How does drought affect agriculture


Here are just a few different examples of economic impacts:

  • Farmers may lose money if a drought destroys their crops.
  • If a farmer’s water supply is too low, the farmer may have to spend more money on irrigation or to drill new wells.
  • Ranchers may have to spend more money on feed and water for their animals.

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Drought can stunt the growth of crops, resulting in a decline in the size and quality of produce. Consumers may expect to see higher prices for local food as farmers cope with lower yields and higher expenses. Limited water availability for washing produce may lead to sanitation and health issues for consumers.


How does drought influence farming?

Agriculture. Drought can reduce both water availability and water quality necessary for productive farms, ranches, and grazing lands, resulting in significant negative direct and indirect economic impacts to the agricultural sector. Drought can also contribute to insect outbreaks, increases in wildfire and altered rates of carbon, nutrient, and water cycling—all of which can impact …

How does drought affect farmers?

Due to drought, a drop in agricultural activities in the country means the sector contributes less to the country’s GDP. Considering the agricultural value chain, downstream input suppliers will be affected in terms of sales, while upstream agro processors will also be faced with limited supply of produce, which is then costly due to shortages.

How does the drought affect our farmers, prices?

Drought can also exacerbate social tensions and fuel civil unrest. Agriculture bears much of the impact, and in developing countries it is the most affected sector, absorbing up to 80 percent of all direct impacts, with multiple effects on water availability, agricultural production, food security and rural livelihoods.

How does drought affect agricultural in Surance policies?

Drought can contribute to insect and plant disease outbreaks that stress vegetation. Drought also increases the risks of wind erosion and wildfire, which can impact the health of agricultural …


How does drought affect plants?

Drought stress in plants is characterized by reduced leaf water potential and turgor pressure, stomatal closure, and decreased cell growth and enlargement (Farooq et al., 2009b).

What are effects of droughts?

Drought can also cause long-term public health problems, including: Shortages of drinking water and poor quality drinking water. Impacts on air quality, sanitation and hygiene, and food and nutrition. More disease, such as West Nile Virus carried by mosquitoes breeding in stagnant water.

What are the effects of drought on the land?

Immediate drought impacts can include visibly dry vegetation and lower water levels in lakes and reservoirs. Longer-term impacts, such as land subsidence, seawater intrusion, and damage to ecosystems, can be harder to see, but more costly to manage in the future.

What is drought in agriculture?

Abstract. An agricultural drought is considered to have set in when the soil moisture availability to plants has dropped to such a level that it adversely affects the crop yield and hence agricultural profitability.

How does drought affect soil?

This water stress can affect soil chemical, physical, and biological activities that are essential for plant and soil health. One of the obvious effects of drought on soil health is the lack of nutrient uptake by crops, as water is the major medium for moving nutrients into plants as a result of water uptake.

How can drought affect the farms and the farmers?

In most countries, agricultural production relies highly on weather conditions and water availability. As drought impacts livestock, it can result in poor productivity, decreased fertility, poor animal health and a rise in livestock mortality [4].

How does drought affect agriculture in South Africa?

According to a study, drought reduced agricultural productivity in South Africa by 8.4% in 2015. The livestock industry, for example, had a 15% drop in national herd stock as a result of the drought (Matlou et al., 2021).

How do droughts affect the ecosystem?

Drought Impacts on Ecosystems It encompasses and emphasizes the environmental consequences of drought, which include losses in plant growth; increases in fire and insect outbreaks; altered rates of carbon, nutrient, and water cycling; and local species extinctions.

What are the effects and causes of drought?

When rainfall is less than normal for a period of weeks to years, streamflows decline, water levels in lakes and reservoirs fall, and the depth to water in wells increases. If dry weather persists and water-supply problems develop, the dry period can become a drought.

What are 5 causes of drought?

Various Causes of DroughtNatural causes.Altered weather patterns.Excess water demands.Deforestation and soil degradation.Global warming.Climate change.Hunger and famine.Not enough drinking water.More items…

What are the effects of drought and desertification?

CONSEQUENCES OF DESERTIFICATION Loss of biodiversity by worsening the living conditions of many species. Food insecurity due to crop failure or reduced yields. The loss of vegetation cover and therefore of food for livestock and humans. Increased risk of zoonotic diseases, such as COVID-19.

What are the effects of drought in India?

The drought in India has even led to increased suicide rates among crop growers. Additionally, the heat wave and drought impact the ability of Indian children to attend school. Schools in some areas have been shut down due to excessive heat and lack of water.

How does drought affect agriculture?

Drought has a great impact on different sectors, depending on how much water is used. For agriculture, the effects are dire as the sector uses about 60% of water resources for irrigation while the secondary and tertiary agricultural sector also requires considerable amounts of water to operate. Depending on how often drought occurs …

What are the effects of drought?

In extreme situations, the effects of drought can easy lead a farming business to close shop. Due to drought, a drop in agricultural activities in the country means the sector contributes less to the country’s GDP.

How can South African agriculture survive drought?

For South African agriculture to survive the adverse effects of drought, the government needs to be deliberate in their financial planning regarding support and the investment towards the sector in terms of mitigation strategies as well as coping mechanisms, especially for the developing farmers who have everything to lose with just one season of drought.

How can we reduce the effects of drought?

More investment into research that will identify drought resistant cultivars as well livestock breeds that will assist producers to reduce the effects of drought. There should be intensive research towards more technological advancements that will assist producers to use water in a more cautious way, e.g. conservation agriculture for grain producers and the use of hydroponic systems for vegetable producers.

How does drought affect food security?

Overall, the country’s food security is at risk, because this means not everyone will have reliable access to a sufficient quantity of affordable, nutritious food.

What is drought funding?

Establishment of national or provincial drought funds in the form of grants so that producers in drought-affected areas can be covered.

How does drought affect agriculture?

With nearly 1.3 billion people – 40 percent of the world – relying on agriculture as the main source of income, drought is putting the livelihood of many at risk, often halting and reversing gains in food security and poverty reduction and hampering efforts to reach SDG1 and SDG2.

How does drought affect the economy?

Severe drought episodes have a dire impact on the socio-economic sector and the environment and can lead to massive famines and migration, natural resource degradation, and weak economic performance. Drought can also exacerbate social tensions and fuel civil unrest.

What is the purpose of the drought seminar?

The main objective of the Seminar was to stimulate an innovative debate on drought management trends and practices, by promoting proactive, integrated actions and engaging actors within and beyond the drought community. To this purpose the morning High-Level as well as the technical sessions emphasized the importance of a paradigm shifting from drought immediate response to medium- and long-term preparedness. The Seminar highlighted existing best practices drawn from different contexts, drove the sharing of knowledge and fostered the implementation of integrated, holistic drought interventions. The event was organized under the Global Framework on Water Scarcity in Agriculture, a new partnership initiative launched by FAO at UNFCCC CoP 22 in Morocco in 2016, and saw the participation of worldwide representatives.

Where was the FAO seminar on drought?

The proposal was well accepted and the event took place at FAO Headquarter in Rome on 19th June 2017.

What is the FAO’s program?

FAO’s programme on proactive drought risk management cuts across the Organization’s technical and cooperation departments and involves strong partnerships with specialized organizations and research centres beyond FAO. Collaborating partners include the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the Secretariat of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) and UN-Water, as well as the Robert B. Daugherty Water for Food Institute and the National Drought Mitigation Center at the University of Lincoln-Nebraska, United States of America. The programme also coordinates with several national research centres and regional networks concerned with drought issues.

What is drought and agriculture forum?

Hosting the Drought & Agriculture Forum, a common learning, sharing and planning platform on best practices in drought management to enable the design of multi-sectoral initiatives that benefit all stakeholders.

What is the FAO’s strategic objective?

FAO is firmly committed to build on the momentum provided by the SDGs, the Paris Climate Agreement, and recent efforts by other international actors to support the creation of national drought management policies and the shift to a proactive drought management approach, which is at the heart of FAO’s Strategic Objective of increasing the resilience of livelihoods to threats and crises.

How does drought affect agriculture?

Agriculture. Agricultural drought results from below-normal precipitation and/or above-normal temperatures/wind that evaporate moisture from soils and plants. The location, extent, and severity of drought impacts to agriculture depend on underlying social and ecosystem vulnerabilities, access to irrigation, types of crops grown, and other factors.

What are the crops that are affected by drought?

Department of Agriculture produces weekly maps and charts displaying locations and percentages of drought-affected areas corn, soybeans, hay, cattle, and winter wheat.

What is the National Agricultural Statistics Service?

The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) conducts hundreds of surveys each year and a Census of Agriculture every 5 years. NASS prepares reports covering virtually every aspect of U.S. agriculture, including agricultural commodities statistics for crops and livestock.

What is the CMI in agriculture?

The Crop Moisture Index (CMI) gives the short-term or current status of purely agricultural drought or moisture surplus and can change rapidly from week to week. The CMI can be used to measure the status of dryness or wetness affecting warm season crops. Learn more.

How does drought affect agriculture?

Below-average precipitation along with diminished surface water and groundwater supplies can reduce crop yields and affect irrigation and livestock watering. Above-average temperatures, which are also associated with droughts, can impose additional stress on crops and animals. These hydrologic and biophysical impacts, in turn, can lead to decreases in crop and livestock sales, increases in production costs, or both . Crop and animal scientists have studied the biophysical impacts of drought on crops for many years. Yet only a few studies estimate the economic cost of droughts to the agricultural sector—which is especially important as societies try to understand and account for the expected damages from climate change. To help fill this gap, researchers from RFF, the University of New Mexico, and Johns Hopkins University recently looked at how much crop yield is reduced by “incremental drought,” or an additional week of drought in any given year.

What are the impacts of droughts on crops?

These hydrologic and biophysical impacts, in turn, can lead to decreases in cro p and livestock sales, increases in production costs , or both. Crop and animal scientists have studied the biophysical impacts …

Why are livestock production systems vulnerable to changes in the availability of feed grain, pastures, and forage crops?

Livestock production systems are vulnerable to changes in the availability of feed grain, pastures, and forage crops, to declines in animal health due to temperature stresses and lack of watering, and to shifts in disease and pest distributions.

How much does drought affect crop yield?

We found that each additional week of drought in non-irrigated counties is associated with crop yield reductions in the range of 0.1 to 1.2 percent, on average. While this may seem like a small impact, one should keep in mind that these crop yield reductions are for one week of drought, and since most drought events last several weeks, the impacts can add up. Impacts in irrigated counties are smaller in magnitude, ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 percent for each additional week of drought. A focus on specific regions of the country found highly variable results. Some regions experience no yield impacts from drought, while yield reductions in non-irrigated counties in the Midwest are as high as 8.0 percent for corn and 3.1 percent for soybeans for every additional week of exceptional drought.

What is the US drought index?

In the United States, the drought index most often used by policymakers is the US Drought Monitor (USDM), a weekly map that indicates which regions of the country are currently in drought, as well as the intensity of those droughts (Figure 1). Drought areas are classified into one of five intensity classes, termed “abnormally dry,” “moderate …

What is the US Department of Agriculture?

The US Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Internal Revenue Service and state government agencies are among those that use the USDM, primarily for programs related to the agricultural sector. Some of these programs can be quite large in financial terms.

How much does drought cost the US?

Droughts are among the costliest natural disasters, with average annual losses in the United States estimated in the range of $10 to $14 billion (in 2018 dollars). And these negative impacts are likely to increase in magnitude in the future as droughts become more frequent and severe with …

What crops were affected by the drought?

Supply of crops, such as grass and alfalfa hays, actually increased during the drought, causing a surplus that resulted in lower demand. From 2015 to 2016 hay prices were very low, with lower quality hays selling for $80 to $100 less per ton than high-quality hays. With hay prices being closely linked to the dairy industry and dairy prices currently lower than normal, it’s easy to see the circular effect of the drought on agriculture.

How long has the drought been on the West Coast?

The west coast drought has raged on for six long years. During that time California’s agriculture sector has experienced major surface water obstacles, including reservoirs that in many cases have been completely drained.

Why are dairy prices dropping in California?

Dropping prices are an indirect result of the drought. The good news for California producers is that dairy prices should begin climbing again with the drop of hay and alfalfa prices over the last year and a half. Cheaper hay means more livestock feed and healthy production levels.

What is the largest agricultural product in California?

Livestock, dairy, and poultry comprise approximately one-quarter of California’s entire agricultural output. Even though they are the largest producer of dairy products in the nation, California dairy producers have received lower prices for their dairy export since 2014. Prices dropped by 30% in 2015 alone.

What industry did California experience record high crop revenue and employment in during the drought?

California experienced record-high crop revenue and employment in the agriculture industry during the drought

Does drought affect agriculture?

While the drought has forced a decline in acreage that is harvested, especially where it concerns fallow crops such as beets, cotton, and alfalfa, surprisingly it did not negatively affect crop size.

Is California in a drought?

Since 2012, California has battled abnormally low rainfall, high temperatures, and radiating sun which has sapped the ground of all surface moisture. Approximately 50% of the state is experiencing some form of drought, with a large portion facing moderate, severe, and extreme drought.

What are the effects of droughts?

An increase in the frequency, intensity, and duration of droughts will in evitably contribute to innumerable health issues, which will inevitably alter the quality of life in affected individuals, loss of income, reduced access to alternative income sources, increased workload demands, and a lack of educational access.

Why are there droughts in rivers?

Global warming and increasing climate variability have caused a greater number of droughts to arise in many rivers around the world, particularly those that exist at intermediate and high latitudes. As temperatures continue to rise, researchers predict that more frequent, severe droughts will occur for longer durations.

How much does a drought cost?

In the United States, droughts are the most expensive natural hazard after tropical storms, averaging at an economic cost of approximately $9.4 billion, with damage costs that can reach up to $43 billion.

What are the different types of droughts?

Droughts can be broadly classified into four different types, which include meteorological, agricultural, hydrological, and socioeconomic droughts. Meteorological drought is defined as a significant reduction and/or absence of precipitation, whereas an agricultural drought is defined as a complete reduction in soil moisture. Hydrological droughts occur when there is a deficit in runoff, groundwater, and/or total water storage.

What is ALC in agriculture?

Agricultural land conversion (ALC) is the conversion of land that was previously used for agricultural purposes to urban land. One of the most significant drivers of ALC is population growth to accommodate the continuously rising world population.

Why do severe droughts need action?

Severe Droughts Require Action to Avoid a Food Crisis. Water scarcity affects billions of people, not only in the southern hemisphere but also increasingly in Europe and North America. It is one of the major challenges we face around the globe that is steadily exacerbating – threatening agriculture and our food already today.

How can agriculture help the climate?

Agriculture is not simply a contributor to and victim of climate change, it has the potential to help solve the climate crisis through the widespread adoption of climate-smart practices that not only reduce emissions, but also remove carbon from the atmosphere.

Why is technology important in agriculture?

Suhas Wani agrees that technology is a key factor to increase and secure agricultural productivity de spite climate change: “We need seeds that are more resilient against high temperatures, emerging pests, diseases and droughts as well as varieties that need less time for cultivation as seasons shorten.”

How can agriculture reduce water use?

A combination of practices such as drip irrigation, integrated weed management, and reduced tillage can contribute to higher water retention in the field allowing for more water availability for the crop.

What crops are under pressure in Europe?

The European Environmental Agency EEA expects that droughts and water scarcity will aggravate during the remainder of the century and states in a report that the changing climatic conditions are already putting cultivation in Europe under pressure, especially for Mediterranean crops such as olives and grapes.

How much did the 2015 drought cost California?

Livelihoods are also affected in more developed regions. In California alone, the 2015 drought that Marci recalls resulted in $1.84 billion in direct costs and a loss of over 10,000 seasonal jobs . The state is facing yet another hot, dry summer and is experiencing severe drought these days.

How does drip irrigation work?

Drip irrigation systems distribute water through a network of valves, pipes and tubes, bringing it directly to the plants’ roots and avoiding evaporation. They can reduce water consumption by up to 60 percent. Tillage, in turn, leads to more evaporation and lets more soil dry out at the surface, which is why less tillage saves water. As weeds can thrive with no tillage, this practice has to be combined with proper weed management measures.

How does drought affect crops?

Effects of Drought on Crops. Prolonged reduction of ground-water supplies can have a devastating effect on a farmer’s crop yields. If a drought occurs soon after seeding, plants may fail to germinate; and during the later stages of development, a drought can cause entire crops to wither. However, as long as there is sufficient moisture in …

What causes drought?

Drought is a temporary and natural climate feature caused by a significant decrease in precipitation over a prolonged period. Human activities, such as ground clearance and changes in land use, can exacerbate drought situations. Farmers are usually the first to be affected by drought because of their dependence on stored soil water, …

What changes can be made to conserve soil moisture?

Other possible changes that conserve soil moisture include the use of mulches and amendments and planting cover crops in the winter. As drought continues, farmers are also motivated to switch to drought-resistant crops such as sorghum. References. NSW Government: Cattle – Drought Management.

How do farmers manage water resources?

In time of drought, water shortages and economic restraints often drive farmers to improve their stewardship of water resources. For example, they use more efficient watering methods, such as drip irrigation. They schedule their watering based on actual crop needs by monitoring the soil and weather forecasts carefully. They use recycled water — for example, treated city waste water. Other possible changes that conserve soil moisture include the use of mulches and amendments and planting cover crops in the winter. As drought continues, farmers are also motivated to switch to drought-resistant crops such as sorghum.

Why does drought increase the risk of fire on a farm?

Drought greatly increases the risk of fire on a farm because the fields become so dry that they easily ignite, and fire can spread quickly. The dryness of the land also leads to soil erosion.

Why are hay fields dangerous?

Taglass/iStock/Getty Images. Drought conditions can make grazing lands and hay fields hazardous for livestock, since lack of water causes increased concentrations of nitrates and prussic acid. Even if the animals are not directly affected, these chemicals contaminate their meat and milk. If livestock cannot graze, they eventually become infertile, …

What happens if livestock cannot graze?

If livestock cannot graze, they eventually become infertile, and their milk will dry up. Their physical condition will deteriorate, until finally they become so weak that they may die. The farmer’s only options are to sell the stock at a low price or to buy feed, which is expensive.


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