has yield increased in agriculture?

In recent years, these two components of yield improvement have become more intimately intertwined with inbuilt genetic traits delivered in the seed being able to replace some management inputs, particularly in pest control. Improvements in management have closed the gap between best farm yield and yield potential of the crop for a range of input regimes. In parallel, the average farm yields have approached best farm yields as a consequence of better extension services, accessible computer decision support tools and increased abilities of farmers to recognize and adopt best industry practice.

How to identify genes in plants?

The first step in identifying the function of a gene is to compare its nucleotide or amino acid sequence with all of the sequences in databases derived from the genomes of other organisms . A function may be assigned through similarity to other genes with known function, hence genomes can have usefulness across species or even across kingdoms in allowing us to specify function. Genome-wide mutagenesis using transposable elements such as Ac/Ds, Tos17 (an endogenous retrotransposon of rice) or T-DNA insertions has resulted in the production of populations consisting of many lines, where each line contains an insert in a single gene. Since the DNA sequence of the insert is known, it is simple to determine which gene has been disrupted by cloning the flanking sequence. There is a set of Arabidopsis lines containing inserts in approximately 80% of the genes and, in rice, a similar proportion are tagged; these lines are freely available ( and Hirochika et al. 2004 ). These tagged lines can be made homozygous and their phenotypes determined to associate a gene with a specific phenotype. The tagged genes can then become candidates for crop improvement either as DNA markers or directly in transgenic breeding.

Why are seeds important for animal nutrition?

Seeds are major sources of dietary protein for large vegetarian populations around the world and intensively farmed animals. However, the protein in seeds can have a skewed amino acid composition due to the high abundance of a limited number of individual seed storage proteins. Of the 20 protein amino acids, 10 are classified as ‘essential’ because they cannot be synthesized by animals, and consequently must be obtained from the diet. Insufficiency of certain essential amino acids can be a cause of malnutrition in countries that are dependent on a diet of low diversity and can limit the efficiency of animal production. Legume and cereal grains are particularly important for human and animal nutrition, but their seed protein is deficient in the essential amino acids methionine and lysine, respectively ( Tabe & Higgins 1998; Amir & Galili 2003 ). These deficiencies can be offset to some extent by combining the two types of seeds, but animal feeds are still supplemented with synthetic amino acids for optimal nutrition ( Habben & Larkins 1995 ). In developing countries, up to 90% of food intake can be derived from a single crop species, so amino acid balance of individual seeds becomes a critical consideration also for human nutrition.

How many genes are present in the genome of plants?

The ways in which plants develop and respond to the environment in order to produce an optimal yield of food or fibre is the result of the controlled expression of the approximately 30 000 genes that are present in the genome of all plants. The role of genomics is to define the function of these genes, determine how they are regulated and how their gene products interact. These findings can then be applied to crop improvement.

What is the role of microarrays in anaerobic response?

under anaerobic conditions genes can be chosen with a similar expression response pattern to alcohol dehydrogenase suggesting a similar involvement in the anaerobic response.

Why are seeds skewed?

However, the protein in seeds can have a skewed amino acid composition due to the high abundance of a limited number of individual seed storage proteins. Of the 20 protein amino acids, 10 are classified as ‘essential’ because they cannot be synthesized by animals, and consequently must be obtained from the diet.

Where did rust resistance genes come from?

The first rust resistance genes have been cloned from flax ( Lawrence et al. 1995) and more recently from cereals ( Collins et al. 1999; Brueggeman et al. 2002; Feuillet et al. 2003; Huang et al. 2003 ). Apart from providing the first insights into how rust resistance genes function, cloned genes will make a positive impact on plant breeding.

Why is recombinant DNA important?

Recombinant DNA techniques are so power full because of they provide the tools to study the genetics of the organism by isolating the DNA of virtually any gene. A particular gene can be isolated and produced in large quantities through cloning and its genetic information can be read by sequencing. The function of that gene can then be analyzed by using in vitro mutagenesis to make specific alteration in that information before re introducing the mutated DNA into the organism to determine the effects of the mutation. By the late 1970s as it became clear that those tools offered the fastest and surest route to understanding the molecular mechanisms of formerly intractable process such as development and cell division, they were seized eagerly by biologists in almost every field (Bhatnagar, R, 2006). A recombinant DNA technology can be complete and achieved with the help of some elemental tools. The different tools used for the purpose are discussed below

When was recombinant DNA first used?

The era of recombinant DNA began in the early 1970s, when researchers discovered that bacteria protect themselves from viral infection by producing enzymes that cut viral DNA at specific sites. Recombinant DNA technology is the technique used in genetic engineering that involves the identification, isolation and insertion of gene of interest into a vector such as

What is the host of DNA?

Host organism is the organism into which the recombinant DNA is introduce d. The host is the ultimate tool of recombinant DNA technology which takes in the vector engineered with the desired DNA by the help of the enzymes. There are a number of ways in which this recombinant DNAs are inserted into the host, namely – microinjection, biolistic or gene gun, alternate cooling and heating, use of calcium ions, etc.

What are vectors in recombinant DNA?

These form a very important part of the tools of recombinant DNA technology as they are the ultimate vehicles that carry forward the desired gene into the host organism. Plasmids and bacteriophages are the most common vectors in recombinant DNA technology that are used as they have very high copy number.

What enzymes are used to cut DNA?

The enzymes which include the restriction endonucleases – help to cut, the polymerases- help to synthesize and the ligases- help to bind. The restriction endonucleases used in recombinant DNA technology play a major role in determining the location at which the desired gene is inserted into the vector genome. They are of two types, namely endonucleases and exonucleases. The endonucleases cut within the DNA strand whereas the exonucleases cut the nucleotides from the ends of the DNA strands. The restriction endonucleases are sequence specific which is usually palindrome sequences and cut the DNA at specific points. They scrutinize the length of DNA and make the cut at the specific site called the restriction site. This gives rise to sticky ends in the sequence. The desired genes and the vectors are cut by the same restriction enzymes to obtain the complimentary sticky notes, thus making the work of the ligases easy to bind the desired gene to the vector.

What is gene therapy?

Gene therapy is an advanced technique with therapeutic potential in health services. The first successful report in field of gene therapy to treat

What is genetic engineering in agriculture?

Genetic engineering in Agriculture is the point where technology blends with nature to bring the best possible output. The process of genetic engineering alerts the structure of genes through the direct manipulation of an organism’s genetic material. DNA is either added or removed to produce multiple new traits, not found in that organism before.

How does DNA help produce better seeds?

Produce Improved Seeds: Altering seeds DNA can generate healthier crops by increasing resistance to insects and lowering the risk of crop failure as the seeds can resist extreme weather. It also provides a longer shelf life for safe and ensured transport of seeds to other countries. 4.

What is more resistant to diseases, GMOs or genetically modified animals?

This technology works like plant vaccine encoded in its gene instead of giving a shot given as to it is done in animals. Similarly, genetically modified animals can also within stand harsh climate and resistance against disease. 5.

Why is genetic engineering important?

Genetic engineering creates resistance against some pathogens for plants and animals. But the bacteria and viruses evolve to the resistance of GMO as well. This causes the stronger pathogens that are more resistant. This would potentially create future health concerns that were unforeseen.

Why do companies copyright genetic engineering?

Many companies copyright the genetic engineering processes to maintain their profitability. If a farmer plants GMO, the pollination can cause the crops to grow in another nearby field, legal actions against the “unauthorized” farmer can be produced. This can create several costly consequences.

Why are genetically modified plants important?

This is particularly important for developing countries where they have the least access to the needed resources.

Why is DNA added to an organism?

DNA is either added or removed to produce multiple new traits, not found in that organism before. Genetic material has been able to revolutionize agriculture in a way that could not take place by breeding naturally or natural recombination. Source.

About This Quiz & Worksheet

This quiz and corresponding worksheet will help you gauge your understanding of the many uses DNA technology has. Topics you’ll need to know to pass the quiz include understanding how DNA technology contributes to the agricultural industry as well as knowing the definition of DNA technology.

Additional Learning

To learn more about the ways DNA technology can be used, review the corresponding lesson on Practical Applications of DNA Technology. This lesson covers the following objectives:

How have technological innovations shaped agriculture?

Technological innovations have greatly shaped agriculture throughout time. From the creation of the plow to the global positioning system (GPS) driven precision farming equipment, humans have developed new ways to make farming more efficient and grow more food.

Why is agriculture high tech?

Farmers and others use science and technology to collect data, analyze efficiency, monitor growth and quality, and more to save money and get better yields.

What is a crop?

A crop is a plant or plant product that can be grown and harvested for profit or subsistence. By use, crops fall into six categories: food crops, feed crops, fiber crops, oil crops, ornamental crops, and industrial crops.

What is the purpose of irrigation?

To irrigate is to water crops by bringing in water from pipes, canals, sprinklers, or other man-made means, rather than relying on rainfall alone.

What is grain in agriculture?

Grain is the harvested seed of grasses such as wheat, oats, rice, and corn. Other important grains include sorghum, millet, rye, and barley.

How do students examine land use and soil quality?

Students examine land uses and soil quality through graphs of land use and crop production and use computational models to compare the effect of different management strategies on the land. At the end of the lesson, students are able to describe how humans can maintain and replenish important resources to be able to produce food long into the future.

What is the science of cultivating soil?

Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops and raising livestock.

Why do scientists use genetic engineering?

Modern technology now allows scientists to use genetic engineering to take just a beneficial gene, like insect resistance or drought tolerance, and transfer it into a plant. The reasons for genetic modification today are similar to what they were thousands of years ago: higher crop yields, less crop loss, longer storage life, better appearance, better nutrition, or some combination of these traits.

What is the purpose of the Agricultural Biotechnology Education and Outreach Initiative?

To help increase consumer understanding of GMOs, in 2017, Congress provided funding for an Agricultural Biotechnology Education and Outreach Initiative, which calls upon FDA to work with EPA and USDA to share science-based educational information about GMOs , beginning with answers to some basic GMO questions.

What makes it a GMO?

A GMO (genetically modified organism) is a plant, animal, or microorganism that has had its genetic material (DNA) changed using technology that generally involves the specific modification of DNA, including the transfer of specific DNA from one organism to another. Scientists often refer to this process as genetic engineering.

What GMO crops are out there?

Only a few types of GMO crops are grown in the United States, but some of these GMOs make up a large percentage of the crop grown (e.g., soybeans, corn, sugar beets, canola, and cotton).

Why do we have GMOs?

Humans have used traditional ways to modify crops and animals to suit their needs and tastes for more than 10,000 years. Cross-breeding, selective breeding, and mutation breeding are examples of traditional ways to make these changes. These breeding methods often involve mixing all of the genes from two different sources. They are used to create common crops like modern corn varieties and seedless watermelon.

Why are GMOs safe?

Some GMO plants contain plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs) to make them resistant to insects, reducing the need for and use of many spray pesticides. As another safety measure, EPA works with developers and scientists to help develop GMOs that will resist insects for as long as possible through their Insect Resistance Management program. Other GMO plants are developed to tolerate certain weed killers, which allows farmers a wide variety of options for weed control. Some people are concerned that farmers who grow these GMOs will use more weed killer. While this is sometimes the case, EPA regulates the safety of all weed killers that farmers use on GMO crops and non-GMO crops alike. EPA also shares information to help farmers who are concerned about weeds developing resistance to weed killers.

What are GMOs used for?

They are also used to make ingredients that are then used in food products like cereal, snack chips, and vegetable oils. Even though you won’t find many GMO fruits or vegetables in the produce section of your grocery store, GMOs are a common part of today’s food supply.

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