How does flood damage affect an agricultural operation?
Flood damage can impact an agricultural operation in many ways. Not only can a flood make a field unsuitable for planting, but it can also ruin crops that have already been harvested. According to the FDA, flood water is “inherently unsanitary,” and “food that has been in contact with floodwater to be unfit for human consumption.”
What are the effects of floods on the environment?
Unpredictable floods can be harmful even to aquatic life. For example, fish can be displaced and their nests destroyed. Floodwaters can also alter the landscape, for instance, by eroding riverbanks and causing them to collapse.
What are the flow-on effects of reduced agricultural production?
The flow-on effects of reduced agricultural production can often impact well outside the production area as food prices increase due to shortages in supply (Prosser, et al., 2001).
What happens to livestock during a flood?
Most times when livestock is not completely lost, they get affected by a number of diseases due to exposure to flood water which is unclean and naturally likely to be contaminated with disease pathogens. The relationship is clear, when farmers are displaced it is almost impossible for them to grow crops and animals.
How does flooding affect agriculture?
The agriculture sector is particularly vulnerable to floods. Floods can inundate farmlands and cause major damage to crops, especially if they strike during planting or harvesting season. In many cases, the damage from a single flood can last multiple seasons if soil health is strongly affected. The historic flooding that has occurred this year across the Great Plains and Upper Midwest has substantially damaged millions of acres of cropland. Consequently, corn this year was planted at the slowest pace in the past 40 years. Growers were facing a high-stakes decision: postpone planting and risk having a short season, or rely on crop insurance to partially cover their losses.
Why are floods increasing?
However, it has been demonstrated that the frequency and intensity of floods have increased in recent years as a consequence of climate change and anthropogenic activities.
What type of floods are caused by intense rainfall?
This includes damages due to various types of floods including: riverine flooding which happens when the flow capacity of a river is exceeded and water spills out over the banks, coastal flooding which occurs when low lying land is flooded by seawater, and flash flooding which is primarily caused by intense rainfall.
How long does it take for a flood to dry up?
It is important to note that the impacts of floods do not end right after flood termination. Since the inundated farms must dry up (that can take several weeks ) before the heavy equipment and tractors can enter the land, and next season’s schedule can be pushed back, which can adversely impact the succeeding harvest.
What crops are harvested during flash floods?
In south and central California, for instance, more than 30 different crops and vegetables are harvested during the peak flash flood season (Jul, Aug, and Sep), some of which only grow in that particular period including blackberries, boysenberries, eggplants, potatoes, and sweet potatoes.
What is the costliest natural hazard?
Floods are the costliest natural hazard, affecting the greatest number of people worldwide, and they have caused the largest portion of insured losses among all the natural catastrophes in recent decades.
Is California prone to floods?
California is commonly known to be a drought-prone region (especially after the exceptional 2011–2017 California drought ), however, much of the state’s ag lands are also highly susceptible to damage by floods. 2017 was one of Northern California’s wettest winters in almost a century. Intense storms inundated farmlands across the state and damaged/destroyed crops causing hundreds of thousands of dollars in damages and raising vegetable prices in farmer’s markets. Early last year in Feb 2019, the USDA offered immediate disaster assistance and loan programs to the flood impacted farmers and ranchers in California, following the heavy rains that happened in early 2019. It is important to note that the impacts of floods do not end right after flood termination. Since the inundated farms must dry up (that can take several weeks) before the heavy equipment and tractors can enter the land, and next season’s schedule can be pushed back, which can adversely impact the succeeding harvest.
How does agriculture help the economy?
Agriculture is part of the bedrock of American life. It provides food for our tables, jobs for our citizens, and it supports a significant chunk of our economy. U.S. agricultural exports alone generate more than $100 billion annually in business activity in the U.S., and provide jobs for nearly one million workers.
What is the purpose of planting a variety of crops?
Plant a variety of crops, including those that are less water intensive and hard on the soil, to reduce water consumption and defend against drought ; Incentivize conservation best management practices (e.g., conservation planning) by offering reduced agricultural insurance (crop/ index-based) rates; and.
How does flooding affect agriculture?
Flooding affects several aspects of agricultural production and productivity. There are losses in crops washed down by inundation. In many instances, the crops are unrecoverable after a flood occurs. In areas that are often hit by a flash flood or riverine floods, livestock are lost or displaced including fish in water bodies or in ponds whose structures are not strong and grazing lands for livestock are lost as well. Most times when livestock is not completely lost, they get affected by a number of diseases due to exposure to flood water which is unclean and naturally likely to be contaminated with disease pathogens. The relationship is clear, when farmers are displaced it is almost impossible for them to grow crops and animals. In 2019, flash floods had affected many homes and farmlands in 36 states in Nigeria. Read the full report https://bit.ly/3hP22Q2. An important impact is the siltation of water bodies and could increase in the deposition of silt material in water bodies. When flooding occurs, water carries silt & sediments down the lowlands which could be valleys, rivers or dams. The silt and sediments would settle and accumulate a significant part of that water body thereby reducing the storage capacity of that body leading to a positive feedback loop. Continuous siltation caused by the flood would eventually lead the reservoir to overflow, with more heavy rains, this would lead to the increased frequency of inundation and so the cycle continues.
What are the best ways to control floods?
Recommendations for the government. 1 To achieve control over floods especially in urban areas and large cities, the government should enforce regulations on single-use plastic which clogs drainage and waterways and lead to flooding. 2 Deforestation which surges Climate Change should be controlled. Trees, shrubs and hedges should be planted around farmlands to help protect crops from the heavy impact of flooding and trap soils washed by flowing water. 3 Local knowledge and resources should be highly considered to ensure sustainability and cost-effectiveness. 4 More effort should be put in sensitising the public on the dangers of flooding and flood management. The Nigeria Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) and Nigeria Hydrological Services Agency (NIHSA) are doing great reaching out to the public, their work is commendable. 5 Infrastructure in rural areas should be enhanced. Land use planning, designated floodways, reservoirs and barriers such as canals, dams, levees or floodwalls should be solidly built and maintained by agencies responsible. Federal Ministry of Water Resources and The River Basin Development Authority. 6 Finally, citizens and smallholder farmer should be made aware of the dangers and risks of flooding and other climate-related events. They should be sensitised on what role they are expected to play in mitigating and reducing the impacts of flooding.
How can deforestation be controlled?
Deforestation which surges Climate Change should be controlled. Trees, shrubs and hedges should be planted around farmlands to help protect crops from the heavy impact of flooding and trap soils washed by flowing water.
What are some ways farmers can help the soil?
Farmers could do a lot on their part. Farming systems like zero tillage should be adopted by farmers. Soil disturbance during farming or grazing should be greatly minimized to keep the soils particles in place to a large extent. Another measure is to adopt the mulching of farmlands. This is of great benefit to both crops and the soil as well. Impact of floods on mulched crop fields will be significantly reduced, thus protecting the soil structure.
What financial tools are used to mitigate floods?
Both farmers and the government contribute to the premium to cover for crop losses, livestock included. There are other national and international insurance companies that cover agricultural losses, make flood forecasts and offer advisory services in relation to flooding. Climate financing and taxing could be used by governments to off-set for the loss incurred by #SHF during and after floods. Similar financial tools can be employed to put in place infrastructures that could minimise the risk of floods occurring in most agricultural settlements.
What should be improved in rural areas?
Infrastructure in rural areas should be enhanced. Land use planning, designated floodways, reservoirs and barriers such as canals, dams, levees or floodwalls should be solidly built and maintained by agencies responsible. Federal Ministry of Water Resources and The River Basin Development Authority.
Should farmers be made aware of the dangers and risks of flooding?
Finally, citizens and smallholder farmer should be made aware of the dangers and risks of flooding and other climate-related events. They should be sensitised on what role they are expected to play in mitigating and reducing the impacts of flooding.
Depending on the time of year and the growth stage of plants, flooding and severe weather can be devastating to Michigan’s family farms. The following information will help farmers deal with the impacts of flooding and severe weather in their fields.
USDA’s disaster program available for weather-related crop losses
Published on September 11, 2020
Producers with crop losses due to drought in 2018 or excessive rain in 2019 may qualify for USDA’s WHIP+ disaster program.
Significant flooding in Michigan has caused hardships for agriculture, MSU Extension responds
Published on June 5, 2020
MSU Extension has developed a resource a document to help support agricultural producers making flood-related decisions.
Southwest Michigan field crop update – May 28, 2020
Published on May 28, 2020
Warm air from the south pushes tropical rainfall and armyworm moths into Michigan.
How does flooding affect soybean germination?
Published on May 21, 2020
Important information about soybean fields planted prior to the recent heavy rain events.
MSU Extension Farm Stress Program partners to connect farmers with mental health services
Published on April 14, 2020
Farmers can now access counseling with licensed therapists via teletherapy.
Repairing your flood-damaged fields
Published on July 7, 2017
Management options for restoring productivity in flood-damaged areas.
What are the effects of floods on agriculture?
Flooding in key agricultural production areas can lead to widespread damage to crops and fencing and loss of livestock. Crop losses through rain damage, waterlogged soils, and delays in harvesting are further intensified by transport problems due to flooded roads and damaged infrastructure.
How does flooding affect the economy?
The environmental benefits of flooding can also help the economy through things such as increased fish production, recharge of groundwater resources, and maintenance of recreational environments (Bunn and Arthington, 2002).
What are the environmental resources in Kwale?
The environmental resources in Kwale most especially the land and soil resources are greatly threaten by flooding. The Kwale and its environ is covered by beautiful vegetation naturally checking the menace. This flooding menace has destroyed arable land for agricultural purposes which are the major socio-economic activities of the Kwale people. The government in his attempt to curb the situation has constructed a drainage system some meters away from the major road to redirect and channel all the water flowing to the erosion sites into the drainage system which is emptied into the river. Despite all this effort, the situation still remains the same.
What happens when a city floods?
Flooding of urban areas can result in significant damage to private property, including homes and businesses. Losses occur due to damage to both the structure and contents of buildings. Insurance of the structure and its contents against flooding can reduce the impacts of floods on individuals or companies .
What are the environmental problems that have confronted man since immemorial?
Flooding is one of the environmental problems that have confronted man since immemorial. Flooding is a widespread and age long phenomenon. In Kwale, flooding has created and causes untold hardship such as destruction of building and properties, interruption of socio-economic development of the area. Jon (2011), defined flooding as a condition, which exist when any overland flow over an urban or rural area, that is sufficient to cause property damage, health hazard, nuisance and the obstruction of the socio-economic activities in the area. He went further the types of flooding to include rivers flood , flash flood, splash flood and flood bondages.
What are the negative effects of flooding?
Other negative effects include loss of habitat, dispersal of weed species, the release of pollutants, lower fish production, loss of wetlands function, and loss of recreational areas (Kingsford, 2000). Flooding is one of the environmental problems that have confronted man since immemorial. Flooding is a widespread and age long phenomenon.
What are the long term impacts of disruption?
Damage to infrastructure also causes long-term impacts, such as disruptions to supplies of clean water, wastewater treatment, electricity, transport, communication, education and health care.
What are the long term impacts of floods?
Floods have long-term impacts. Here are issues a farmer must address after waters recede: 1 Sediment and debris 2 Erosion repair 3 Soil repair and nutrient management 4 Crop repair
When farmers have advance notice of flooding, can they take some precautions?
With advance notice of a flood, farmers can take some precautions. This was the case preceding flooding in 2011. Farmers emptied grain bins, moved live stock and equipment to higher ground, moved or chained down propane tanks and removed power units from irrigation systems.
How much sediment is deposited on topsoil?
Moving water carries soil particles. When the water slows, sediment is deposited on the soil surface, ranging from a few inches to 15 feet of sediment covering topsoil – or more. Shallow deposits of 2 inches or less can be tilled into the topsoil with normal tillage equipment.
Why do farmers need to till deep enough to thoroughly mix this sediment with the topsoil?
Farmers need to till deep enough to thoroughly mix this sediment with the topsoil. This reduces differences in soil texture between the sediment and the original soil, which affects root development and water infiltration. One consequence of severe flooding is erosion. Farmers must fix their fields before sowing seed.
Why is grain in bins swollen?
Grain in many bins swelled when exposed to floodwater and split open, resulting in the loss of grain and the bin. When farmers have advance notice that river levels are high, and there may be flooding, they can take precautions. In 2019, there was no advance notice.
How deep should sediment be for tillage?
For sediment deposits over 2 inches deep, more aggressive tillage equipment should be used to insure adequate mixing of sediment and the native soil. If more than 8 inches of sediment covers cropland, the farmer must remove sediment to get it to a manageable depth for their tillage equipment.
What river is flooding in 2019?
In 2019, some stations along the Missouri River reported the river crested at 4 feet higher than 2011 levels. Credit: John Wilson. Compounding the problem, North and South Dakota and Minnesota received significant snowfall. This later melted in the spring, extending the flooding period.
Why do floods affect the ecosystem?
Floods transport vital nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic material, to the surrounding land. When the water recedes , it leaves sediment and nutrients behind on the floodplain. This rich, natural fertilizer improves soil quality and has a positive effect on plant growth, thus increasing productivity in the ecosystem. Ancient civilizations first arose along the deltas of seasonally flooded rivers, such as the Nile in Egypt, because they provided fertile soil for farmland.
What are the effects of floodwater?
Floodwater can be contaminated with pollutants such as agricultural pesticides, industrial chemicals, debris, and sewage. If contaminated floodwater enters the ocean it can affect water quality and disrupt delicate ecosystems, such as coral reefs. In February 2019, marine biologists feared for the safety of the Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland, a state in Australia, after it was inundated with polluted floodwater.
What is the term for a natural substance that kills organisms that threaten agriculture or are undesirable?
natural or manufactured substance used to kill organisms that threaten agriculture or are undesirable. Pesticides can be fungicides (which kill harmful fungi), insecticides (which kill harmful insects), herbicides (which kill harmful plants), or rodenticides (which kill harmful rodents.)
How do floods affect fish?
Small seasonal floods can be beneficial to native fish stocks and can help them outcompete invasive species that are not adapted to the river’s cycles. Sediment deposited on riverbeds during floods can provide a nursery site for small fish. Nutrients carried by floodwater can support aquatic food webs by boosting productivity.
How does floodwater affect the landscape?
Floodwaters can also alter the landscape, for instance, by eroding riverbanks and causing them to collapse. As floodwaters carry material from the eroded banks, sediment becomes suspended in the water, which can degrade water quality and lead to harmful blooms of algae. Suspended sediment eventually settles out of the water in a process called sedimentation, which can clog riverbeds and streams, smother aquatic organisms, and destroy habitats. Erosion and sedimentation have a more negative impact on ecosystems that are already degraded or heavily modified.
How does flood water replenish the ground?
Floods can replenish underground water sources. Floodwater gets absorbed into the ground and then percolates through layers of soil and rock, eventually reaching underground aquifers. These aquifers supply clean freshwater to springs, wells, lakes, and rivers. Ecosystems rely heavily on groundwater during dry spells when it may be the only supply of freshwater available. A good supply of groundwater has a positive impact on soil health and leads to more productive crop and pasture lands.
What causes the Tonle Sap river to flood?
In Cambodia, monsoon rains cause an annual flood pulse on the Mekong River that prompts migrations for some animals. The floodwaters cause the Tonle Sap river, which connects the Mekong River to Tonle Sap lake, to reverse its flow, filling the lake. When floodwaters enter the lake, it triggers fish migrations, supporting one of the world’s most productive fisheries.