How does industrialized agriculture reduce food insecurity

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On one hand, some advocates believe that industrial crops reduce food insecurity by creating additional income, creating employment opportunity and through overflow of agricultural inputs and technologies for the food crop production.

Standardization allowed control or management of the production process to be consolidated into few larger farming operations, meaning fewer farm managers. This is the process by which industrialization achieves economies of scale, allowing fewer farmers on larger farms to produce more food.

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Answer

Is urban agriculture the answer to food insecurity?

Although urban agriculture has promise, a small proportion of the food produced in cities is consumed by food-insecure, low-income communities. Many of the most vulnerable people have little access to land and lack the skills needed to design and tend productive gardens.

How can we solve the problem of food insecurity?

Food insecurity is costly, has wide-reaching consequences, and its effects extend beyond vulnerable populations. The two main ways of addressing food security in developed countries continue to be measures to respond to poverty including welfare entitlements and food relief [2].

What is industrial agriculture and why is it bad?

What Is Industrial Agriculture? Industrial agriculture is the large-scale, intensive production of crops and animals, often involving chemical fertilizers on crops or the routine, harmful use of antibiotics in animals (as a way to compensate for filthy conditions, even when the animals are not sick).

What is the economic cost of food insecurity in developing countries?

Countries with high levels of food security benefit socially, economically, environmentally, and politically. The economic cost of food insecurity is not routinely reported in developed nations however estimates to date suggest they are substantial.

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How can sustainable farming help food insecurity?

By giving individuals the resources they need to be able to grow enough food for their families, it will slowly grow into reducing community and state hunger by first eliminating household starvation.


What are some benefits of industrial agriculture?

The Pros and Cons of Industrial AgricultureIt increases food production. … It lowers consumer costs. … It encourages technological development and innovation. … It creates employment opportunities. … It lengthens food availability.


Does agriculture increase food security?

Growth in the agriculture sector — from farm to fork — has been shown to be at least twice as effective in reducing poverty as growth in other sectors. Investing in these smallholder farmers—many of whom are women—and the food systems that nourish them is more important than ever.


How is food insecurity reduced?

Giving more people benefits through nutrition assistance programs, increasing benefit amounts, and addressing unemployment may help reduce food insecurity and hunger.


What are the impacts of industrialized agriculture?

Industrial agriculture pollutes the air, water, and soil with toxic agrochemicals and livestock manure. It is a major source of pollution, accounting for more than twenty-percent of total greenhouse gas emissions even more than transportation.


What is the major goal of industrialized agriculture?

The major goal of industrialized agriculture for any crop has been to steadily increase its yield—the amount of food produced per unit of land.


What is the role of agriculture in food and nutrition security?

Physical and economic access to adequate and affordable nutritious food is primarily a function of the agriculture sector, through support to increased production, improved post-harvest storage and processing (including food safety issues such as aflatoxin control), and reduced transport costs which can lower food …


How the development of agriculture contribute to food security and nutrition?

Agricultural development is critically important to improving food security and nutrition. Its roles include: increasing the quantity and diversity of food; driving economic transformation; and providing the primary source of income for many of the world’s poorest people.


How does agricultural research help reduce hunger and poverty?

Agricultural research works even without other investments, but also makes other investments more attractive. Agricultural research offers a lower-cost approach to poverty reduction because it leverages farmers’ own labor and land and attracts additional private investment.


How can developing countries improve food security?

10 ideas to boost global food securityMake better use of data. © Tim Scrivener. … Start a “Love your ugly fruit and veg” campaign. … Educate consumers. … Train farmers to make most of new technology. … Create more efficient food chains. … Adopt more integrated growing practices. … Invest in skills and training of women. … Cookery lessons.More items…•


What else can be done to improve food security?

Building Local Capacity, Increasing Productivity, and Improving Markets and TradeTraining small farmers and foreign officials on plant and animal health systems, risk analysis, and avoiding post harvest loss;Completing assessments on climate change;Increasing agricultural productivity.


What steps would be taken to ensure food security?

5 steps we all must take to ensure food safetyEnsure food is safe. National governments are critical in guaranteeing food is safe and nutritious for all. … Grow food safely. … Keep food safe. … Check that food is safe. … Team up for safety.


How does USAID help with food security?

USAID is advancing global food security by helping families and individuals meet their need for a reliable source of quality food and sufficient resources to produce or purchase it.


What is food security?

Food security means having, at all times, both physical and economic access to sufficient food to meet dietary needs for a productive and healthy life. A family is food secure when its members do not live in hunger or fear of hunger. Food insecurity is often rooted in poverty and has long-term impacts on the ability of families, …


What is the Global Food Security Act?

The enactment of the Global Food Security Act of 2016 and the Global Food Security Reauthorization Act of 2018 solidified the U.S. Government’s continued, bipartisan commitment to reducing hunger, malnutrition and poverty around the world. As part of this effort, USAID is scaling up a comprehensive approach to fighting hunger …


How does undernourishment affect people?

Prolonged undernourishment stunts growth, slows cognitive development and increases susceptibility to illness. Today, more than 800 million people across the globe go to bed hungry every night, most of them smallholder farmers who depend on agriculture to make a living and feed their families.


What is Feed the Future?

Leading America’s Feed the Future initiative to strengthen agriculture-led growth, nutrition and resilience in collaboration with multiple U.S. Government agencies and departments, the private sector, civil society, researchers and universities, and partner governments.


What are the benefits of USAID?

USAID’s programs draw on America’s strength in agriculture and bring benefits back to America as well. For example, USAID’s research investments have helped farmers abroad and in the United States protect their harvests from pests and disease.


How does food insecurity affect the US?

Food insecurity across the US population is associated with a decline in household food supplies, less frequent fruit and vegetable consumption, higher levels of unemployment, increased participation in food assistance programs, and increased levels of eating disorders. According to Kaiser et al. (2003), food insecurity can be viewed as a continuum with varying degrees of severity dependent on the level of hunger experienced within the household. Food insecure without hunger is the least severe and constitutes families that worry about running out of food, and that will adjust purchasing behavior or consumption to affect the quality of the food supply. Moderate levels of food insecurity can be seen in families where parents or adults may experience hunger, while kids maintain nutritionally adequate diets. At the most severe level, all members of a household experience hunger for extended periods of time.


What is food insecurity?

Food insecurity has been defined as the “limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways.”.


What is Snap program?

SNAP is the largest program in the country for hunger relief services. The Food and Nutrition Service department of the US Department of Agriculture works with state agencies and organizations to ensure eligible individuals receive nutrition assistance. SNAP, formerly known as the Food Stamp Program, has been promoted in the US since the 1930’s. …


How long has the food stamp program been in place?

SNAP, formerly known as the Food Stamp Program, has been promoted in the US since the 1930’s. According to the USDA, participation in SNAP for 6 months was correlated to a 10% decrease in levels of food insecurity, and SNAP is estimated to assist transitioning more than 5 million Americans out of poverty each year.


What is NPI in agriculture?

The Nutrition Policy Institute (NPI) is a research-oriented sector of the UC Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources and focuses on the impact of nutrition and physical activity. The institute brings together experts who are working towards “a world where healthy food, beverages and opportunities for physical activity are convenient, accessible, affordable and sustainable”.


Is food insecurity a health problem?

Food insecurity has been directly linked to poorer physical and mental health, as well as to an increased risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and hyper tension. Statistically, food insecure women are more likely to be overweight and obese, while childhood food insecurity has been associated with poor academic performance. Sustainable food systems afford all individuals and households consistent access to quality foods, in sufficient quantities to meet daily nutritional needs.


How Innovations in Agtech Can Help Reduce Food Insecurity and Avoid Potential Distribution Issues

As the planet’s population grows, it will become more difficult to ensure that everyone has all the food they need to survive. Food insecurity is something that affects more than 38 million Americans every year.


The Push Toward Precision Agriculture

Agriculture has changed a lot in the last couple of centuries. We’ve upgraded from hand tools and livestock-drawn equipment to power tools and diesel-powered machinery, but there are still many variables that farmers can modify and control in order to ensure they make the most of their fields and improve their harvest yields.


The Rise of Crop Treatment Drones

Drones are becoming such an important part of the agricultural experience that it’s worth mentioning them twice. Using these devices for crop treatment can help combat food insecurity in several ways.


Incorporating Blockchain in Agriculture

Blockchain is something that is usually associated with cryptocurrency, but at its core, it’s a secure system for record-keeping that can be updated in real-time. Data is recorded, permanently, once it is entered into the database.


Improving Agricultural Sustainability

Sustainability is a hot-button issue for most industries, but reducing waste and shrinking the agriculture industry’s carbon footprint can also help improve food security. Many armchair environmentalists may look down on the use of pesticides and other chemicals in farming.


The Agricultural Internet of Things

The Internet of Things is a broad umbrella term for a growing collection of networked devices designed to collect information, carry out tasks, and help make life easier.


AI and Farming

This is just a sampling of the innovations in the agtech industry. With a growing population and the problem of food scarcity looming, farmers need all the help they can get.


What is the escalating crisis of food prices and food insecurity?

The escalating crisis of volatile food prices and food insecurity is the result of an industrial development model based on large-scale, export-orientated agriculture tied to international competition, self interest and stock market speculation. With over a billion people going hungry each day despite a huge surplus of food production, a reorientation towards more localised, smaller scale and sustainable agriculture is urgently required. Below is a brief overview, some key facts and further resources that relate to the many complex issues around food security and agriculture.


What is food security?

The concept of food security for all people, or the state of physical and economic access to safe and nutritious sustenance, has remained a pledged but distant goal of governments since the late 1970s. In 1996 the World Food Summit renewed a global commitment to reducing by half the ‘proportion’ of people experiencing hunger by 2015, followed up by the Millennium Declaration of 2000 which applied the same target to the ‘number’ of chronically hungry people. Despite enshrining food as a universal human right in 1948, the international community continues to fail in its modest promises; by 2005, the extent of hunger was increasing at 4 million people a year, and current prospects for the Millennium Development Goal on hunger remains pessimistic. Meanwhile, as a global food crisis deepens with the escalating price of staples causing widespread riots in developing countries, world leaders are being forced to seriously re-examine the international approach to food distribution.


What is food justice?

Another key issue in a cause commonly termed ‘food justice’ is the patenting of life forms under WTO agreements. Academic activists such as Vandana Shiva have catalogued in detail how the ‘biopiracy’ of turning basic agriculture products into corporate property has devastated the livelihoods of indigenous communities and countless farmers in the developing world. Many critics have described how the so-called Green Revolution from the 1970s, which transformed agricultural productivity with the use of fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation and technology, effectively deepened the divide between rich and poor by empowering large agri-businesses and leading to the loss of biodiversity and the nutritional value of foods.


How many people are suffering from hunger?

Of more than 800 million people currently suffering from chronic hunger, around 75 percent live in rural areas, with half of them living as smallholder farmers on limited areas of land. Research makes clear that hunger is not caused by food shortage or scarcity, but by the inequitable distribution of food, land and other productive resources. An analysis of food insecurity therefore demands an analysis of the current neoliberal approach to international development, or the longstanding conflict in philosophies between the presiding belief in large-scale, export-orientated agricultural markets, versus an alternative model that prioritizes local ownership of production and pro-poor policies for rural communities.


Why is urban agriculture important?

Many organizations see urban agriculture as a way to enhance food security. It also offers environmental, health, and social benefits.


What are the benefits of urban agriculture?

Although the full potential of urban agriculture is still to be determined, based on my own research, I believe that raising fresh fruits, vegetables, and some animal products near consumers in urban areas can improve local food security and nutrition, especially for underserved communities.


What are the challenges for urban farmers in California?

The biggest challenge is access to land.


How much produce does Cuba produce?

Most Cuban urban farmers reach yields of 44 pounds (20 kilograms) per square meter per year.


What are some ways to help people with food stamps?

Backyard gardens, school gardens, community gardens, rezoning, neighborhood farmer’s markets, Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) programs, and efforts, such as Wholesome Wave (which doubles the value of “food stamp” dollars when used to buy fruits and vegetables) can all help. So can consumers buying locally sourced foods and investing in the local economy.


What is the biggest challenge for urban farmers?

The biggest challenge is access to land . University of California researchers estimate that over 79% of the state’s urban farmers do not own the property that they farm.


How much of the world’s food demand is urban agriculture?

Although it has been estimated that urban agriculture can meet 15 to 20% of global food demand, it remains to be seen what level of food self-sufficiency it can realistically ensure for cities.


Who pays for environmental impacts of food production?

e. environmental impacts of food production are paid for by the government


Why does beef require less grain per pound than other meats?

a. a low environmental cost and beef require less grain per pound than other meats


What do consumers choose to eat?

a. consumers choose to eat fish species that eat algae and other vegetation


What is industrial agriculture?

Industrial agriculture is the large-scale, intensive production of crops and animals, often involving chemical fertilizers on crops or the routine , harmful use of antibiotics in animals (as a way to compensate for filthy conditions, even when the animals are not sick). It may also involve crops that are genetically modified, …


Why do industrial farms use antibiotics?

Industrial farms overuse antibiotics, feeding large amounts of the drugs—often the same ones used to treat human illnesses—to healthy animals to help them survive in crowded, dirty CAFOs. Low-level exposure to antibiotics creates the perfect breeding ground for superbugs, those pathogens that antibiotics can’t kill.


Why is monoculture bad for the soil?

Monoculture also renders the soil prone to rapid erosion, since the practice leaves the soil bare outside of the crop’s growing season. Perhaps more problematically, repeatedly planting the same crop invites pests that prey on a certain plant to wait around the same spot for their favorite food to return.


What are conventional farmers left to do to avoid pests?

What are conventional farmers left to do to avoid pests? Apply pesticides. That’s why monoculture and genetic modification tend to go hand in hand. Planting pesticide-tolerant GMO crops enables farmers to blanket the landscape with chemicals without damaging their corn or soy. (Speaking of corn and soy, many U.S. farmers rotate their fields back and forth between those two crops, leading to a duoculture that’s only slightly less damaging to the soil than a monoculture.)


How do giant farms affect the environment?

Giant farms—whether growing crops or animals—often rely heavily on chemicals and produce waste that pollutes the water and air. As a result, the system we’ve designed to feed the planet also takes a serious toll on its health.


How is genetic modification done?

Modern genetic modification is done in laboratories. Scientists start by identifying candidate genes for desired traits, like resistance to drought or heat. The gene doesn’t have to come from a plant. Researchers can implant a gene from a fungus, bacterium, or animal.


What is a factory farm?

The term “factory farm” is commonly used to refer to large, industrialized facilities raising animals for food, but it isn’t a legal or scientific term. The official name for these facilities is concentrated animal feeding operations, or CAFOs.


How do developed countries respond to food insecurity?

Most developed countries respond to food insecurity through the provision of food assistance delivered by the voluntary sector, with very limited government support [31]. Addressing the social determinants of food insecurity is the exception, for example, Norway’s political agenda focuses on agricultural support, food pricing regulation, and universal social security [2]. Food assistance is usually in the form of food banks, pantries, parcels, and soup kitchens delivered by the voluntary or charitable sector. The US has embedded government funded food assistance programs: the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) of the Food Stamp Act of 1964, provided ~14% of Americans support for household food purchases at a cost of an estimated A$70 billion annually in 2018 [32]; the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) serves 7 million participants a month at a cost of A$5.95 billion in 2016 [33].


Why is food insecurity bad?

The experience of being food insecure and seeking food assistance in rich countries can have negative impacts on the individual as it is traumatic, stressful, and detrimental to one’s health and wellbeing [39,40]. In all societies, “to be mentally healthy you must value and respect yourself”p. 65 [41]. People who use food assistance in rich countries say they experience stigma, shame, and hopelessness [35,42,43,44,45]. Shame is a powerful emotion related to feeling foolish, stupid, ridiculous, inadequate, defective, incompetent, awkward, exposed, vulnerable, and insecure, based on seeing oneself negatively in the eyes of the other [46]. It is the inequality within rich countries that fosters feelings of inferiority, even before needing to seek food assistance. Independence is a core value in Western culture, people who need help to meet a basic need, such as food, are viewed as dependent and dependency is humiliating [47]. This is understandable as needing food assistance and the ways it is currently delivered is not considered socially acceptable, nor should it be in a wealthy country [48]. Another concern is that food banks and pantries strongly influence user’s diets, yet are unable to support an adequate dietary intake [49,50]. Trying to address household food insecurity with community-based food interventions is not effective when solutions likely lie upstream in social protection policies [1].


What are the actions of food and nutrition?

Promising actions include: subsidies and price promotions on healthy food to ensure its affordability, for example, the Australian exemption of healthy basic foods from the Goods and Services Tax [57] and in-store price promotions ; procurement policies promoting nutrition focussed food banking [58,59]; building support for the nutrition focus in targeted food assistance programs (e.g., SNAP and WIC); Corporate Social Responsibility initiatives to increase dignified access to healthy food and affordable food for all, for example, Lidl’s ‘Too Good to Waste’ boxes selling 5 kilograms of slightly damaged but edible fruit and vegetables for just £1.50 [60]; ‘More than food’ models of food assistance that provide emergency relief with integrated support services to help people find pathways out of food insecurity [61,62]. Three key principles for the food service aspect of these models are: (1) a client-centred focus; (2) empowering individuals by fostering autonomy and enabling food choice in socially acceptable ways; and (3) providing opportunities for active involvement, social connection, and broader support [63].


How does food security benefit society?

Societal benefit frames household food security in terms of how both individuals and society benefit when all members of society are food secure. Countries with high levels of food security benefit socially, economically, environmentally, and politically. The economic cost of food insecurity is not routinely reported in developed nations however estimates to date suggest they are substantial. Costs related to food insecurity in 2011 in the US were ~A$167.5 billion related to lost productivity, public education expenses, avoidable healthcare costs, and the cost of charity to keep families fed [14]. Food insecurity is associated with a range of physical and mental health issues which contribute significantly to healthcare costs, for example cardiovascular disease [15] and obesity [16]. There is a clear relationship between housing instability, food insecurity and access to health care amongst low income families [17]. Reducing food insecurity would see improvements in health, employment, productivity, and economic viability, and reductions in health care costs. This framing should inform arguments about the need for an urgent response to food insecurity in developed countries, as the cost of inaction is likely to be far more deleterious [14]. The complexity of social disadvantage contributing to poverty, through exposure to adversity throughout the life course and often across generations, should inform the responses to food insecurity [18,19].


What are the determinants of food and nutrition insecurity?

The determinants of food and nutrition insecurity as well as the extent of the problem are important considerations when defining action. Between and within country differences are important considerations, including, but not limited to: geographical differences (e.g., urban versus rural); chronicity and severity levels; political, economic and social drivers; historical government positions; climate impact; and how these factors have changed over time.


What is the food waste mitigation?

Food waste mitigation, “Waste not want not. Toward zero hunger. Food bank as a green solution to hunger”, is the contemporary framing used by the 2019 Global Foodbanking Network which frames foodbanks as the solution to hunger (SDG 2) and the environmental impact of food waste (SDG 12.3) [20].


What are the principles of food service?

Three key principles for the food service aspect of these models are: (1) a client-centred focus; (2) empowering individuals by fostering autonomy and enabling food choice in socially acceptable ways; and (3) providing opportunities for active involvement, social connection, and broader support [63].


How can urban agriculture improve food security?

Although the full potential of urban agriculture is still to be determined, based on my own research, I believe that raising fresh fruits, vegetables, and some animal products near consumers in urban areas can improve local food security and nutrition, especially for underserved communities.


Why is urban agriculture important?

Many organizations see urban agriculture as a way to improve food security. It also offers environmental, health, and social benefits.


What is the research of Miguel Altieri?

Research from U.C. Berkeley Professor of Agroecology Miguel Altieri argues that sustainable urban ag can also offer environmental, health, and social benefits. By Miguel Altieri. February 14, 2019.


What are the challenges for urban farmers in California?

The biggest challenge is access to land.


What is a city farm?

City Farm is a working sustainable farm that has operated in Chicago for over 30 years. (Photo CC-licensed by Linda from Chicago) Similarly, Bay Area urban farmers might be required to provide donate a share of their output to the region’s growing homeless population, and allowed to sell the rest.


How does urban agriculture help cities?

Other studies suggest that urban agriculture could help cities achieve self-sufficiency. For example, researchers have calculated that Cleveland, with a population of 400,000, has the potential to meet 100 percent of its urban dwellers’ fresh vegetable needs, 50 percent of their poultry and egg requirements, and 100 percent of their demand for honey.


Where is City Farm located?

City Farm is a working sustainable farm that has operated in Chicago for over 30 years. (Photo CC-licensed by Linda from Chicago)

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