How has commercial agriculture changed agriculture


For thousands of years, commercial farming has influenced the gradual evolution of the agriculture industry. Changes in population, technology, transportation, and more have impacted commercial farming’s growth, from a small-scale farm-to-farm trade to the mover and shaker of early economies.

With the global spread of commercial agriculture, fewer varieties of food are being planted in shrinking areas of arable land. Varieties of rice, corn, and wheat and new forms of livestock breeding have displaced many local varieties of crops and animal breeds.


How has commercial farming changed over the years?

For thousands of years, commercial farming has influenced the gradual evolution of the agriculture industry. Changes in population, technology, transportation, and more have impacted commercial farming’s growth, from a small-scale farm-to-farm trade to the mover and shaker of early economies.

What is the impact of commercial agriculture on agriculture?

With the global spread of commercial agriculture, fewer varieties of food are being planted in shrinking areas of arable land. Varieties of rice, corn, and wheat and new forms of livestock breeding have displaced many local varieties of crops and animal breeds.

How will global agriculture change in the future?

The FAO says that 80-90 percent of this increase will come from higher yields and increased cropping intensity – the number of crop growing seasons that can occur in one year – with only the small remainder coming from converting land not currently used for farming.

How has the use of modern equipment impacted agriculture?

The use of modern equipment has largely impacted agriculture in the way farmers grow food. Traditionally, manual labor was used with the help of farm animals such as horses and donkeys to draw farm equipment. Manual labor was time-consuming, meaning farmers could only work on small pieces of land.


What is the impact of commercial agriculture?

Large-scale, conventional farming focuses on intensive single crop production, mechanization, and depends on fossil fuels, pesticides, antibiotics, and synthetic fertilizers. While this system yields high production levels, it also contributes to climate change, pollutes air and water, and depletes soil fertility.

How did industrial agriculture change agriculture?

New technology, including chemicals and larger tractors, allowed farmers to work larger areas of land with less labor. Government policies encouraged farmers to scale up their operations. Farmers were also motivated by economies of scale—the economic advantage of producing larger numbers of products.

What were some changes in agriculture?

The introduc- tion of new crops, the improvement of varieties of crops, the use of hybrid corn, the conquest of plant and animal diseases and pests, the building of improved roads, the electrification of farms and farm homes, and the improvement in livestock and poultry have brought tremendous changes in farms and farm …

What are the benefits of using commercial agriculture?

Advantages of Commercial FarmingEncouraging Improvement in Local Infrastructure. … Job Creation. … Lowering the Price of Products. … Increased Production and Enhancing Food Security. … Provision of Raw Materials for Agribusiness Manufacturing Companies. … Lowering the Cost of Production. … Foreign Exchange earner.

What is the commercial agriculture?

Commercial agriculture is the opposite of subsistence agriculture. Commercial agriculture is basically growing crops intended to sell the produce for profit in the local or export market. In olden days, most of the farmers in India, used to cultivate crops for their own food purpose which is personal agriculture.

How did agriculture change during the Industrial Revolution?

The Agricultural Revolution of the 18th century paved the way for the Industrial Revolution in Britain. New farming techniques and improved livestock breeding led to amplified food production. This allowed a spike in population and increased health. The new farming techniques also led to an enclosure movement.

How has agriculture improved over time?

The agriculture industry has radically transformed over the past 50 years. Advances in machinery have expanded the scale, speed, and productivity of farm equipment, leading to more efficient cultivation of more land. Seed, irrigation, and fertilizers also have vastly improved, helping farmers increase yields.

What are changes in modern agriculture?

Some of them are- Drip irrigation, Center Pivot, Sprinkler system (Lawn and Hose end), Subsurface textile irrigation, and irrigation by the lateral move. Likewise, creating farm ponds (that store water) are additional new age reforms of irrigating crops in India. Agriculture has thus shaped into an entirely new entity.

What changes might have been brought about by the improvement in agriculture?

Answer: The development of agriculture led to increased trade as agricultural areas traded surplus crops for other goods. Government officials regulated trade and exchange rates—over time, government’s role would expand with trade. Agriculture also led to an increase in cities; this also necessitated more governance.

What are the positive and negative points of commercial agriculture?

Commercial agriculture turned the hand labor to machine farming. This fact hides the various advantages and disadvantages of commercial agriculture. On the one hand, it increased the yield of crops; on the other hand, it imposed threats to the environment.

What are some pros and cons of commercial farming?

Here are the pros and cons:Pros of Industrial Agriculture.It increases food production. Large-scale industrial farms have an advantage over traditional farms when it comes to producing food fast and in larger amounts. … Cons of Industrial Agriculture.It increases the risk of animal cruelty. … Conclusion.

What are the advantages of commercial?

1) It is quick and cost effective way of raising working capital. 3) It provides the exit option to the investors to quit the investment. 4) They are cheaper than a bank loan. 5) As commercial papers are required to be rated, good rating reduces the cost of capital for the company.

How will commercial agriculture benefit developing countries?

It is believed that a successful transition to a system of high-yielding commercial agriculture will open new opportunities for developing countries by allowing farmers to benefit from advanced technologies and expanded trade opportunities. However, not all farmers will gain from these changes.

What is the change in agriculture?

The change is in the policy of farming or agriculture. There has been a decline in the role of “old-line” subsidy programs for corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, and rice, programs that used to make up the most important elements of the U.S. agricultural policy.

What are the two main types of agriculture?

At present, there are two main types of agriculture: subsistence and commercial agriculture. Subsistence agriculture is defined as producing food primarily for local consumption (the farmer’s family) and most often occurs in developing nations. Commercial agriculture is the production of crops for sale and is designed to produce crops for widespread distribution (supermarkets), larger markets, and export. It also extends to limited distribution (local produce stands) and any nonfood crops such as cotton and tobacco. It contributes substantially to the gross domestic product of a country.

What is commercial agriculture?

Commercial agriculture is found in both the developing, developed, and the most the developed nations.

What is the role of agriculture in industrialization?

Agricultural industrialization is a process in which the role of the farm has moved from the centerpiece of agricultural production into being only one part of the system of production. This also includes storage, processing, distribution, marketing, and selling the food. With agricultural industrialization, the farm becomes only one link in a large chain of food production.

What were the trends in commercial agriculture in the 1990s?

Other trends in commercial agriculture during the 1990s include consumerism, internationalization, environmentalism, policy change, and high technology. Historically, farmer’s main objective was to keep up with the food demand generated by a growing population.

What was the shift in agriculture during the second revolution?

It was during the second agriculture revolution that commercial agriculture was developed. This involved a shift from hand labor to machine farming.

What has changed in agriculture in the last 50 years?

In the 50 years since, he has taken on considerably more responsibility and now feeds 155. 50 years of change mean farmers can produce more food and fiber on fewer acres and with fewer nutrient inputs.

Why is the advancement from one farmer feeding 25 people to 155 in 50 years a significant achievement?

“And we are doing it with far fewer farmers. The reason we have food on our table is because of the exponential growth from increased productivity.”

How much corn was produced in 2009?

In 2009, on similar acreage, corn production topped 13 billion bushels . “That’s a 430 percent increase,” Miller said. 2. Soybeans and wheat have also seen significant production increases. Soybean acreage increased from 15 million in the 1950s to 74 million in 2011. Yield increased by 277 percent over that time.

How much did corn yield in 1950?

With 50 years of change farmers can now produce more food and fiber on fewer acres and with fewer nutrient inputs. “Corn yields in 1950 averaged 40 bushels per acre, ” says Travis Miller, associate department head, Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University.

How many acres of corn were there in 1950?

1. In 1950, U.S. corn acreage totaled about 82 million . That figured dropped to 59 million in the late 60s but hit 90 million last year. Soybean acreage has increased from 18 million in 1950 to 80 million by 2007. Total corn production in 1950 totaled 2.7 billion bushels from those 82 billion acres.

How much did wheat grow in 1950?

Yield increased by 277 percent over that time. Wheat jumped from 71.3 million bushels in 1950 to just more than 1 billion bushels in the last few years. And that increase comes from about 24 percent fewer acres. 3.

What are the challenges faced by farmers in the Blacklands?

“One of the biggest challenges faced by Blacklands farmers is the variability of crop yield due to weather.”.

How has agriculture progressed over the past 150 years?

Thanks to plant science and other innovations, agriculture has progressed tremendously over the past 150 years, becoming more and more efficient over time. If the world’s farmers would have continued to grow crops at 1961 productivity levels, they would need almost a billion hectares of new farmland to maintain today’s food supply – which is more …

How did farmers become more efficient?

Farmers became more efficient, using improved seeds, crop protection products, machinery and more that resulted in more yields on cultivated land. All of this occurred while reducing the workforce involved in agriculture from nearly half of the population in 1860 to less than 1 percent now. Tweet This!

How much of the increase in crop yields will come from cropping intensity?

The FAO says that 80-90 percent of this increase will come from higher yields and increased cropping intensity – the number of crop growing seasons that can occur in one year – with only the small remainder coming from converting land not currently used for farming.

How much will agriculture grow in 2050?

To keep up with the growing population, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that agricultural production will need to increase by 70 percent (nearly 100 percent in developing countries) by 2050.

How many people did each farm feed in 1860?

Doing the math, in 1860, each U.S. farm fed an average of 15 people. In 2010, each farm could feed over 140 people! During that same time, the population increased 882 percent, but the total acreage dedicated to farmland did not increase as drastically.

What was the farming revolution?

Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the ” Neolithic Revolution.”. Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements …

What is the meaning of “agriculture”?

agriculture. Noun. the art and science of cultivating land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching). annual plant. Noun. plant with a life cycle of no more than one year, and often much less. barley. Noun. grass cultivated as a grain.

What mutation occurred during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe?

But at some point during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe, a mutation occurred for lactose tolerance that increased in frequency through natural selection thanks to the nourishing benefits of milk.

When did corn cobs first appear?

While maize-like plants derived from teosinte appear to have been cultivated at least 9,000 years ago, the first directly dated corn cob dates only to around 5,500 years ago . Corn later reached North America, where cultivated sunflowers also started to bloom some 5,000 years ago.

How long ago did goats come to Europe?

Dates for the domestication of these animals range from between 13,000 to 10,000 years ago. Genetic studies show that goats and other livestock accompanied the westward spread of agriculture into Europe, helping to revolutionize Stone Age society. While the extent to which farmers themselves migrated west remains a subject of debate, …

Where did the wild produce originate?

The wild progenitors of crops including wheat, barley and peas are traced to the Near East region. Cereals were grown in Syria as long as 9,000 years ago, while figs were cultivated even earlier; prehistoric seedless fruits discovered in the Jordan Valley suggest fig trees were being planted some 11,300 years ago. Though the transition from wild harvesting was gradual, the switch from a nomadic to a settled way of life is marked by the appearance of early Neolithic villages with homes equipped with grinding stones for processing grain.

When did rice and millet farming start?

The origins of rice and millet farming date to around 6,000 B.C.E.

What are the futures of agriculture?

Agriculture is destined to face dramatic changes in the future based on both the globalization of the economic climate and changes in the consumer or end-user of agricultural products. The new agriculture will be characterized by: 1 Global competition 2 Industrialization 3 Differentiated products 4 Precision (information intensive) production 5 Supply chains

What is the food and agribusiness industry?

The global food and agribusiness industry is in the midst of major changes – changes in product characteristics, in worldwide distribution and consumption, in technology, in size and structure of firms in the industry, and in geographic location of production and processing. And the pace of change seems to be increasing.

What is the production sector?

The production sector is currently dominated by proprietorship business structures where the life of the business is profoundly impacted by the life of the individuals who manage and contribute labor and capital resources to that business. Consequently the typical proprietorship business lifecycle stages of entry/establishment, growth and expansion, maturation, and exit characterize the industry, and combined with the demographics of the resource owners and operators, have a significant impact on the current and future structural characteristics of the industry. Furthermore, potential changes in the proprietorship model to a more “corporate” structure where the life of the firm is not as dependent on the life of the entrepreneur or his/her heirs have important structural implications. As the industry transitions from the current life cycle to the next life cycle it can be expected that the proportion of businesses using something other than the proprietorship model is likely to increase.

Why is Tom Farms important?

It is highly important for the business to be an early adopter of new technologies in an attempt to leverage operating efficiencies. Tom Farms has brought an awareness to many technology providers, helping them understand the needs of the industry, and has had a number of specific technologies accepted and patented by the companies with no value coming back to Tom Farms. “Maybe we need to be more creative in capturing some of this intellectual property or brand value we are creating”, Kim wonders where the current owner/operator has in terms of commodities products market access and premiums attained seem to be more driven by volume as end users appear unwilling to place any values on brand, SOP’s, and channel coordination offerings. Growing more important is the need for proof of our environmental sustainability and as well our corporate social responsibility to maintain or build market access, but again understanding of this value in a commodity market is not yet recognized.

How many acres are Tom Farms?

Tom Farms LLC is a 20,000 acre value-adding crop farm composed of 16,000 acres in Indiana and 4,000 acres in Argentina. Crops include seed corn production, commercial corn, soybeans, tomatoes, and a business unit that provides customized agricultural services to an additional 28,000 acres, particularly in seed production. In addition, they operate a large commercial trucking business that provides transportation and brokerage services.

What is a combination of biological production processes that are subjected to unpredictable biological predators?

A combination of biological production processes that are subjected to unpredictable biological predators (disease, insects, pathogens, etc.), combined with variable climatic/weather/heat/rainfall patterns, results in significant variability in production and processing conditions and thus efficiency and output.

How does technology drive structural change?

Technology drives structural change through the form or type of technology that will be used in agricultural production as well as the rate and characteristics of the adopters of the technology. The types of technology that have the potential to be part of the future of the production industry include bio/nutritional technology, monitoring/measuring/communication technology and process control technology. The end result is the prospect of an industry characterized by biological manufacturing of differentiated products for various food and nonfood uses.

How has agriculture changed over the years?

Agriculture has changed over the years since its inception. Modern agriculture is way better than traditional agriculture in many ways, including increased productivity. Improved technology, better equipment and housing, different ways of rearing animals and biotechnology are driving agricultural change. The future of agricultural change is bright …

How has technology impacted agriculture?

Moreover, technology also allows farmers to use less manpower for food production. The use of modern equipment has largely impacted agriculture in the way farmers grow food. Traditionally, manual labor was used with the help of farm animals such as horses and donkeys to draw farm equipment.

What is the role of biotechnology in agriculture?

Biotechnology involves the manipulation of living organisms in animal and crop production to improve the quality of human life. Genetic engineering and biotechnology have fostered developments in seed technology. Historically, harsh weather conditions led to destruction of crop harvests.

What do farmers use to do their work?

On the converse, farmers today use motorized equipment and tractors to do farm work. Combines, tractors and plows, among other modern farm machinery are larger and faster than the animals used in the past to do farm work. Therefore, farmers are equipped to produce more food within shorter durations.

Why is technology important in food production?

It is a significant change in the number of people directly involved in food production to ensure that everybody has food to eat. Improved Technology. Farmers adopt technology to advance food production to ensure there is enough food to feed the world’s fast-growing population.

Why is organic farming important?

Organic farming is an important part of agricultural change today. Agricultural change involves all the changes a farmer makes to existing farming practices. For instance, a farmer might change from using conventional farming techniques to organic farming practices.

How many people will be in agriculture by 2030?

Agriculture has changed over the years. The world’s population is about 7.3 billion and the figure is expected to hit 8.5 billion and 9.7 billion by 2030 and 2050, respectively. That translates to high demand for food and thus increased consumption. With agricultural change and advancement in …

Why is it so hard to meet the demand for accelerated agricultural productivity?

The reasons for this have to do with ecological factors. Global climate change is destabilizing many of the natural processes that make modern agriculture possible.

How much land is used for growing corn?

According to World Bank figures, in 2016, more than 700 million hectares (1.7 billion acres) were devoted to growing corn, wheat, rice, and other staple cereal grains—nearly half of all cultivated land on the planet.

What is the effect of nitrogen on soil?

In addition, fertilizer application in soil leads to the formation and release of nitrous oxide, one of the most harmful greenhouse gases.

How does irrigation affect water?

Irrigation causes increases in water evaporation, impacting both surface air temperature and pressure as well as atmospheric moisture conditions . Recent studies have confirmed that cropland irrigation can influence rainfall patterns not only over the irrigated area but even thousands of miles away.

What is irrigation related to?

Irrigation has also been connected to the erosion of coastlines and other kinds of long-term ecological and habitat destruction. A huge amount of agricultural territory is used primarily as pasture for cattle and other livestock.

What are the consequences of irrigation?

One of the most obvious consequences is the depletion of aquifers, river systems, and downstream ground water. However, there are a number of other negative effects related to irrigation.

How do cattle damage soil?

Cattle and other large grazing animals can even damage soil by trampling on it. Bare, compacted land can bring about soil erosion and destruction of topsoil quality due to the runoff of nutrients. These and other impacts can destabilize a variety of fragile ecosystems and wildlife habitats. Chemical Fertilizer.

How does change affect agriculture?

For example, improvements in agricultural extension and seed systems might enable farmers to switch to a more productive hybrid seed, but lack of access to fertilizer (upon which the hybrid depends) could prevent productivity increases and leave the farmer unwilling to buy hybrid seed next time. As in any complex economic system, when so many elements are interrelated, any one of them can become a constraint and stall progress.

What do farmers do in developing countries?

Farming households in developing countries balance a portfolio of crops, livestock, and nonfarm work. Because they feed their families with some of the farm output as well as sell into markets, they make decisions based on their potential profit, risk, and cash flow across family food consumption as well as sales.

How does a PMO help in agricultural transformation?

Our experience suggests that creating a project management office (PMO) can greatly increase the chances of carrying out a successful large-scale change program. A PMO can concentrate talent, monitor implementation, act as a source of truth, and, in general, help get things done. The office can apply accepted project management technologies to break the transformation into discrete initiatives, each with specific goals, timing, and responsibility. A PMO is also charged with engaging relevant stakeholders when problems arise.

What are the SDGs for agriculture?

In addition to traditional economic development and poverty reduction goals, governments are also focusing their agricultural transformation plans on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by considering, for example, climate-smart strategies, women’s economic empowerment, and biodiversity.

Why should policy makers invest in data and analytics?

Policy makers should invest in making use of existing data and analytics to comparatively assess the costs and likely outcomes of different potential transformation programs. Policy makers also need to use data and analytics to set reasonable targets and redirect programs where outcomes are not meeting targets.

Which countries have doubled their agricultural output?

Recent examples include Brazil, China, and Vietnam, each of which at least doubled the value of its agriculture sector within 20 years of starting its transformation. Many other countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America are earlier on the path of transformation.

Is high value farming a viable option?

In some cases, high-value crops or livestock will not be a viable opportunity for farmers, and promoting the intensification of row crops makes more sense. Even then, the focus should be profitability for the farmer, including attention to sustainability, quality, storage, and processing.

Why was agriculture the largest source of employment?

Though the labor was difficult, agricultural work became the largest source of employment because of the ‘self-supply’ benefit, which is the ability to stock their own food stores through their own work.

What were the negative effects of the agricultural revolution?

Another negative that came from the Agricultural Revolution was the necessary conditions needed for efficient farming, such as; adequate farm buildings, access of roads, drainage of wetlands, transport facilities for marketing, and sources of finance for farmers.These were negative effects seen across Europe by many who joined in the Revolution.

How did Jethro Tull contribute to the Industrial Revolution?

Jethro Tull contributed to the industrial revolution by innovating new machines to greatly increase agricultural productivity. 9 Tull realized the importance of well cultivated soil and accessing the minerals below the topsoil.

Why did farmers work six days a week?

1 2. Before the Industrial Revolution, agriculture workers labored six days a week, from sun up to sun down, just to keep their crops growing. 1 Certain seasons were more demanding than others, specifically the plowing and harvest seasons. 2 Because of the intensity and necessity of agricultural labor, it was the largest employment source in …

What was the first invention of the Industrial Revolution?

Eli Whitney another inventor born in America in 1765, made another key invention of the industrial revolution, the cotton gin (picture to the right) which was invented in 1794. A cotton gin is a machine that quickly separates cotton fibers from their seeds. The invention of the cotton gin allowed for much greater productivity than manual labor, resulting in this invention greatly increasing the production rate for clothing and other cotton goods. Despite the cotton gins success, Whitney made little money from his invention due to patent-infringement issues. For his work, he is credited as a pioneer of American manufacturing. 16


The Evolution of Commercial Farming

From the days of hunting and gathering, to the development of permanent settlements centered around reliable supplies of food, to the advent of technology-based agriculture, commercial farming has transformed dramatically. One could even argue that commercial farming acted as a catalystwhich influenc…

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Formation of Agriculture Management

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Modern Commercial Farming

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