How does vertical zonation affect agriculture


Beyond providing fresh local produce, vertical agriculture could help increase food production and expand agricultural operations as the world’s population is projected to exceed 9 billion by 2050. And by that same year, two out of every three people are expected to live in urban areas.

Vertical zonation is the idea that different types of plants grow at different elevations because the temperature becomes colder as you gain elevation.


What is vertical zonation?

 · Vertical zonation affects the kinds of crops people can grow. Different crops need different amounts of rainfall and temperatures to grow well. Study guides Population 21 cards Who will live longer…

What are the challenges of vertical farming?

 · Indoor vertical farms are less likely to feel the brunt of the unfavorable weather, providing greater certainty of harvest output throughout the year. Increased Production of Organic Crops: As crops are produced in a well-controlled indoor environment without the use of chemical pesticides, vertical farming allows us to grow pesticide-free and organic crops.

What are the factors that affect zone zonation?

 · Vertical farming also uses less water, grows plants faster, and can be used year-round – not just in certain seasons. The facilities also can, in theory, be built anywhere.

What is vertical agriculture and how can it help the world?

 · CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGRICULTURE. Over half of the world population lives in cities, and this figure is projected to rise to two-thirds in by the middle of this century.The rise …


How do vertical climate zones affect?

Vertical climate refers to the pattern of weather in a region whose growth patterns are primarily affected by elevation. In vertical climate zones, the climate becomes colder as the elevation increases.

What is a vertical climate zone?

Vertical climate is characterized by a terrestrial landscape that changes dramatically with an increase in altitude. As mountains rise, the climate surrounding them changes based on elevation.

Which vertical climate zone in Mexico is also known as hot land?

identify distinct vertical temperature zones: tierra caliente, or “hot land,” tierra templada, or “temperate land,” and tierra fria, or “cold land.” Unlike climatic areas farther from the Equator, there is little seasonal variation in temperature at any elevation in the tropics.

What are the four vertical climate zones of Mexico?

Terms in this set (9)Tierra Helada.Tierra Fria.Tierra Templada.Tierra Caliente.

How do vertical climate zones affect the economic activity of the Southern Highlands?

how do vertical climate zones affect the economic activity of the southern highlands? temperate or mild climate encourages agriculture. what influenced Mexico’s political and social structures?

What type of agricultural activity takes place in the Puna climate zone?

What type of agricultural activity takes place in the puna climate zone? Grazing sheep, llamas, and alpacas.

What impact do you think elevation and climate might have had on Incan life?

Answer. Answer: New research has revealed that a prolonged period of warm weather between AD1100 and 1533 cleared large areas of mountain land to be used for farming, helping the Incas to spread their influence from Colombia to the central plains of Chile.

What challenges do you think climate and elevation might have posed for the Maya text to speech?

What challenges do you think climate and elevation might have posed for the Mayas? Elevation: Lack of good soil for farming, Rainy weather almost all the time, little sunshine.

How did the elevation and climate affect the way the Aztecs lived?

How would you predict that elevation and climate might affect the way the Aztecs lived? The high elevation and semiarid climate might have made transportation and farming difficult. You just studied 5 terms!

What kinds of crops grow in the tierra fría zone?

Common crops grown in the tierra fría are potatoes, wheat, barley, oats, corn, and rye.

Which of the vertical climate zones is the most densely populated?

why is the Tierra Templana the most densely populated of all the vertical climate zones?

How do the high elevations of inland Peru Bolivia and Chile influence precipitation in these areas?

How do the high elevations of inland Peru, Bolivia, and Chile influence precipitation in these areas? The cold air and high elevations result in very little precipitation. Shifting winds and the rain shadow effect of the Andes keep rain from falling in the inland areas, producing an arid climate.

What types of climate zones are found in Latin America?

South America can be divided into four major climatic regions—tropical, temperate, arid, and cold—their parameters determined by the elements described above.

What is the most common climate zone in Central America?

tropical climateCentral America has an overall humid, tropical climate with distinct dry and rainy seasons throughout the region.

What is Tierra Caliente climate?

Tierra caliente is an informal term used in Latin America to refer to places with a distinctly tropical climate. These are usually regions from sea level from 0–3,000 feet.

What is especially unique about the tierra fría climate zone?

In Latin America, tierra fría (Spanish for cold land) are mountain locations where high elevation results in a markedly cooler climate than that encountered in the lowlands at a comparable latitude.

How does vertical farming increase crop production?

Increased And Year-Round Crop Production: Vertical farming allows us to produce more crops from the same square footage of growing area. In fact, 1 acre of an indoor area offers equivalent production to at least 4-6 acres of outdoor capacity. 5  According to an independent estimate, a 30-story building with a basal area of 5 acres can potentially produce an equivalent of 2,400 acres of conventional horizontal farming. 6  Additionally, year-round crop production is possible in a controlled indoor environment which is completely controlled by vertical farming technologies.

Why is vertical farming so dependent on technology?

But the entire vertical farming is extremely dependent on various technologies for lighting, maintaining temperature, and humidity. Losing power for just a single day can prove very costly for a vertical farm. Many believe the technologies in use today are not ready for mass adoption.

Why is automation important in vertical farming?

Automation in vertical farms, however, may lead to the need for fewer workers. Manual pollination may become one of the more labor-intensive functions in vertical farms. Too Much Dependency on Technology: The development of better technologies can always increase efficiency and lessen costs.

Is pollination labor intensive?

As such, the pollination process needs to be done manually, which will be labor intensive and costly. Labor Costs: As high as energy costs are in vertical farming, labor costs can be even higher due to their concentration in urban centers where wages are higher, as well as the need for more skilled labor.

Is vertical farming good for the environment?

Human and Environmentally Friendly: Indoor vertical farming can significantly lessen the occupational hazards associated with traditional farming. Farmers are not exposed to hazards related to heavy farming equipment, diseases like malaria, poisonous chemicals and so on. As it does not disturb animals and trees inland areas, it is good for biodiversity as well.

Is vertical farming humane?

Human and Environmentally Friendly: Indoor vertical farming can significantly lessen the occupational hazards associated with traditional farming. Farmers are not exposed to hazards related to heavy farming equipment, diseases like malaria, poisonous chemicals and so on.

How much less water is used in vertical farming?

Less Use Of Water In Cultivation: Vertical farming allows us to produce crops with 70% to 95% less water than required for normal cultivation. 7 

What is vertical farming?

It’s called vertical farming, and several companies have sprung up over the last 10 years or so, filling old warehouses and disused factories with structures that grow vegetables and herbs in cramped, artificially lit quarters out of the warm glow of the sun. A firm called Urban Crops is one of them.

Where is the largest vertical farm in the world?

One of the biggest names in vertical farming, however, has a different business model. AeroFarms in New Jersey, USA , has opened what they say is the world’s largest indoor vertical farm – with a total of 7,000 sq m (70,000 sq ft) floor space – and they’re hoping to produce tasty greens in massive quantities.

Why do plants grow indoors?

By growing plants indoors, you get a lot of fine-grained control you get over the resources your crops need. It allows for rapid growing and predictable nutrient content. The LEDs, for example, can be turned up or down at will and, because they do not give out lots of heat like old filament bulbs, they can be kept close to the plants for optimal light absorption.

How does Plenty shorten the food supply chain?

Transportation: Plenty shortens the food supply chain by producing food in cities where it will be consumed, reducing the need for food transportation.

Does mass agriculture affect the environment?

Not only does mass-agriculture have a negative impact on climate change, climate change also has a negative impact on agriculture productivity.

What is vertical zonation?

Consequently, vertical littoral zonation is a consistent pattern at a regional scale within the same biogeographical zone. While their distribution varies at the same shore height, marine species and assemblages from rocky shores show a specific vertical sequence known as zonation. A key question in ecology is how consistent is zonation along large spatial scales. The aim of this study is to show distribution patterns of littoral assemblages at a regional scale and to identify the most relevant abiotic factors associated to such patterns. The study is based on a detailed and extensive survey at a regional scale on a tideless rocky shore. Benthic macroflora and macrofauna of 750 relevés were described along the vertical axis of 143 transects distributed across the shoreline of Catalonia (NW Mediterranean). The Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) first axis is highly related to the height on the shore: species, relevés, and assemblages grade from lower to upper height (infralittoral to supralittoral). As observed in nature, different assemblages co-occur at the same height at different sites, which is shown along DCA second axis. The abiotic variables that best explain the assemblage distribution patterns are: height (75% of the model inertia), longitude (14.6%), latitude (7.2%) and transect slope (2.9%). The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) first axis is related to height on the shore and explains four times more variance than CCA second axis, which is related to the horizontal gradient. Generalized Lineal Model (GLM) results show that height on the shore is the factor explaining most of the variance in species presence. Most studied species show distribution patterns related to latitude and longitude, but always in a much smaller proportion than to height.

What is zonation in ecology?

Zonation can be defined as the distribution of species and communities along environmental gradients. The natural layering of ecosystems along altitude in mountain regions is well known (e.g. Daubenmire, 1943, Hagvar, 2005, Hemp, 2006) but zonation also occurs in freshwater (e.g. Spence, 1982, Machena, 1988) and marine environments (e.g. Logan et al., 1984, Abbiati et al., 1987, Rodil et al., 2006 ). Littoral rocky shores are in the transition between terrestrial and marine environments, but because of water movement associated with tides, waves and spray, the transition is not abrupt but gradual. A strong environmental stress gradient occurs perpendicular to shore related to desiccation, temperature and irradiance, which exhibit their most extreme values towards the upper limit of the littoral zone. The distribution of organisms along this vertical gradient in a specific spatial sequence is known as littoral zonation. This pattern has long been studied (e.g. Wahlenberg, 1812, Baker, 1909, Zaneveld, 1937, Ballesteros and Romero, 1988) and it is considered universal by some authors ( Mokyevsky, 1960, Barnes and Hughes, 1999 ).

How many species were plotted along the height of the shore?

Finally, as the vertical gradient repeatedly appeared as important, the distribution of the 23 species were plotted along the height of the shore.

What is the main distribution pattern of littoral assemblages and species?

The hypothesis is that zonation is the main distribution pattern of littoral assemblages and species.

Why do zonation patterns vary along the coast?

However, zonation patterns may vary along the coast due to processes unrelated to vertical gradients. Furthermore, different factors emerge as the main drivers of ecological processes and patterns depending on the spatial scale ( Levin, 1992, Willig et al., 2003 ). Consequently, in recent times studies have focused on the variability of littoral assemblages and species at different spatial scales along shores either influenced ( Burrows et al., 2009, Cruz-Motta et al., 2010, Valdivia et al., 2011, Veiga et al., 2013) or not influenced by tides (e.g. Abbiati et al., 1991, Menconi et al., 1999, Fraschetti et al., 2005, Cruz-Motta et al., 2010 ). These studies show that the distribution of species and assemblages along the horizontal axis (i.e. parallel to the sea surface) is important at different scales, from fine-scale (10s of cm) to broad scales (100s or 1000s of km). Among possible relevant causes for patterns and distributions along the shore (horizontal variation) there are abiotic factors, such as changes in topography of the substratum ( Underwood, 2004 ), physical disturbance (e.g. changes in wave exposure, Schoch et al., 2006, Tuya and Haroun, 2006) and coastal geomorphology ( Schoch and Dethier, 1996 ), and biotic factors such as whiplash (frond sweeping by canopy-forming seaweeds, Kiirikki, 1996a ), variations in grazing and predation activity ( Rilov and Schiel, 2011) and variation in recruitment ( Reaugh-Flower et al., 2011 ). At the global scale, Cruz-Motta et al. (2010) related distribution patterns of assemblages to photoperiod, temperature and rainfall.

Is longitude and latitude correlated?

The studied coastline stretches diagonally from NE to SW, consequently longitude and latitude coordinates are highly correlated (0.93 Pearson correlation, p < 0.05) and provide similar information. The CCA scatterplot performed with a reduced model of height and longitude as environmental variables is shown in Fig. 3. Finally, only half of the selected variables are included as they explain more than 90% of the model inertia and the last three variable vectors point at the same direction. ANOVA tests on the CCA model ( p = 0.005), on the first two axes (both p = 0.005) and on the two environmental variables included (both p = 0.01) are significant.

What is zonation in biology?

Zonation refers to the patterns that are observed in a community over a distance, based on the distinct fauna and flora found along the area. Although the different zones are characterized by the dominant species inhabiting them, the separation of zones isn’t always a clear straight line, but instead there is some overlapping of species, particularly where the zones meet. Sometimes, however, the overlapping can disappear or be very small if one species completely out-competes the others by predation or competition over resources, and we can see clear-cut zonation.

What are the factors that affect the presence of a species in an area?

The presence or abundance of a species in an area depends on different biotic factors, such as altitude, temperature, and salinity, as well abiotic factors, like predation and competition for food and space. This results in zonation, since every species is adapted to surviving specific environmental conditions that are not found everywhere. For instance, as we go up a mountain and the altitude changes, the species of plants and animals we find also change, depending on the altitude that they can tolerate to exist at.

How many species can a zone have?

B. Every zone can only have one kind of animal species in it

How do high tides and low tides affect the environment?

High tides and low tides create very different environments for the organisms living in the intertidal zone, so to exist in that area, species must become adapted to being submerged by water as well as to being exposed to the wind and sunlight, risking dryness. 2.

What is succession in ecology?

Succession – Change that occurs in an ecological community over time.

What are the three parts of the intertidal zone?

Within it, the intertidal zone has been categorized into three parts: the high, middle, and low zones . These three zones differ in the amount of exposure to different environmental factors that they receive, so we find that each zone is occupied by different species of organisms depending on the different adaptations they posses. The mid intertidal zone is turbulent since it is being repeatedly submerged and exposed. On the other hand, the high zone is mostly exposed and the low zone is mostly submerged. This means that at the lower end, we can mostly find marine life, like seaweed and sea cucumber, while at the high intertidal zone we can find species that are adapted to being out of the water for most of the day, like some isopods and crabs. Keep in mind that some species may be adapted to survive in all intertidal zones, but may not be able to in some places or during certain times due to competition with other organisms for resources. This is unlike the way other species are restricted to a particular zone due to their inability to survive environmental conditions at other zones.

What are the environmental factors that affect rocky shores?

Environmental factors, such as temperature, wind exposure, light intensity, wave action, and salinity, vary as we move up and down this area.

What are the factors that influence the distribution of organisms on the seashore?

Below is a summary of the main factors which can influence the distribution of organisms on the seashore. DESICCATION occurs as a result of emersion at low tide; influences the upper and middle shore. WAVE ACTION more wave action means the water splashes higher and so the zones occur higher up on the shore.

What is the effect of high temperature on the upper shore?

High temperatures will increase the affect of drying out. Increases salinity in pools. ASPECT is the direction the shore faces.

What are the biological factors that affect the seaweed community?

These are the biological factors influencing the community. Algal turf, like Osmundea and Chondrus, will slow down the drainage on the shore and reduce desiccation. Grazing is very important. A high concentration of limpets will reduce the establishment of the normally dominant brown seaweed.

Which direction does the shore face?

ASPECT is the direction the shore faces. South facing will have more illumination and warmth, but dries faster; north is cooler, darker and less likely to dry out. Thus, on a north facing slope community bands will be wider and higher up the shore.

What does it mean when a wave action is more powerful?

WAVE ACTION more wave action means the water splashes higher and so the zones occur higher up on the shore. The strong force produced by powerful wave action will determine not just whether that organism can remain attached to the rock but also may have an effect on its growth. E.g.

What is the effect of water movement on algae?

The fucoid algae have a “whiplash” affect, where water movement causes a sweeping action of the alga across the rock and prevents the attachment of algae spores and the settling of planktonic larvae. In this way it competes with barnacles. If the later does manage to become established it may push out the wrack.


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