How does natural disasters affect agriculture


Agricultural impacts from natural events and disasters most commonly include:

  • contamination of water bodies,
  • loss of harvest or livestock,
  • increased susceptibility to disease, and
  • destruction of irrigation systems and other agricultural infrastructure.

contamination of water bodies, loss of harvest or livestock, increased susceptibility to disease, and. destruction of irrigation systems and other agricultural infrastructure.May 25, 2021


How do disasters affect agriculture in developing countries?

As illustrated in this study, disasters exact a heavy toll on the agriculture sector in developing countries, as they often affect agricultural production with cascading negative consequences for national economies.

How do natural disasters affect food safety?

While a natural disaster can disrupt normal processes and even shut down just about every business in the area, processes that ensure the safety of food are never negotiable. Understanding natural disasters’ impact on food safety is the first step to being prepared if a devastating event occurs.

How do natural disasters affect the economy?

The extent to which disasters erode livelihoods, produce food insecurity, cause disruptions along the food value chain, reduce manufacturing output and lower sector growth and national GDP varies depending on numerous factors beyond the study’s scope. Such factors include the nature, location and scale of the disaster; its timing in relation to …

How much do natural disasters cost the agriculture sector?

Losses refer to the changes in economic flows arising from the disaster and that continue until economic recovery is achieved23. Together, the 78 disasters cost USD 30 billion in damage and losses to agriculture and its subsectors, out of a total of USD 140 billion in combined damage and losses across all sectors.


How do natural disasters affect agriculture consumers?

Recently, however, California and the Central Valley suffered a five-year drought. The drought reduced the water available for the Central Valley and the rest of the state, and that drought led to agricultural declines. Those declines produce higher prices for consumers.

Which natural disaster has the biggest impact on agriculture?

Drought is identified as the single greatest culprit of agricultural production loss, followed by floods, storms, pests and diseases, and wildfires. Failed rains caused a 34 per cent loss of crop and livestock production, compared to a nine per cent output decline from biological disasters in the period.

How do natural disasters impact food security and agricultural products?

Consequently, this has an impact on market access, trade, food supply, reduced income, increased food prices, decreased farm income and employment. Natural disasters create poverty, which in turn increases the prevalence of food insecurity and malnutrition. It is clear that disasters put food security at risk.

How do natural disasters affect the land?

Natural disasters like hurricanes, tsunamis and earthquakes damage and destroy land vital to peoples’ livelihoods. They kill titleholders, destroy land records and erase boundaries.

What is disaster in agriculture?

Definition. Violent, sudden and destructive change in the environment either affecting or caused by land cultivation or the raising of crops or livestock.

How do earthquakes affect agriculture?

Earthquakes impact on food security and agriculture-based livelihoods through: loss and injury of family members and workforce. loss of crop yields and livestock. damage to irrigation systems.

How does flood affect agriculture?

Huge amount of agricultural land is being brushed away and crops go under water through river erosion, sedimentation and inundation caused by the floods. Agriculture sector is mostly affected during flood. The foremost adverse effect of flood on agriculture is water logging in the cropping area.

How do hurricanes affect agriculture?

Abstract. Hurricanes cause serious and long-term damage to the Agricultural sectors of Caribbean countries. Bananas and tree crops are defoliated, snapped or uprooted and food crops may be flooded or washed away. Recovery takes time and money as both the production bases and the infrastructure are damaged or destroyed.

How do natural disasters affect natural resources?

Pollutants from flooded industrial sites caused hazardous chemicals to enter untreated into project sites, groundwater, watersheds and the oceans. Other disasters such as wildfires, floods, and tornadoes can completely defoliate forests and cause other types of structural changes to ecosystems.

How do natural disasters affect plants and animals?

Fires threaten animals with uncontrollable flames and heavy smoke; floods drown animals and contaminate water and food sources; hurricanes’ and tornadoes’ violent winds fling heavy debris around and introduce diseases and toxins to new areas.

What are three major effects of natural disasters?

Natural disasters have three general types of effects: primary effects, secondary effects, and tertiary effects.Primary effects are the direct result of the natural disaster, such as collapsed buildings and water damage.Secondary effects are the result of primary effects.More items…•

What are the effects of disasters?

In a disaster, you face the danger of death or physical injury. You may also lose your home, possessions, and community. Such stressors place you at risk for emotional and physical health problems. Stress reactions after a disaster look very much like the common reactions seen after any type of trauma.

How do natural disasters affect agriculture?

The number and frequency of recorded natural disasters, along with the associated impact and damage to livelihoods and economies (local and national), are increasing significantly. Natural disasters often destroy critical agricultural assets and infrastructure, disrupting production cycles, trade flows and livelihoods means. This affects food security and causes additional disruptions throughout the value chains. Such disasters may slow overall economic growth, especially where agriculture and food production still account for a large share of gross domestic product and employment. Notwithstanding the many efforts at national and international level, there is limited systematic data and information on the impact of disasters and hazardous events in agriculture and its subsectors – crop, livestock, fisheries, aquaculture and forestry. Caribbean and Central America North Africa and Western Asia South America South Asia Linear Trend

How does FAO impact agriculture?

FAO is bridging the knowledge gap by quantifying crop and livestock production losses from disasters in developing countries

What are the most common disasters that hit SIDS?

The most prominent disasters to hit SIDS are sea surges and storms (up to 80 percent of impact is from climatological and meteorological disasters), followed by floods, tsunamis, earthquakes and landslides.

How much was lost in crop production between 2005 and 2014?

between 2005 and 2014, approximately USD 93 billion was lost in crop and livestock production due to natural hazards and disasters in developing countries

What is the drought occurrence data?

Drought occurrence data is based on EM-DAT CRED, including all reported drought occurrences between 2004 and 2015. Agricultural losses from drought, expressed percentage of potential production are calculated based on FAOSTAT production data for droughts affecting over 100 000 people or 10 percent of the national population.

What are the factors that set the sector back?

such as extreme temperatures, storms and wildfires, set the sector back

What is the most affected by natural disasters?

Based on the post-disaster needs assessments reviewed, the crop subsector is the most affected by natural hazards. Total damage and losses to the crop subsector amount to about USD 13 billion. Almost 60 percent of these damage and losses were caused by floods, followed by storms with 23 percent.

How did natural hazards affect trade flows?

The impact of natural hazards on trade flows was estimated by comparing increases in the value of imports and decreases in the value of exports of primary crop and livestock commodities during the year when disasters occurred and the subsequent year, with the linear trend (2003–2013)12. The results show that the value of agricultural imports increased by USD 18.9 billion and the value of agricultural exports decreased by USD 14.9 billion after major hazards in the countries analysed between 2003 and 201313.

What percentage of crop losses are caused by drought?

In addition, the results of the analysis show that 83 percentof crop and livestock production losses are caused by drought (44 percent) and floods (39 percent).

Which region has the most crop losses?

In terms of the regional distribution of production losses, Asia is the most affected region, with total crop and livestock production losses amounting to USD 28 billion or 40 percent of total losses, followed by Africa with USD 26 billion. In relative terms, Africa is the most affected region, having lost 3.9 percent of total expected crop and livestock production, followed by Central Asia with 3.8 percent.

How much of Kenya’s GDP is agriculture?

In Kenya, agriculture accounts for 30 percent of national GDP, it provides 60 percent of total employment and accounts for 65 percent of the country’s total exports. Droughts in Kenya have a considerable impact on livelihoods, agriculture and the national economy. The 2008–2011 drought in the country caused a total of USD 10.7 billion in damages and losses, of which nearly USD 9 billion was on the livestock subsector alone, USD 91 million on the food processing industry, USD 1.5 billion on crops, USD 53 million on fisheries, and USD 85 million on nutrition.

How do natural disasters affect agriculture?

In the case of agriculture, the direct and positive impacts are actually readily identifiable. Typhoons increase the supply of water for agriculture as they usher in rain. Floods improve soil fertility as they deliver nutrients from the uplands to the lowlands. In addition, floods temporarily create a larger water habitat for inland fish and other aquatic animals. Together with other yet-to-be-identified factors, these impacts of typhoons and floods are viewed as positive because, ceteris paribus, they facilitate an increase in agricultural production in the affected areas and help improve the food security situation.

What is a natural disaster?

From an economic perspective, a natural disaster can be taken as a natural event that causes a perturbation to the functioning of the economic system, with significant negative impact on assets, production factors, output, employment, or consumption (Hallegatte and Przyluski, 2010).

How does drought affect marine ecosystems?

As well as negative aboveground effects, droughts also tend to negatively impact marine ecosystems. Rising temperatures coupled with the rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere cause coral reef bleaching, or the chalky appearance coral takes on when it dies (MO-COMSTE, 2010). The destruction of coral reefs reduces marine biodiversity which is critically important for the ecological balance and productivity of marine ecosystems. It has been reported that the El Niño episode which occurred in1997 and1998 in the Philippines, decreased the coral cover ranging from 46% to 80% in Bolinao, Pangasinan (GOP, 2010). Other areas affected included Batangas, other parts of Northern Luzon, West Palawan, and parts of the Visayas. In addition to droughts, floods could inundate mangrove, coral reef and sea grass areas along the coast, making them less viable as important providers of ecosystem goods and services to both the economy and environment.

What are the natural resources in the Philippines?

The natural resources sub-sector of the Philippines includes land, forest and fisheries resources while the natural environment sub-sector refers to the quality of its land, water and air resources. In general, the natural resource and environment sector is facing the twin problems of overexploitation and depletion of natural resources and the deterioration of the overall environmental quality. In recent years, little progress has been made in arresting the worsening pace of these problems even as new challenges have emerged (EC, 2009).

How many hectares of land were affected by typhoons in the Philippines in 2000?

From 2000 to 2010, the national agricultural area affected by typhoons, floods and droughts in the Philippines has been trending upwards. The total area increased from 683,440 hectares in 2000 to 977,208 hectares in 2010 (Figure 2). The affected area was at its lowest in 2002 at 200,940 hectares and at its highest in 2006 at 1,461,608 hectares. There are neither available data at the regional nor the provincial levels with respect to the agricultural area affected by typhoons, floods and droughts in the Philippines

What are the most common natural disasters in Southeast Asia?

In Southeast Asia, the Philippines is among the hardest hit by natural disasters, particularly by typhoons, floods and droughts . These natural disasters have negative economic and environmental impacts on the affected areas and the people who live there. Furthermore, the agriculture and natural resources sectors are highly vulnerable because they are continuously exposed to natural disasters and their unwelcome consequences.

Do typhoons affect food security?

Hence, based on food affordability alone, these disasters may have little effect on food security at that level. On the other hand, it was also estimated beforehand that typhoons have a significant and negative effect on rice production at the provincial level. Therefore, based on rice availability alone, typhoons may have diminished food security at that level.

What are the three factors that affect California agriculture?

Three unpredictable factors that continue to significantly impact California agriculture production are labor shortages, access to high-quality water, and wildfires.

What are the priorities of California agriculture?

Water quality and quantity are top priorities in California agriculture. Over 50 percent of the state’s population are experiencing abnormally dry areas, with 4 percent currently in a drought. 2018 revisions to the Clean Water Act would erase protections for ephemeral or intermittent waterways that only flow after precipitation. This lift on federal protections would allow growers more freedom to use the resources on their land in the fullest capacity, but proper education about water and soil sustainability is imperative to maintain proper water quality for future generations. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) works to provide farm operators who implement conservation strategies with technical assistance and financial incentives. Other organizations, like the Water Foundation, are committed to educating and enabling the community with innovative approaches to provide lasting water solutions that work for the communities, economies, and environment in California. Proposition 1 of the Water Bond allocates $7.5 billion to aid in water conservation efforts like groundwater storage, watershed protection, flood protection, and water restoration to combat the effects of California droughts.

How many acres of land burned in California in 2019?

In 2019 alone, there were 7,860 fire incidents resulting in 259,823 acres burned. This was relatively low compared to the 1,963,101 acres burned in 2018, mostly due to the record-breaking Mendocino Complex Fire. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE) predicts fire potential to be above normal for 2020 as a result of high offshore winds. Wildfires can also trigger other negative consequences like power outages and mudslides that further devastate farmlands, livestock, and crops.

How do natural disasters affect food production?

As the previous examples indicate, a natural disaster interferes with the food supply chain at every level, starting with agriculture. When a catastrophe occurs, the physical damage sustained directly by the agriculture industry alters the entire supply chain.

What are the risks of natural disasters?

Pathogens represent a massive risk in food quality and safety. One of the most significant impacts of a natural disaster is the increased risk of contamination from raw materials utilized in food processing. Front line defense against food contamination often comes from farmers and growers of the food and ingredients. However, relying on them entirely in the event of a natural disaster can expose your facility to undue risk.

How many people died in a natural disaster between 1970 and 2015?

An incident is declared a natural disaster when it’s an earthquake, storm, flood or heat wave that results in 10 or more deaths or affects more than 100 people.

How does transportation damage affect food?

Transport damage: When a road gets washed out or a tree falls across a railway track , that delay has a domino effect throughout the food supply chain. In some cases, the communication systems used to coordinate transportation are not functional either, causing chaos and problems to ensue. A breakdown in transportation due to a disaster can lead to foods and ingredients spending longer than they should in transport and possibly being exposed to a temperature range between 40 and 140 degrees Fahrenheit, which is commonly considered the “danger zone” for many food products because those temperatures allow increased growth of microbes that are potentially harmful. As a processor, the impact of transport damage increases the need to be vigilant about the possibility of contamination to food products.

What is the front line defense against food contamination?

Front line defense against food contamination often comes from farmers and growers of the food and ingredients. However, relying on them entirely in the event of a natural disaster can expose your facility to undue risk. Legislative requirements dictate common food safety standards and protocols.

Why is it important to train employees before a disaster?

The need for adequate training before a disaster strikes is important to maximize employees’ ability to perform sufficiently when a natural disaster does occur.

What is infrastructure damage?

Infrastructure damage: Destruction or damage of necessary agricultural structures often results in issues stemming from a reduction in quality control. For example, when irrigation systems fail they compromise the quality of any remaining crops. If a refrigerated storage facility experiences extended power outages, they often lose entire lots of product. If a flood breaches a livestock facility, it can result in the animals drowning or being exposed to a host of pathogens. Infrastructural damage usually means food producers must pay even closer attention to the source of their raw materials and act quickly to identify the possibility that pathogens have a higher potential to enter the food supply chain due to the effects of a natural disaster.

How does natural disaster affect food security?

Hunger and other types of malnutrition continue to impact millions of people across the world. Natural disasters pose a short–term threat to food security, as well as a long–term threat to economic growth. The overall output of food grains drops as a result of a natural catastrophe. It causes a food shortage in the influenced regions. Food security is a critical public health concern during a disaster because total food grain production is severely impacted. We need a well-functioning food system for everyone to obtain adequate proper food stock during such natural calamities as these are unavoidable, and no one can stop them, but the government can prepare the country for the consequences.

Why are farmers more vulnerable to economic downturns?

Farmers in rural areas are more vulnerable to economic downturns because they rely heavily on natural resources and have no other source of income or employment. Farmers’ crops will be harmed by natural disasters, and they will be unable to sell them at a good price. When landlords are unable to sell their crops at a good price, they will make less profit, and in order to increase their profit, they will hire fewer farmers. This will result in increased unemployment in the agricultural sector, lowering Marginal Labor’s income. Thus, unemployment will rise, resulting in a decrease in people’s earnings. This will exacerbate national inequalities as well.

Why is agriculture important?

Agriculture is the major source of livelihoods and food security in many of the nation’s most vulnerable to natural catastrophes, as well as a significant engine of economic growth. High production losses in medium- and large-scale catastrophes can lead to increased imports of food and it resulting increased public spending to end hunger and food poverty, as well as to construct sustainable, affluent futures.

What are the consequences of famine?

Famine is an inescapable circumstance wherein an enormous number of individuals in a nation or locale need admittance to a suitable food supply. Malnutrition, hunger, illness, and a high death rate are all consequences of famines. A famine can be caused by a natural disaster, such as prolonged drought, flooding, extreme cold, typhoons, bug infestations, or plant disease, in combination with government decisions on how to respond to the crisis. A natural calamity might start a famine, and a government’s incompetence or reluctance to cope with the repercussions could amplify the impact. If a natural disaster strikes a large region or occurs over a lengthy period of time, it may result in starvation. When crops or food distribution facilities are destroyed as a result of a natural catastrophe, it has a significant impact on the availability of food in the surrounding area which later becomes starvation.

How is subsidized grain distributed?

Subsidized grain is distributed through a public distribution system to individuals living in poverty.


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