How does the european plain in germany affect agriculture


Is the European Plain good for farming?

Like many other delta plains, this area has rich and fertile soils and a flat terrain that is favourable for agriculture where it is properly drained.

Why are the central European plains good for agriculture?

The Central Plains or the Great European Plains have been formed by the silt brought down by large rivers like the Danube, Rhine, Volga, Ural etc. This has made the region very fertile and hence it is suitable for agriculture.

How did the northern European plain affect the development of Europe?

How did the northern European Plain affect the development of Europe? It has fertile soil and water resources from rivers.

What is the main crop in Europe plain?

The traditional two-field system of crop rotation, in which half the agricultural land was left fallow each year to maintain soil fertility, gave way to the more sophisticated three-field system: in addition to the usual sowing of wheat, barley, or rye in the autumn, another part of the land was planted in oats or …

Is the European plain fertile?

The Northern European Plain contains fertile farmland, as well as many bogs, heaths, and lakes. The North European Plain is a European region that covers Denmark, Poland, Germany, Belgium, Holland, and small parts of northern France and the Czech Republic.

Is Germany in the European plain?

The North European Plain covers Flanders (northern Belgium and Northern France), the Netherlands, Northern Germany, Denmark, and most of central-western Poland; it touches the Czech Republic and southwestern part of Sweden as well.

What makes the northern European plain great for farming?

The Northern European plain attracted farms because of the fertile soil, flat land, and numerous nearby rivers.

What are some of the impacts the physical geography of Europe has had on the development of Europe?

Europe’s moderate climates and favorable relative location are supported by its access to the many rivers and seas. These advantageous developmental factors supported the development of the Industrial Revolution in Europe, which gave rise to highly technical and urban societies.

Why did the North European Plain develop into a densely populated industrial center?

They have built dams, introduced pollution, and completed canals that link rivers together. Why did the North European Plain develop into a densely populated industrial center? because of the fertail soil, natural resources, and a major river linking that region to the North Sea.

How does the geography of Europe supported agriculture?

Climate and Agriculture This mild climate allows Europe to produce a variety of agricultural products. Strong westerly winds bring mild maritime air from the Atlantic during the winters and summers. These strong winds prevent cold Arctic air from penetrating the interior of the continent most of the time.

Which agriculture is introduced by the Europeans?

EU agricultural production is dominated by livestock products (including dairy), grains, vegetables, wine, fruits, and sugar. Major export commodities include grains (wheat and barley), dairy products, poultry, pork, fruit, vegetables, olive oil, and wine.

How is agriculture in Europe?

Agriculture is an inherent part of food systems and the range of food produced in the EU is diverse. The EU is broadly self-sufficient in most agricultural primary commodities. It is also the single largest exporter of agri-food products, which include processed food (EC, 2016a).

What is the largest land user in Germany?

Environment and agriculture – Overview for Germany. More than half of Germany’s surface area is used for agriculture. Agriculture thus is the largest land user in Germany and a significant contributor to environmental stress. On the other hand, agriculture is also affected, for example, by the effects of climate change.

How does nitrogen affect the environment?

Excessive inputs of nitrogen compounds into the environment have negative effects on climate, biodiversity and landscape quality. If, for example, more nitrogen is applied to agricultural soils by manure fertilizers (from animal farming or mineral fertilizers) than is extracted from the cultivated plants, excess nitrogen compounds can enter …

Is organic farming sustainable?

The sharpest decline of birds is recorded in farmland. Organic farming is a sustainable, resource -friendly and environment and animal-friendly way of farming.

What is the agricultural output of Germany?

Germany’s agricultural output covers only a third of demand for vegetables, and only one fifth of demand for fruit. Potatoes are the exception, where supply exceeds demand. 7. Very few greenhouses. Vegetables are traditionally grown in fields or gardens. Only about one per cent of Germany’s vegetable growing areas are covered by greenhouses.

How much of Germany is agricultural?

Half of the area of Germany is used for agricultural purposes. Almost one million people produce goods worth more than 50 billion euros per year.

What is Germany’s agricultural industry?

Germany is the world’s third largest exporter of agricultural goods. The German agricultural industry exports about one third of its products. Cattle are the main livestock Adobe Stock/Stephen Cordory. 4. High milk production. Germany is the largest milk producer in the European Union.

What is the leading crop in Germany?

Grain is grown on about one third of Germany’s agricultural land. Wheat is by far the leading crop, followed by barley and rye. Demand for potatoes is well covered Adobe Stock. 6. Less fruit and vegetables. Germany’s agricultural output covers only a third of demand for vegetables, and only one fifth of demand for fruit.

How much of the agricultural industry is organic?

More than 10 per cent of all agricultural holdings are dedicated to organic farming. Organic farmers’ output is usually lower, but their revenue is higher.

What is green economy?

The Green Economy is meant to create wealth and protect the environment at the same time. But experts are increasingly doubtful about the concept and are calling it a whitewash. EURACTIV Germany reports.

Is agriculture a political issue in Germany?

Despite its small size relative to the country’s GDP, agriculture is a political heavyweight with the German government. With far-reaching changes to the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy about to take effect, looks at the implications for the German agricultural sector.

What was Germany’s major agricultural product during the 21st century?

At the beginning of the 21st century, Germany’s production of major agricultural products (e.g., grains, sugar, oils, milk and meat) exceeded domestic consumption, resulting in both exports and continued surpluses.

What was concentrated in East Germany?

East Germany concentrated milk production into vast specialist holdings in arable areas where food was available and urban markets accessible. In both the western and eastern sectors, chickens, eggs, pigs, and veal calves are concentrated into large battery units, divorced from immediate contact with the soil.

Why did fishing decline in Germany?

Fishing in western Germany began to decline markedly from the 1970s because of overutilization of traditional fishing grounds and the extension of the exclusive economic zone to 200 miles (320 km) offshore. The greatly reduced deep-sea fleet now uses freezer vessels and accompanying catchers; Bremerhaven, Cuxhaven, and Hamburg are the home ports and processing centres. During the 1990s, high-seas catches by German fishermen declined by about half. The North Sea herring fishery has almost disappeared, and now the German appetite for pickled herring is satisfied mainly by imports. There are well over 100 fishing ports on the North Sea and Baltic coasts. Fishing for shrimp and mussels is important on the mud flats fringing the North Sea. Prior to unification East Germany had a substantial deep-sea fishing fleet, but most of it has since been scrapped; its shore base for fish processing was at Sassnitz on the island of Rügen.

What percentage of Germany’s land is forest?

Some three-tenths of Germany’s total land area is covered with forest. In the Central German Uplands and the Alps, forests are particularly plentiful, but they are notably absent from the best agricultural land, such as the loess areas of the North German Plain. The western part of the North German Plain also has little forest cover, but there are substantial wooded stretches farther east. Conifers predominate in the forest area; spruce now accounts for much of the plantings because of its rapid growth and suitability for building purposes and for the production of paper and chipboard. Domestic production covers about half of the demand for wood from temperate forests, but producers face severe competition from Austria, Scandinavia, and eastern Europe. The federal government, states, and municipalities own about half the forest in western Germany, with the remainder in private hands; eastern German forests are primarily publicly owned.

How many acres were there in Germany in 1980?

West Germany remained essentially a country of small family farms; in the 1980s only about 5 percent of holdings had more than 124 acres (50 hectares), though they accounted for nearly one-fourth …

What was the change in Germany in the 21st century?

The change in western Germany is reflective of a rationalization of agriculture, with many small landholders leaving farming and the remaining farms often increasing in size.

Why are light soils so valuable?

With the availability of chemical fertilizers, light soils have become more highly valued because of their suitability for machine cultivation ; for example, fodder corn is now widely grown on the North German Plain, replacing potatoes.

What percentage of the West German economy was agriculture in 1989?

By 1989 agriculture amounted to only 1.6 percent of the West German GDP. Although the percentage of the agricultural sector of the East German GDP was twice as high, its total proportion of the reunited Germany’s GDP amounted to only about two percent.

How many farms were there in East Germany in the 1960s?

In East Germany, where farms were collectivized under the socialist regime in the 1960s, there had been about 5,100 agricultural production collectives with an average of 4,100 hectares under cultivation. Since unification, about three-quarters of the collectives have remained as cooperatives, partnerships, or joint-stock companies.

What are the main products of Germany?

Agricultural products vary from region to region. In the flat terrain of northern Germany and especially in the eastern portions, cereals and sugar beets are grown. Elsewhere, with the terrain more hilly and even mountainous, farmers produce vegetables, milk, pork, or beef. Almost all large cities are surrounded by fruit orchards and vegetable farms. Most river valleys in southern and western Germany, especially along the Rhine and the Main, have vineyards. Beer is produced mainly, but not exclusively, in Bavaria. Wine is produced mainly, but not exclusively, in Rhineland-Palatinate .

Where are agricultural laws written?

All agricultural laws and regulations are written in Brussels, often after difficult negotiations between food-producing and food-consuming states. The main objective of those negotiations is to obtain high incomes for the farmers while keeping market prices low enough to avoid consumer protests.

Where is beer produced in Germany?

Beer is produced mainly, but not exclusively, in Bavaria. Wine is produced mainly, but not exclusively, in Rhineland-Palatinate .

How did industrial concerns affect German agriculture?

Although industrial concerns were able to advance the prices of their products artificially , either through high protective duties or by national or international cartels, the agriculturists (especially the millions of small farmers) were altogether unable to find ways of counteracting their own increased production costs brought about by the higher prices of the industrial products which they were compelled to purchase. Cartels are impossible in agriculture. Quite naturally, therefore, the farmers in their turn made every possible effort to find substitutes for cartel or syndicate prices. They decided on a protectionist tariff. But they were unable to enlist the heavy industries on their side. For whereas the latter had assented to protective duties on grain, because they were connected socially with the large estate owners and had many common interests with them in the field of domestic politics, they refused to take up a similarly benevolent attitude towards the producers of finished agricultural products — first, because they had no social or political interests in common with them, and second, because high protective duties on finished farm products seemed to constitute a much more threatening danger to industrial exports. The result was that in 1931, two years after the crash of world prices for grain, the producers of milk and eggs still had only very slight protection against foreign competition, whereas German grain prices continued to be maintained at an extremely high level. Today, however, if the German Government were to fill the gaps in the protective tariff on agricultural products, it would be found that not even the highest duties could effect the desired price increase because the economic crisis has reduced the purchasing power of the people and therefore the consumption of these finished products.

How did the German government manipulate the grain market?

In 1930 the German Government, acting under their influence, began a steep upward revision of the protective tariff on grain, in order to save the large agricultural concerns in the eastern provinces. In addition to increasing the protective duties on grain up to $60 per ton, the German Government proceeded to manipulate the grain market. It established a monopoly for the importation of corn and practically cut off all imports of barley for use as fodder. These measures resulted in the complete isolation of Germany from the world market as far as these commodities were concerned. The favorable economic conditions during the years 1926-29 made it possible even for the Social Democrats to defend these duties, although they tended to diminish the real wages of the workers. Today the German price of wheat is 200 percent above the level of the world market. Finished agricultural products, on the other hand, were at first left entirely unprotected, and the measures which were afterwards taken in that direction were quite inadequate. But the advance of the grain prices which was thus effected at the expense of the broad masses of German consumers in order to save the large agricultural concerns, instead of achieving this purpose, only succeeded in inflicting heavy losses during the next two years on those agricultural producers who had been most successful until then in coping with their economic difficulties, namely, the small farmers and more especially those who bought grain from the large concerns for the purpose of raising pigs and producing eggs. After the bank crash of July 13, 1931, every one thought that the doom of the large estate owners was finally sealed. But they achieved another success. They evaded individual bankruptcy by obtaining a general moratorium, and this is still in force. While this moratorium undeniably transfers part of the unliquidity from the debtor to the creditor, it has served to calm minds and to allow time for readjustment.

How to protect the established economic system in Germany?

In Germany as in other European countries the best way to protect the established economic system, based on the citizens as private capitalists, is for there to be a wide distribution of small farmers and their families . Not until the last farmer has been driven from his land will the road lie open to bolshevism. Indeed, as the example of Russia shows, the battle has not really been won even then. For even after the Soviet Government had forcibly collectivized its peasants it was not able to prevent them from remaining capitalists in their thoughts, with the result that already a new agrarian reform is imminent.

What is the state of Württemberg?

Württemberg is a real oasis in the German desert of depression. It is the one German state which is able to balance its budget, which has no public debts which it cannot meet, and where there is less unemployment than anywhere else in Germany. But all this is by no means the most astonishing aspect of its unique situation. Württemberg has no coal, no iron, nor any other metals; its most important districts are not even connected by any direct waterways. Yet its industries produce manufactures of the very highest standard — fine motors, automobiles and zeppelins, the famous Bosch magnetos, medical instruments, pianos, highly artistic furniture, linotype machines, arms, clocks and watches, toys, jewelry, and high-class leather and textile goods. In short, the best products of their kind are manufactured in Württemberg, a country without raw materials. These flourishing industries are accounted for in part by the high-class labor which is supplied by the families of the farmers. But one of the main reasons why Württemberg has been able to weather the crisis so successfully in all branches of its economic production is the purchasing power of its up-to-date farmers, who are able to consume all sorts of industrial products and other consumers’ goods. This insures a brisk market, so that money changes hands there as readily as milk, eggs, vegetables and fruits.

Why is Germany so productive?

That is why the soil is so much more productive there, although it must be added that the climate is also more reliable and favorable . Eastern Germany was not opened up for more or less intensive agriculture until about four hundred years ago, when it first was properly colonized. It is due to this circumstance that in these eastern provinces, where the large estates predominate, the rural civilization is on a distinctly lower level than in western Germany. The feudal system of landownership continued here until quite recent times. Up to the beginning of the last century the large landowners had only a comparatively small part of their land under their own management, the remaining and larger part being cultivated by peasants who were serfs; in those days, therefore, there were no landless agricultural laborers. After the Wars of Liberation, in 1813, an agrarian reform was attempted, but with the result that the landowners expelled hundreds of thousands of peasants or serfs and took under their own management the land that the latter had previously cultivated. In this way the powerful estate owners frustrated the reform and established their own complete supremacy. For not only were they thenceforward the leaders and supporters of agriculture in all its branches, as far as eastern Germany was concerned, but they were also the upper class both in political and in social life. From their ranks came a very considerable percentage of the German diplomats and officers, the higher officials, the judges, the chiefs of administrative districts, and the presidents of governmental bodies. They and their families constituted “society,” at the head of which stood the royal family.

Is Germany an industrial state?

GERMANY is an industrial state. Paradoxically, however, the agrarian problem today not only occupies the center of the economic stage, but is also the focus in which party politics converge. In France, where half the people live on the land, serious or acute agrarian problems are seldom heard of, and the discussion of agrarian questions is usually …

Can aristocratic estate owners bring their businesses back to prosperity?

But granting that the large landholders and aristocratic estate-owners are clever tacticians and perfect managers, they nevertheless can never succeed in bringing their enterprises back to prosperity. In all the countries of Europe they have been outstripped in the onward march of economic progress. Nor can the government possibly continue to employ the method of social aid which up to now it has been using in the hope of rescuing them. For that method is the most expensive one that could have been devised, consisting as it does in granting subventions in a round-about way to the form of economic enterprise which is the most unprofitable. It is like pouring water into a sieve. It would be far less expensive to extend a helping hand to the members of this class directly by appointing them to government posts, in which they could render very valuable services. Even if the government had bought up at reasonable prices all the large estates whose owners found themselves involved in difficulties, the 2,000,000,000 marks which would have been required for that purpose would have been well spent, because the political air would have been cleared. As things now are, the thanks of the large landowners for the monster subventions they have been enjoying generally assume the form of votes against the government and countless intrigues, both in domestic and in foreign politics. To build up a new social structure founded on millions of independent farmers is therefore an immensely important task from the standpoint of high state policy.

What is the concern of German farmers?

According to Dohme, German farmers are extremely concerned — including those who farm livestock. He said grass and maize used to feed animals was already running low and some unripe wheat had to be cut down in certain parts of Germany.

What is hydroponic farming?

Hydroponics essentially means growing plants without soil, and instead using a nutrient-rich solution to supply them with water and minerals.

What are the downsides of hydroponics?

The downsides of hydroponics. Running a hydroponic farm can be complex, energy-intensive and expensive. Plants require many essential nutrients, and the farm needs a large amount of equipment. Heat and light, supplied for free by the sun in conventional farms, have to be provided artifically and paid for.

Does the government help farmers?

“Apart from dealing with the capricious weather, they have to meet environmental standards like the new fertilizer law.” In general, the government offers farmers help when it comes to installing better cooling systems, choosing new methods of cultivation, and selecting crops more suited to climate change, Wettern says.

Do orchards have withered?

Though many crops have withered, orchard harvests have been bountiful

Do German farmers harvest wheat?

While wheat farmers have taken a hit, German fruit farmers are doing well. They are reaping a substantial, albeit early harvest. Some have even begun harvesting their fruit as early as their Mediterranean peers.

How wide is the plain of Poland?

In Poland, the plain is only 300 miles wide—from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Carpathian Mountains in the south—but after that point it stretches to a width of about 2,000 miles near the Russian border, and from there, it offers a flat route straight to Moscow.

Why is Russia’s lack of a warm water port important?

Vladivostok, the largest Russian port on the Pacific Ocean, is enclosed by the Sea of Japan, which is dominated by the Japanese. This does not just halt the flow of trade into and out of Russia; it prevents the Russian fleet from operating as a global power, as it does not have year-round access to the world’s most important sea-lanes.

What would happen if God had built mountains in Ukraine?

If God had built mountains in eastern Ukraine, then the great expanse of flatland that is the European Plain would not have been such inviting territory for the invaders who have attacked Russia from there repeatedly through history. As things stand, Putin, like Russian leaders before him, likely feels he has no choice but to at least try …

Which country gained access to the Caspian Sea?

Russia had begun a moderate expansion under Ivan’s grandfather, but Ivan accelerated it after he came to power in the 16th century. He extended his territory east to the Ural Mountains, south to the Caspian Sea, and north toward the Arctic Circle. Russia gained access to the Caspian, and later the Black Sea, thus taking advantage …

Who brought down the pro-Russia government?

But when protests in Ukraine brought down the pro-Russia government of Viktor Yanukovych and a new, more pro-Western government came to power, Putin had a choice. He could have respected the territorial integrity of Ukraine, or he could have done what Russian leaders have done for centuries with the bad geographic cards they were dealt.

Does Russia have long supply lines?

On the other hand, Russia’s vastness has also protected it; by the time an army approaches Moscow, it already has unsustainably long supply lines, which become increasingly difficult to protect as they extend across Russian territory. Napoleon made this mistake in 1812, and Hitler repeated it in 1941.

Is Russia finished with Ukraine?

Russia has not finished with Ukraine yet, nor Syria. From the Grand Principality of Moscow, through Peter the Great, Stalin, and now Putin, each Russian leader has been confronted by the same problems. It doesn’t matter if the ideology of those in control is czarist, communist, or crony capitalist—the ports still freeze, …

What is the European plain?

The European Plain marked in grey. The European Plain or Great European Plain is a plain in Europe and is a major feature of one of four major topographical units of Europe – the Central and Interior Lowlands. It is the largest mountain -free landform in Europe, although a number of highlands are identified within it.

What was the European plain once covered with?

The European plain was once largely covered by forest, before human settlement and the resulting deforestation that occurred. One of the last (and largest) remnants of this primeval forest is Białowieża Forest, which straddles the border between Belarus and Poland.

What biome is the plains of the eastern part of the world?

Most of the plain lies in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forest biome, while its far eastern portion extends into steppe of the ecoregion Eurasian Steppe .

How wide is the plain in Europe?

In Western Europe, the plain is relatively narrow (mostly within 200 miles or 320 kilometres in width) in the northern part of Europe, but it broadens significantly toward its eastern part in Western Russia.

What are the mountains in the Middle European Plain?

To the south of the Middle European Plain stretch the central uplands and plateaus of Europe elevating to the peaks of the Alps, the Carpathian Mountains and the Balkan Mountains.

Which river flows northwards in East Europe?

Hydrology. The plains are cut by many important rivers like the Loire, Rhine and Vistula in the west; the Northern Dvina and Daugava flowing northwards in East Europe and Russia and the Volga, the Don and the Dnieper flowing southwards of the European Russia .


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