How does subsistence agriculture differ from market oriented agriculture

How does subsistence agriculture differ from market-oriented agriculture? In subsistence agriculture, food is produced by a family for its own needs. In market-oriented agriculture, farmers grow products to sell to consumers. Identify and define the four categories of economic activities.

Subsistence and Commercial farming are the two types of farming practices. Subsistence agriculture is performed by the farmer for the survival of his own and the person’s dependent on him. On the contrary, commercial agriculture is nothing but an agricultural business, wherein crops are grown for trading purpose.Jan 7, 2020


What is the difference between subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture?

 · Market oriented agriculture is the planting and cultivation so as to supply markets and industries. Subsistence agriculture is aimed at feeding a family.

What is the difference between subsistence agriculture and monoculture?

What is the goal of subsistence agriculture?

What is the second most common kind of subsistence agriculture?

 · Commercial farming is profit oriented, and profit is maximized through the implementation of economics of scale. But subsistence farming is aiming at self sufficiency. 6. Commercial farming system is complex, and productivity is high. Subsistence farming system is simple, and productivity is low. 7.

What is the difference between subsistence and market agriculture?

Subsistence farmers farm for survival, and usually do not look to make a profit off of the crops that they grow. Commercial agriculture is usually found in more developed countries, and the crops are grown in huge quantities to support entire populations for a profit.

What are the major differences between subsistence and commercial farming quizlet?

What is the difference between “subsistence agriculture” and “commercial agriculture”? Subsistence agriculture is food grown for the farmer’s family. Commercial agriculture is food sold off the farm. Name the five principles that distinguish commercial from subsistence agriculture.

What is the difference between subsistence farming and regular farming?

Subsistence farming, or subsistence agriculture, is when a farmer grows food for themselves and their family on a small plot of land. Unlike other types of farming, subsistence farming is focused more on survival. There is very little or no emphasis on trading and selling goods or operating as a business.

What are two economic differences between subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture?

Discuss TWO economic differences between subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture. -subsistence: high inputs of human labor and low technology. -commercial: low inputs of human labor and high technology.

What are the seven challenges both subsistence and commercial farming face?

Such identified challenges include high cost of borrowing, lack of entrepreneurship skills, inadequate infrastructure, insufficient markets, adverse climate changes and socio-cultural constraints.

What are the main differences between agricultural practices in MDCs and agricultural practices in LDCs Why are they so different?

In LDCs, most people produce food for their own consumption (subsistence). In MDCs, farmers grow crops and raise animals primarily for sale off the farm rather than for their own consumption (commercial). In MDCs, around 5% of workers are engaged directly in farming and 50% in LDCs.

What is the difference between subsistence and commercial agriculture class 10?

Purpose: While commercial agriculture is done for the purpose of getting farm produce in terms of crops, grains, livestock and so on, in very large quantities, Subsistence agriculture is carried out just for domestic and local consumption by the family members of the local farmers.

What are the differences between subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture class 10?

It is usually found in more developed countries, and the crops are grown in huge quantities to support entire populations for a profit. In subsistence farming, traditional methods of cultivation are used, whereas machines are used for the purpose of cultivating the land, in commercial farming.

What are the three main features that separate commercial agriculture from subsistence agriculture?

What are the three main features that separate commercial agriculture from subsistence agriculture? Physical social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritions food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preference for an active and healthy life.

What is the key aspect of farming?

The key aspect of this farming system is self-sufficiency. Therefore, farmers are focusing on their individual family requirements. Basically, they cultivate crops and raise animals to fulfill their food and clothing requirements. Farmer decides what crops that his family is going to consume in the coming year and cultivates those crops only. So a range of crops will be cultivated. Farming techniques are simple, and productivity is low. Since this system is more echo friendly, environmental pollution is very low or zero.

What are the components of a farming system?

Tow major components of these farming systems are the crop and livestock production . However, in subsistence farming, single farmer/farming family is always involved in both crop and livestock production. But in commercial farming, in most of the occasions, it could be only crop or only livestock one landowner/farmer produce.

What is the role of farmer in agriculture?

Farmer decides what crops that his family is going to consume in the coming year and cultivates those crops only. So a range of crops will be cultivated. Farming techniques are simple, and productivity is low. Since this system is more echo friendly, environmental pollution is very low or zero.

What is a single farmer?

1. In subsistence farming, single farmer is always involved in both crop and livestock production. But vastly it could be only crop or only livestock in the commercial farming when considering one farmer/Land owner. 2. In commercial farming, one or two crops or livestock is elected for production.

Does subsistence farming use organic fertilizers?

But subsistence farming system only utilizes organic fertilizers and natural pesticides, and pest control is by traditional methods. Therefore, contribution for the environmental pollution is at a very low or at zero level. Comparison of Subsistence Farming vs Commercial Farming. 1.

Does subsistence farming cause environmental pollution?

Therefore, contribution for the environmental pollution is at higher levels. But subsistence farming system only utilizes organic fertilizers and natural pesticides, and pest control is by traditional methods. Therefore, contribution for the environmental pollution is at a very low or at zero level.

What are inputs for commercial farming?

Utilizing of improved crop varieties, hybrids, and improved breeds are inputs for commercial farming. On the other hand, in subsistence farming, farmers heavily use traditional crop varieties and domesticated-wild breeds for their farming. Since commercial farming system is targeting high profits, both organic and inorganic fertilizers, …

How is subsistence farming enhancing productivity?

From commercial farming, cereals and other cash crops to earn money are grown. The productivity of subsistence farming is enhancing by using manures. The productivity of commercial farming is enhancing by using high doses of modern methods. In subsistence farming, conventional tools like digging, hoe or doe, etc. are used.

What is the purpose of subsistence farming?

The purpose of subsistence farming is not to make a profit. Commercial farming is for profit. Subsistence farms are for farmers’ survival. Commercial farming is to raise livestock, grow crops in large quantities, to raise the economy to gain excess yield. Crops from subsistence farming are the only source of food, and if crops are in surplus amount, then it is sold to nearby villagers directly. Food from commercial farming not directly consumed, but all products sent to food processing companies and subsequently to market and stores to sold out.

What is subsistence family?

Subsistence family produces products only for immediate family conversely commercial farming produce products in bulk.

Why are there few workers employed in commercial farming?

Few workers are employed because machines do most of the work.

Why is commercial farming important?

For commercial farming, water, soil, and other natural resources discovered as the best suitable environmental resources for crops. Commercial farming production depends on the market demand for particular crops.

What are the methods used in commercial farming?

Only a few farmers work in commercial farming and rely on scientific and advanced methods such as insecticides, pesticides, herbicides sprays, hybrid plants or animal breeds, etc. for the bulk of yield. ADVERTISEMENT.

Why is the number of farmers decreasing?

Hence, due to an increase in the usage of machinery, the number of farmers is dramatically reduced. In subsistence farming number of farmers works together and helps one another to produce food for them without machinery and rely on animals and humans.

What are the characteristics of subsistence agriculture?

Crops characteristic of subsistence agriculture, including beans, maize and cassava, often show yield ratios relative to current management in excess of 2 (Pretty et al., 2003 ). Those high ratios are used to promote organic agriculture as the solution to developing country agriculture ( Badgley et al., 2007 ). After all, if yield can be doubled without fertiliser, then why struggle to buy any! The answer is found in yields achieved rather than ratios. Despite the increases, the yields remain small. Increasing yield of maize crops from 0.5 to 1.2 t ha −1 (ratio >2), for example, is hardly a long-term solution to hunger when the same gains could be achieved on all fields with small doses of fertiliser, and yields of 5–10 t ha −1 with larger applications.

What are the disadvantages of subsistence farming?

It has the advantage of being ecologically sound, with locally adapted and resilient species and cultivars. The disadvantage, however, is low productivity. Various pressures are leading to the elimination of agroecological farming practices, such as fallow rotation systems, more reliance on commercial seed, and higher chemical and resource input systems. These practices have led to economic losses and environmental damage, including loss of biodiversity, and increases in diseases and pests, particularly crop pests that are resistant to common pesticides.

Why is arable land increasing?

Arable land has increased mainly at the expense of forest cover and permanent crops. Like in other countries in the region, this was mainly due to the economic importance of cash crops. The eastern region is the major production area in the country, with a mixture of traditional small farms and well-equipped medium/big farms. Main producing states are Alto Paranaá, Itapúa, and Canindeyú.

What is the diet of a dairy cow?

The diet of highly productive dairy cows often comprises a high proportion of nutrient-dense feeds with only a minimum proportion of herbage, forage or straw – long fibrous feeds provided to ensure satisfactory rumen function.

What are the steps a farmer can take to manage risk?

Steps a farmer can take to manage such risk include savings, diversification of enterprises, emergency borrowing, and purchase of hazard insurance against output risk, or some form of forward pricing against price risk. It remains open to question however how risk averse farmers are.

How much of India’s population is dependent on agriculture?

In India, about 50-75% of the labor population is dependent on agriculture. Increased vulnerability of agriculture to climate change will adversely impact the livelihoods of the small and marginal farmers, and the labor population who are highly dependent on this sector.

What is poor farming?

Poor farmers practice subsistence agriculture and usually have a hand to mouth living. Their annual year’s income is dependent on monsoons. Any changes in the rainfall and temperature extremes can impact the crop production and adversely impact their livelihoods.

How does subsistence agriculture affect HIV?

Farming systems that exhibit a high degree of seasonality of labor demand, significant specialization by age and sex, high interdependence of labor inputs , increasing returns to scale of labor, and low substitutability of labor for capital tend to be particularly vulnerable. Studies have shown significant and enduring impacts. Labor loss occurs not only as a result of sickness and premature adult death, but also due to reallocation of labor to nurse the ill, and siphoning off of working capital to pay medical bills.

What is the last residua of hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence agriculture?

In the modern world, the last residua of hunter–gatherer societies and subsistence agriculture struggle with globalized economic power: the modern and the postmodern conditions sometimes co-exist in close, yet problematic contiguity (Harvey 1989 ). From being marginal to the order of things, conscious economic rationality is now for many ‘life’ itself. ‘Economic life’ tends to absorb, transmute, and meld ‘reality’ into seamless economies of virtualized simulacra, a globalized maya, outside of which there would appear to be no fulcrum for a critical ideology or politics of resistance (Baudrillard 1981 ). In a world in which the virtual exerts hegemony over the residual real the cosmos is silent; yet ambiguous opportunities abound, not least for women seeking freedom from both biological and social construction, as cyborg, prosthetic, and virtual cultures are created and colonized. After the so-called ‘End of History,’ leading sociologists of religion such as Steven Bruce and Bryan Wilson continue to represent religion as subject to terminal attrition by an inevitable process of secularization. Regarded thus, religion can no longer be a resource for the culturally significant critique of total human submission to the dictates of ‘economic life.’ Little would seem left for the researcher into the relation of religion and economic life other than to report on the final stages of religious decline.

How does poverty affect deforestation?

Populations with high poverty rates are more likely to contribute to deforestation, as farming and illegal logging offer two options to increase incomes and to improve their social situation. Poverty may also increase demand for wood for energy, as individuals may use wood to cook or heat their homes. Foraging for wood fuel can be a contributor to overall deforestation rates.

How does HIV affect rural communities?

As affected households face increased labor shortages, widespread reductions in household incomes and increased cash constraints may also depress labor and nontradable demand in rural communities with high HIV incidence. Reductions in family labor may lead to a shift out of more labor-demanding cash crops. There is some evidence that multiplier effects of this depressed demand could cause reductions in labor demand to the extent that wages also fall, posing serious problems even for poor households not directly affected by HIV and AIDS. For poorer, smallholder households, land and cash may be the primary constraints on rural productivity and livelihoods, not specifically labor. AIDS is likely to progressively decapitalize highly afflicted rural communities, meaning a loss of savings, cattle assets, farming equipment, and other assets.

What are the programs that encourage landless farmers?

Government-sponsored resettlement programs, such as the transmigration programs of Indonesia and Brazil , encourage landless farmers or the urban poor to clear areas of forest for subsistence agriculture or for the cultivation of cash crops for export. These schemes relieve the pressure of urban crowding and allow governments to avoid the difficult issue of land reform by providing new agricultural land from forest. However, many forested lands are unsuitable for permanent agriculture and resettlement programs have invariably failed as a result. Transmigrants are thus forced to resort to shifting cultivation, leading to further forest degradation and deforestation.

How does poor soil quality affect deforestation?

In tropical regions, poor soil quality may also lead to increased deforestation rates as locals practice “slash and burn” agriculture, where forested areas are cleared, farmed until the soil gives out, and then abandoned in favor of yet more forested areas; the cycle thus continues and increasing amounts of forest are lost. This loss is exacerbated when local farmers are not well trained in agricultural practices.

How much deforestation is caused by agriculture?

While commercial agriculture is a significant driver of deforestation, the FAO reports that local or subsistence agriculture is behind a further 33% of deforestation. There is a significant demand for new agricultural land, particularly in the tropics where population pressures may be acute. Approximately 40% of deforestation in Africa and Asia can be related to local agricultural expansion; globally, the number is closer to 33% .

What is the difference between traditionalism and globalization?

Globalization and traditionalism are, in essence, opposites. Globalization occurs when the connections around the world increase and cultures become more alike, while traditionalism involves following longtime practices and opposing many modern technologies and ideas.

What is the term for the spread of information about a new idea or innovation throughout a society?

Expansion diffusion occurs when information about a new idea or innovation spreads throughout a society; relocation diffusion occurs when people move to new places and take their culture with them; hierarchical diffusion occurs when culture traits spread from places of greater size and importance to smaller places.

What is subsistence agriculture?

Subsistence agriculture is when a farmer lives on a small amount of land and produces enough food to feed his or her household and have a small cash crop. The goal of subsistence agriculture is to produce enough food to ensure the survival of the individual family. If there is excess food produced, it is sold locally to other families or individuals.

What is the difference between industrialized and subsistence farming?

Another major difference between industrialized and subsistence agriculture is what is being planted.

What is shifting cultivation?

Farmers that utilize shifting cultivation clear plots of the forest for planting and use the land for several years. When the land becomes less fertile, the farmers clear a new plot in the forest and begin growing in the new location.

What are the most common crops grown in the same field?

For this type of agriculture, the most common crops are rice and vegetables, which are grown in the same fields using the polyculture method. The second most common kind of subsistence agriculture is shifting cultivation, and this occurs in Brazil, Venezuela, Columbia, Nigeria, Senegal and Indonesia.

Where is subsistence agriculture practiced?

Currently, there are several kinds of subsistence agriculture that are still occurring. The most common type is intensive subsistence agriculture, which is often referred to as traditional subsistence agriculture. This type of agriculture is practiced in India, China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Mexico and Peru.

Why is subsistence agriculture labor intensive?

This type of agriculture is very labor-intensive because all of the work is done by humans and animals and only hand tools and simple machines are used to work the land. Subsistence agriculture does not rely on chemical fertilizers or pesticides and instead utilizes more natural techniques.

How does industrial agriculture increase yield?

The chemical fertilizers that are used in industrialized agriculture often add inorganic nutrients to the soil to increase yield and plant size. The use of pesticides is also common in industrialized agriculture, and most pesticides help increase yield by killing pests that are harming or consuming the crops. Another farming technique that is used in industrialized agriculture is the method of growing monocultures, which is when a single crop is planted on a large scale. Although planting monocultures can increase overall yield, this method of farming is also more susceptible to disease and causes a reduction in the dietary variation of consumers.

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