Crop yields, farm efficiency, and agricultural product output in the U.S. have increased dramatically over the past decades as technology has advanced in farm automation, crop genetics, fertilizers, and pesticides. Crop yield data is important not only in the U.S. but abroad as well.
How can we increase agricultural yield at a sustainable level?
Maintaining agricultural yield at a sustainable level requires that the regenerative capacity of driving subsystems is sufficiently strong despite fragmentation. Practices adopted for increasing agricultural yield have turned out to be neither economically nor environmentally sustainable.
Why has agricultural production increased in the United States?
The value of agricultural production in the United States rose over most of the last decade due to increases in production as well as higher prices. Yield gains for crops were particularly important, although acreage also rose in response to elevated prices from 2008 to 2012.
What factors affect the average crop yield per acre?
The average crop yield per acre on a given field is very much conditioned by weather factors. With the same quality of soil and the same species of seeds planted, the climate conditions have a predominant influence on the development of plants and, consequently, on yields.
Which countries have increased the yield of cereal crops?
Some countries, including Ethiopia, Nigeria and Algeria have followed the rest of the world in yield increases. However, a failure to increase agricultural productivity in many Sub-Saharan countries has led to large increases in land used for cereal production.
How do you increase agricultural yield?
What Are The Ways To Increase Crop Yield?Quality Of Seeds. Agricultural productivity depends on the quality of seeds with which farmers sow their fields. … Field Productivity Zoning. … Monitoring Crops Growth. … Accurate Weather Prediction. … Regular Scouting. … Crop Protection Methods. … Soil Testing & Its Quality.
Has agricultural production increased?
The level of U.S. farm output nearly tripled between 1948 and 2017, growing at an average annual rate of 1.53 percent.
Why has agriculture increased?
Due to widespread adoption of improved agricultural technologies and best farm management practices, especially in high-income countries, global agricultural output has increased by 60 percent, while global cropland has increased by just 5 percent during the past 40 years.
What influences agricultural yield?
The four most important factors that influence crop yield are soil fertility, availability of water, climate, and diseases or pests. These factors can pose a significant risk to farms when they are not monitored and managed correctly.
How can the agriculture sector in the Philippines be improved?
Key policy recommendations to improve agriculture in the PhilippinesRefocus the policy package to improve food security.Focus on agricultural land policies, from land distribution to protection of property rights through land governance reforms.Budget support for long-term structural reforms.More items…•
What is the current status of agriculture in the Philippines?
Agricultural Value of Production Declined by -1.5 percent in the Second Quarter of 2021. In the second quarter of 2021, the value of agricultural production at constant 2018 prices decreased by -1.5 percent. This was attributed to the decline in livestock and fisheries production.
What are the development of agriculture in the Philippines?
Through commercial agriculture and improved infrastructure, small-holder farmers can increase their incomes and slowly become more self-reliant. Developing irrigation systems in rural farming lands which is an important aspect of the project, makes farming more efficient for the people of the Philippines.
What is increased yield?
Increased crop yields also means fewer hands are needed on farm, freeing them for industry and commerce. This, in turn, led to the formation and growth of cities, which then translated into an increased demand for foodstuffs or other agricultural products.
What are the factors to get more yield?
Factors Influencing YieldPlanting Date. More or less nodes. Total leaf areas (Stronger canopy) Nodulation development. … Soil Preparation. Compaction (Depth and width or root footprint) pH (Nutrient availability, Rhizobia bacteria population)Bean Selection. High-yielding product. Row width (Narrow or bushy bean)
What does yield mean in agriculture?
Crop yield is a standard measurement of the amount of agricultural production harvested—yield of a crop—per unit of land area. Crop yield is the measure most often used for cereal, grain, or legumes; and typically is measured in bushels, tons, or pounds per acre in the U.S.
What percentage of the economy was impacted by labor and land inputs between 1948 and 2017?
Between 1948 and 2017, labor and land inputs declined by 76 and 28 percent , respectively, while intermediate goods, such as energy, agricultural chemicals, purchased services, and other materials grew by 133 percent.
What innovations have enabled continued growth in farm output?
Even as land and labor used in farming declined, innovations in animal and crop genetics, chemicals, equipment and farm organization have enabled continuing growth in farm output.
When did crop yields slow down?
Growth in crop yields slowed in the 1990s and, along with slowing growth in U.S. public agricultural research funding, raised concerns about the growth potential of U.S. agricultural productivity. While major crop yields rebounded in the 2000s, concerns over a productivity slowdown lingered, especially with real crop prices increasing …
How much less land is used in agriculture?
U.S. agriculture now uses about 25 percent less farmland and 78 percent less labor than in 1948, so agricultural productivity is largely responsible for the increased production. Agricultural productivity can be defined in terms of total output per unit of a single input—partial factor productivity (PFP) measures such as land productivity (yield) …
How much did TFP decrease in 1995?
When high temperatures affected much of the Nation in 1988, 1993 (also flooding in the Midwest), and 1995, agricultural output dropped 4.9 to 5.1 percent in those years and caused TFP to decrease by 4 to 8 percent.
How much did aggregate input use increase in the 1980s?
Although the use of labor and land in agriculture declined between 1948 and 1980, aggregate input use increased at an average rate of 0.7 percent per year due to dramatic increases in intermediate goods and capital use.
What was the average real interest rate in 1981?
The average real interest rate rose to nearly 16 percent in 1981-83 and remained high until the 2000s. This mix of fiscal stimulus and monetary restraint slowed the growth in U.S. agricultural exports and discouraged capital investment during this period.
Why do farmers use machinery?
Farmers now use machinery and agricultural chemicals more intensively than in the past, largely in response to rising costs for labor and land. Increases in these other inputs are also part of the reason that land productivity and labor productivity have grown dramatically over the last six decades. Embed this chart.
What contributed to the lower opportunity cost of invested capital?
In addition, declining interest rates and rising inflation contributed to a lower opportunity cost of invested capital. However, in the early 1980s, restrictive monetary policy by the Federal Reserve pushed up interest rates and the dollar appreciated on foreign exchange markets.
How do agrarians increase crop yields?
Agrarians aiming to increase crop yields must take care of their plants throughout their development and up the end of the growing season. Depending on the problem that may arise, farmers use different substances to diminish the impact of weeds, pests or diseases on crop yield.
How does soil affect crop yield?
The quality of soil, i.e. its fertility, is one of the main factors that affect crop yields. Apart from agricultural productivity, the soil quality also influences the cost for a farmer to grow one or another plant, as some of them require certain ratios of specific elements in the soil, like mineral particles, organic matter, water, air, etc. To attain increased crop yields, farmers need to closely monitor soil conditions on their land plots. One of the best ways to maintain the soil in good health is to practice crop rotation, among others. Alternating plants on a given field plot prevents soil exhaustion and breaks pest cycles, which will result in better agricultural output and, therefore, will increase the average crop yield per acre.
Why do agrarians need to sow seeds?
Agricultural productivity depends on the quality of seeds with which farmers sow their fields. Therefore, in order to increase crop yield on their farmlands , agrarians are recommended to sow only certified seeds that have passed all the necessary quality controls.
Why is it important to monitor crop growth?
From the early stage of development through budding and up to harvesting, it is very important to monitor plant health in order to timely detect any problem that can arise on a given farmland (be it related to pest infestations, plant diseases, weeds, etc.) and that can affect the crop yield .
How to maintain soil health?
One of the best ways to maintain the soil in good health is to practice crop rotation, among others. Alternating plants on a given field plot prevents soil exhaustion and breaks pest cycles, which will result in better agricultural output and, therefore, will increase the average crop yield per acre.
Why is the agrarian performance important?
It is considered to be probably the most important measure of each farmer’s performance, as it embodies the result of all the efforts and resources invested by agrarians in the development of plants on their fields.
What are the challenges farmers face?
Weed control and pest management are the biggest challenges for farmers during the growing season. A single weed, for example, can generate over 10 million weed seeds, and if they are not managed in time, it can substantially decrease the yields on a given field and create problems for years to come.
Which state has the most agricultural production?
Iowa, Texas, Nebraska, and Minnesota round out the top five agricultural-producing States, with those five representing more than a third of U.S. agricultural-output value.
How are agricultural markets analyzed?
Markets for major agricultural commodities are typically analyzed by looking at supply-and-use conditions and implications for prices. From an economic perspective, these factors determine the market equilibrium.
How many acres of corn and soybeans were planted in the United States in 1990?
Since 1990, combined acreage planted to corn, wheat, soybeans, and upland cotton in the United States has ranged from 219 million to 242 million acres. Starting in the 1990s, policy changes increased planting flexibility provided to farmers.
What percentage of corn is used to make ethanol?
Corn is the major agricultural input used in the United States to produce ethanol, which has accounted for over 40 percent of U.S. corn use in recent years.
What are the leading fruits and vegetables?
fruit and tree nut value of production has increased steadily over the past decade, while the value of vegetable production has been more stable. Grapes, apples, strawberries, and oranges top the list of fruits; tomatoes and potatoes are the leading vegetables.
How much milk is produced in 2019?
Milk output has risen 70 percent since 1980 and in 2019 exceeded 218 billion pounds per year. Genetic developments and technological improvements underlie a pronounced upward trend in milk output per cow. Consolidation in the dairy sector also has facilitated efficiency gains in milk production.
How many states produce agricultural products?
U.S. agricultural production occurs in each of the 50 States. The United States produces and sells a wide variety of agricultural products across the Nation. In terms of sales value, California leads the country as the largest producer of agricultural products (crops and livestock), accounting for almost 11 percent of the national total, …
How does the canopy affect the energy of raindrops?
Reductions in the canopy and litter layer also increase the energy associated with raindrops as they hit the soil surface, or as water moves across soil, increasing the potential for soil crusting and erosion ( Chapin et al., 2011 ).
How can anaerobic microbes cope with changing soil moisture conditions?
For example, over short time scales, facultative anaerobic microbes can cope with changing soil moisture conditions by switching from aerobic respiration when oxygen is available to anaerobic metabolisms such as denitrification when oxygen becomes limiting ( Zumft, 1997).
When was microbial fertilizer invented?
The first product of microbial fertilizer based on a type of soil bacteria was sold by a US company in 1898 ( Arvanitoyannis, 2008). In the early 1900s, some organic fertilizers based on legume root Rhizobium were produced ( Amarger, 2001 ).
Why does the majority of the population depend on agriculture?
As we know, that in our country, majority of population depends on agriculture to earn their both ends meet. This increases the pressure of population on land which leads to subdivision and fragmentation of land holdings.
How to save farmers from moneylenders?
To save the farmers from the clutches of moneylenders, adequate credit facilities should be made available at reasonable cheap rates in rural areas. The land mortgage banks and co-operative credit societies should be strengthened to provide loans to the cultivators.
Why should the marketing infrastructure be widened and strengthened?
Marketing infrastructure should be widened and strengthened to help the farmers to sell their products at better prices. There should be proper arrangements for unloading of the produce in the markets. Besides, price support policy must be adopted and minimum prices should be guaranteed to the peasants.
Why should canals be constructed?
Therefore, canals, tube wells should be constructed to provide better irrigation facilities for the security of crops. Extensive flood control measures should be adopted to prevent the devastation caused by floods.
How much of the world’s GDP is agriculture?
Agriculture is also crucial to economic growth: in 2018, it accounted for 4 percent of global gross domestic product (GDP) and in some developing countries, it can account for more than 25% of GDP.
How does agriculture help the poor?
Agriculture can help reduce poverty, raise incomes and improve food security for 80% of the world’s poor, who live in rural areas and work mainly in farming. The World Bank Group is a leading financier of agriculture.
How many agricultural innovations are there in Peru?
In Peru, since 2013, nearly 600 agricultural innovations have been identified and tested with the help of competitive matching grants. More than 110 of these innovations have been validated at the farm level, and as of September 2020, one or more of them have been adopted by nearly 32,000 producers.
How does IBRD help agribusiness?
boosts agribusiness by building inclusive and efficient value chains; and. improves food security and produces enough safe, nutritious food for everyone, everywhere, every day and is nutrition-smart. In 2020, there was US$5.8 billion in new IBRD/IDA commitments to agriculture and related sectors.
How does the food system affect the world?
The current food system also threatens the health of people and the planet: agriculture accounts for 70 percent of water use and generates unsustainable levels of pollution and waste. 1/3 of food produced globally is either lost or wasted.
What is the leading cause of death worldwide?
Risks associated with poor diets are also the leading cause of death worldwide. Millions of people are either not eating enough or eating the wrong types of food, resulting in a double burden of malnutrition that can lead to illnesses and health crises.
What has changed in agriculture in the last 50 years?
In the 50 years since, he has taken on considerably more responsibility and now feeds 155. 50 years of change mean farmers can produce more food and fiber on fewer acres and with fewer nutrient inputs.
Why is the advancement from one farmer feeding 25 people to 155 in 50 years a significant achievement?
“And we are doing it with far fewer farmers. The reason we have food on our table is because of the exponential growth from increased productivity.”
How much corn was produced in 2009?
In 2009, on similar acreage, corn production topped 13 billion bushels . “That’s a 430 percent increase,” Miller said. 2. Soybeans and wheat have also seen significant production increases. Soybean acreage increased from 15 million in the 1950s to 74 million in 2011. Yield increased by 277 percent over that time.
How much did corn yield in 1950?
With 50 years of change farmers can now produce more food and fiber on fewer acres and with fewer nutrient inputs. “Corn yields in 1950 averaged 40 bushels per acre, ” says Travis Miller, associate department head, Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University.
How many acres of corn were there in 1950?
1. In 1950, U.S. corn acreage totaled about 82 million . That figured dropped to 59 million in the late 60s but hit 90 million last year. Soybean acreage has increased from 18 million in 1950 to 80 million by 2007. Total corn production in 1950 totaled 2.7 billion bushels from those 82 billion acres.
How much did wheat grow in 1950?
Yield increased by 277 percent over that time. Wheat jumped from 71.3 million bushels in 1950 to just more than 1 billion bushels in the last few years. And that increase comes from about 24 percent fewer acres. 3.
What are the challenges faced by farmers in the Blacklands?
“One of the biggest challenges faced by Blacklands farmers is the variability of crop yield due to weather.”.
Crop production across the world
In the visualizations we present the latest data on crop production across the world, based on estimates published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
Meat and dairy production
You can find data and research on meat and dairy production and consumption across the world in our entry here.
Fish and seafood production
You can find data and research on fish and seafood production and consumption across the world in our entry here.
Environmental impacts of food production
You can find data and research on the environmental impacts of food production in our entry here.
Long-Term Drivers of TFP Growth and Challenges
Is U.S. Agricultural Productivity Slowing?
Growth in crop yields slowed in the 1990s and, along with slowing growth in U.S. public agricultural research funding, raised concerns about the growth potential of U.S. agricultural productivity. While major crop yields rebounded in the 2000s, concerns over a productivity slowdown lingered, especially with real crop prices increasing after a long …
The Future of TFP Growth: Public R&D Scenarios and TFP Projections
The major driver of longrun TFP growth is R&D. If public R&D has slowed, then why has there been no slowdown in U.S. agricultural productivity? One possible explanation is that there is often a long lag between when a research investment is made and when the product of that research is applied to farm production and starts to boost productivity. Many studies show that it is the acc…