how has the green revolution increased agricultural productivity



The rapid increase in agricultural output resulting from the GR came from an impressive increase in yields per hectare. Between 1960 and 2000, yields for all developing countries rose 208% for wheat, 109% for rice, 157% for maize, 78% for potatoes, and 36% for cassava (18).

The green revolution led to high productivity of crops through adapted measures, such as (1) increased area under farming, (2) double-cropping, which includes planting two crops rather than one, annually, (3) adoption of HYV of seeds, (4) highly increased use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides, (5) improved …Feb 22, 2021


How did the Green Revolution change the agriculture industry?

 · After World War II, cheap fuel, improved transportation, developments in mechanization, and rapid scientific progress set the stage for increases in efficiency and productivity in agriculture. Norman Borlaug is credited as the father of the Green Revolution, a time starting in the 1950s when plant breeding, irrigation, chemical fertilizers and herbicides …

Which crops experienced the most dramatic yield rises during the Green Revolution?

 · The Green Revolution was a period when the productivity of global agriculture increased drastically as a result of new advances. During this time period, new chemical fertilizers and synthetic…

What is the impact of Green Revolution in rice?

Green Revolution was launched in mid-sixties to raise the productivity of Indian agriculture. “Green” is symbolic to make significant and revolutionary changes in terms of productivity and …

What were the positive aspects of the Green Revolution?

The Green Revolution boosted agricultural production approximately 2.5 times and was associated with an approximately 40% price reduction in the cost of food (MA, 2005). …


How did the Green Revolution boost agricultural production?

The Green Revolution resulted in increased production of food grains (especially wheat and rice) and was in large part due to the introduction into developing countries of new, high-yielding varieties, beginning in the mid-20th century with Borlaug’s work.

Why is the Green Revolution important to agriculture?

Impact on Productivity and Food Prices. The rapid increase in agricultural output resulting from the GR came from an impressive increase in yields per hectare. Between 1960 and 2000, yields for all developing countries rose 208% for wheat, 109% for rice, 157% for maize, 78% for potatoes, and 36% for cassava (18).

How did the Green Revolution lead to higher yields of crops?

During the Green Revolution, plants that had the largest seeds were selected to create the most production possible. After selectively breeding these plants, they evolved to all have the characteristic of larger seeds. These larger seeds then created more grain yield and a heavier above ground weight.

How did the agricultural revolution Impact farmers?

The Agricultural Revolution of the 18th century paved the way for the Industrial Revolution in Britain. New farming techniques and improved livestock breeding led to amplified food production. This allowed a spike in population and increased health. The new farming techniques also led to an enclosure movement.

How did Green Revolution benefit and harm the farmers?

Undoubtedly the Green Revolution saved huge areas of forest, wetlands, and hillsides from being converted into cropland. Up to the mid-20st century, higher production could only be achieved by cultivating more acres.

What were the benefits of Green Revolution?

Advantages of Green Revolution It allows us to create more food than conventional methods of growing. In uncooperative conditions, it offers us with predictable yields. It allows a decline in food costs for the world economy. The deforestation problems on our planet have been minimized.

How was more production possible under the Green Revolution?

The introduction of high-yielding varieties (HYV) of seeds and the improved quality of fertilizers and irrigation techniques led to the increase in the production to make the country self-sufficient in food grains, thus improving agriculture in India.

What are the achievements of Green Revolution?

Following are the achievements of Green Revolution:(i) Increase in Per Hectare Productivity: … (ii) Development of Industries: … (iii) Prosperity to Farmers: … (iv) Effect on Consumers: … (v) Increase in Production: … (vi) Effect on Rural Employment: … (vii) Ploughing Back of Profits: … (viii) Changes in Thinking:More items…


How did the GR increase agricultural output?

The rapid increase in agricultural output resulting from the GR came from an impressive increase in yields per hectare. Between 1960 and 2000, yields for all developing countries rose 208% for wheat, 109% for rice, 157% for maize, 78% for potatoes, and 36% for cassava (18). Developing countries in southeast Asia and India were the first countries to show the impact of the GR varieties on rice yields, with China and other Asian regions experiencing stronger yield growth in the subsequent decades (19). Similar yield trends were observed for wheat and maize in Asia (20). Analysis of agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) finds similar trends to the partial productivity trends captured by yield per hectare [TFP is defined as the ratio of total output to total inputs in a production process (20)] (21). For the period 1970–1989, change in global TFP for agriculture was 0.87%, which nearly doubled to 1.56% from 1990 to 2006 (21).

What was the impact of the post-GR period on agriculture?

Despite that success, in the post-GR period, investment in agriculture dropped off dramatically into the mid-2000s (4). However, the need for continued investments in agricultural innovation and productivity growth is as important today as it was in the early years of the GR. Low income countries and lagging regions of emerging economies continue to rely on agricultural productivity as an engine of growth and hunger reduction (5–7). However, sustaining productivity gains, enhancing smallholder competitiveness, and adapting to climate change are becoming increasingly urgent concerns across all production systems.

How did CGIAR help the world?

The CGIAR’s numerous crop improvement networks allowed for the best breeding materials and knowledge to be widely and freely available and used across the developing world (30, 31). National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) in developing countries generally used varieties or crosses from CGIAR centers as parents and then adapted those varieties for particular agroecological environments or preferences. Enabling such adaptive transfers significantly improved research efficiency, reduced research costs, and greatly expanded the pool of genetic resources and varieties available to the national programs. Such an uninhibited system of germplasm exchange with the best international materials allowed countries to make strategic decisions about investing in plant breeding capacity (32). In general, large NARSs engaged in adaptive transfers rather than direct use of CGIAR-generated varieties and crosses, whereas small NARSs used the material directly (33). The CGIAR content of modern varieties was high for most food crops; 36% of all varietal releases were based on CGIAR crosses, although it varies greatly by crop (34). In addition, 26% of all modern varieties had a CGIAR-crossed parent or other ancestor (9).

How did crop germplasm impact poverty?

Positive impacts on poverty reduction and lower food prices were driven in large part by crop germplasm improvements in CGIAR centers that were then transferred to national agricultural programs for adaptation and dissemination. The productivity gains from crop germplasm improvement alone are estimated to have averaged 1.0% per annum for wheat (across all regions), 0.8% for rice, 0.7% for maize, and 0.5% and 0.6% for sorghum and millets, respectively (9). Adoption rates of modern varieties in developing countries increased rapidly, reaching a majority of cropland (63%) by 1998 (9–15).

How did GR technology affect food supply?

Widespread adoption of GR technologies led to a significant shift in the food supply function, contributing to a fall in real food prices (23, 24). Between 1960 and 1990, food supply in developing countries increased 12–13% (25). Estimates suggest that, without the CGIAR and national program crop germplasm improvement efforts, food production in developing countries would have been almost 20% lower (requiring another 20–25 million hectares of land under cultivation worldwide) (26, 27). World food and feed prices would have been 35–65% higher, and average caloric availability would have declined by 11–13% (28). Overall, these efforts benefited virtually all consumers in the world and the poor relatively more so, because they spend a greater share of their income on food (29).

What was the purpose of the GR?

The original purpose of the GR was to intensify where returns would be high, with a focus on irrigated or high rainfall areas. The international breeding programs aimed to provide broadly adaptable germplasm that could then be grown across a wide set of geographies, but adoption was greatest in favorable areas. Technologies in the GR period did not focus on the constraints to production in more marginal environments, especially tolerance to stresses such as drought or flooding. Whereas HYVs of wheat provided yield gains of 40% in irrigated areas with modest use of fertilizer, in dry areas, gains were often no more than 10% (61). Almost full adoption of wheat and rice HYVs had been achieved in irrigated environments by the mid-1980s, but very low adoption in environments with scarce rainfall or poor water control (in the case of rice) had been achieved (62). In India, specifically, adoption was strongly correlated with water supply (3). Worldwide, improved seed–fertilizer technologies for wheat were less widely adopted in marginal environments and had less of an impact there than in favored environments (63).

How does agricultural productivity affect poverty?

These studies generally find high poverty reduction elasticities for agricultural productivity growth (2). In Asia, it has been estimated that each 1% increase in crop productivity reduces the number of poor people by 0.48% (38). In India, it is estimated that a 1% increase in agricultural value added per hectare leads to a 0.4% reduction in poverty in the short run and 1.9% reduction in the long run, the latter arising through the indirect effects of lower food prices and higher wages (39). For low income countries in general, the impact on the poverty headcount has been found to be larger from agricultural growth relative to equivalent growth in the nonagriculture sector at a factor of 2.3 times. In sub-Saharan Africa, agriculture’s contribution to poverty reduction was estimated to be 4.25 times the contribution of equivalent investment in the service sector (40).

How did the Green Revolution help the economy?

In addition to producing larger quantities of food, the Green Revolution was also beneficial because it made it possible to grow more crops on roughly the same amount of land with a similar amount of effort . This reduced production costs and also resulted in cheaper prices for food in the market.

How did the Green Revolution affect the environment?

Although the Green Revolution had several benefits, there were also some issues associated with this period that affected both the environment and society. The use of chemical fertilizers and synthetic herbicides and pesticides dramatically influenced the environment by increasing pollution and erosion. The new materials added to the soil and plants polluted the soil and water systems around the fields. The pollution of the water exposed people and the environment downstream to the chemicals being used in the farm fields. The pollution of the soil resulted in lower soil quality, which increased the risk of erosion of the topsoil.

How did chemical fertilizers increase crop yield?

The chemical fertilizers made it possible to supply crops with extra nutrients and, therefore, increase yield. The newly developed synthetic herbicides and pesticides controlled weeds, deterred or kill insects, and prevented diseases, which also resulted in higher productivity.

What is multiple cropping?

Multiple cropping is when a field is used to grow two or more crops throughout the year, so that the field constantly has something growing on it.

What was the Green Revolution?

In the mid- and late-20th century a revolution occurred that dramatically changed the field of agriculture, and this revolution was known as the Green Revolution.

How did the environment affect the growth of plants?

In addition to pollution, the environment was also influenced by the large irrigation systems that were required to sustain the growth of the plants. The large amount of water required put pressure on the natural water reserves and resulted in water shortages and droughts.

Why is it important to grow more food on the same amount of land?

The ability to grow more food on the same amount of land was also beneficial to the environment because it meant that less forest or natural land needed to be converted to farmland to produce more food. This is demonstrated by the fact that from 1961 to 2008, as the human population increased by 100% and the production of food rose by 150%, the amount of forests and natural land converted to farm only increased by 10%. The natural land that is currently not needed for agricultural land is safe for the time being, and can be utilized by animals and plants for their natural habitat.

How did the Green Revolution affect agriculture?

Socio-Economic Impact of Green Revolution. It has already been indicated that Green Revolution had increased agricultural production a great deal. Wheat crop stole the show. Rice wheat production ratio was 3 : 1 in 1959-60 came down to 1 : 179 in 1970-71 and has further come down to 1.15 : 1 in 2000- 01. The data on index number of agricultural production shows significant increase in the production of other crops also.

Why did India start the Green Revolution?

But India has emerged as fourth-largest wheat producing country. Green Revolution was launched in mid-sixties to raise the productivity of Indian agriculture. “Green” is symbolic to make significant and revolutionary changes in terms of productivity and sustainable change in the production from long term perspective.

What is the output of wheat in India?

For wheat India’s output per hectare is 26 qunital while that of China it is 40 quintal and for U.K. the largest output rate is 80 qunital. An actual yield of groundnut is 9.1 qunital per hectare and that is 1/3rd of world’s largest yield rate. Thus even after Green Revolution India’s acre wise productivity is much lower than international standard. But India has emerged as fourth-largest wheat producing country.

What would happen if the government procured extra crop for its buffer stock?

When Government could procure extra crop for its buffer stock from internal source they could use a part of it for rural works programme. This programme could provide a formidable source of employment. This employment opportunity would really give an extra scope for rural people to organise themselves in a bigger way.

How has the use of new technology strengthened the mutual interaction between industry and agriculture?

The use of new technology has further strengthened the mutual interaction between industry and agriculture. The chemical fertiliser, machinery uses have strengthened the linkage processes between industry and agriculture.

Where were rice seeds used in the Green Revolution?

In the second phase of Green Revolution Rice seeds were used by farmers of West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, were of much improved and modern variety. (The improved Rice seeds were T.N.-l, I-R-8 etc.).

Is India’s rice production slow?

The agricultural production is slow and investment is also inadequate. When compared to international structure India’s production is far below even after so called success of Green Revolution. Indian Rice cultivation per hectare in 30 quintal, while that of China it is 63 qunital and for Egypt it is 88 qunital.

How did the Green Revolution help the world?

The Green Revolution played a major role in providing food for an exponentially growing world population . Norman Borlaug and co-workers developed dwarf wheat strains while working at CIMMYT (The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) in Mexico during the 1950s and 1960s. Dwarf strains have a high Harvest Index, which means that they put more of their energy resources into seeds rather than leaves, stems, and other plant structures. More importantly, these plants proved to be more responsive to fertilizer than standard wheat varieties.

What were the consequences of the Green Revolution?

The political consequences of the Green Revolution were seen, particularly by the United States, to be very important as a solution to food shortages and famine in Asia in particular, and therefore a bulwark to the spread of socialism in that continent at the height of the Cold War.

What is organic agriculture?

Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. [ IFOAM, 2008]

What are the problems with rice and wheat?

With the increased production of rice and wheat came the problem of residue management. Most of the rice residue is burnt in situ, which, in addition to causing environmental pollution and health hazards, leads to loss of carbon and other nutrients.

What are the two states that are intensively cultivated?

Both Punjab and Haryana are intensively cultivated states. During 1966–2012, area under rice increased 10-fold (from 0.28 to 2.85 mha) in Punjab and six-fold (from 0.19 to 1.22 mha) in Haryana. During this period, the area under wheat cultivation in both the states increased 2–3.5 times (from 1.62 to 3.51 mha in Punjab and 0.72–2.5 mha in Haryana). An unprecedented increase in both production and productivity levels of wheat and rice occurred in these states, which helped India meet the food shortages of the 1960s. Being pioneer of India’s green revolution, these states sustained both positive and negative effects of green revolution technologies. Initially farmers achieved very high productivity levels but very soon, chemical-based inputs and mechanized farming led to overexploitation of the natural resources, especially groundwater and soil, to the extent that most of the farming enterprises have turned out to be environmentally unsustainable ( PSFC, 2013 ). Water table declined at an alarming rate in the region, especially under intensively cultivated rice–wheat systems ( Hira, 2009 ). During the period of 1993–2003, the water-table fall in central districts of Punjab ranged between 0.3 and 1.0 m annually. By 2006, the water table had sunk to depths as low as 28 m. With the increased production of rice and wheat came the problem of residue management. Most of the rice residue is burnt in situ, which, in addition to causing environmental pollution and health hazards, leads to loss of carbon and other nutrients. Recently, there were reports of declining or stagnating crop yields in these states.

How did capitalism help the Green Revolution?

Capitalism, as championed by the United States, saw progress as being achieved through the transfer of science and technology. In this case, traditional agriculture would be transformed by the adoption of a new, imported technology, forming the basis of the Green Revolution.

Why is it important to maintain soil biodiversity?

Maintenance of an appropriate level of soil biodiversity is critical to achieving this goal, but in order to protect the soil resource and optimize its long-term use, new land use practices are needed to be developed, based on much greater understanding of the factors controlling its functioning.

What crops did farmers grow during the Green Revolution?

The farmers during that period were more inclined towards the cultivation of non-cereal crops (sugarcane, cotton, oilseeds, etc.) which used to fetch more money to the farmers. During that period the yield per hectare of wheat and rice was very low. The situation got changed after the Green Revolution.

What was the percentage of food crops in 1970?

In 1970-71, for example, the area under food crops went up as they occupied 78 per cent of the to­tal cropped area in 1970-71 against 72 per cent in 1960-61. The areal strength of food crops further increased being 80 per cent in 1980-81 and 81 per cent in 1990-91. The steady increase in the area of cereal crops during the last three decades shows that now the farmers of certain areas like Punjab and Haryana are no longer subsistent.

Why is pulse production so slow?

Sluggish growth in the production of pulses is mainly due to the failure in the development of HYV for the different agro climatic regions of the country. Some successful work has been done in the case of arhar (pigeon pea), moong (green gram), gram, and black gram, but its impact on enhancing supplies is not yet visible.

How much has the yield of wheat increased in the 1960s?

The data presented in Table 11.3 reveal that the yield of wheat has increased by over 177 per cent between 1960-61 and 1990-91. Rice is the staple food which recorded the second highest increase in yield being over 76 per cent, followed by bajra and maize which recorded an increase of 66 per cent and 56 per cent respectively. In the pulses, there was, however, a marginal increase of about 11 per cent only. Pulses, being the main source of protein in the country, need special attention for the enhancement of their yields per unit area.

What is HYV in agriculture?

Introduction and diffusion of High Yielding Varieties (HYV) has substantially increased the production of cereals, especially that of wheat and rice. It is because of the new varieties that India is now exporting wheat and rice to Bangladesh, China, and Russia, S.W. Asian countries, Ethiopia, Afghani­stan and East European countries.

How much rice was produced in 1990?

The rice produc­tion rose to 80 million tonnes in 1990-91 as against 35 million tonnes in 1960-61. The overall production of food-grains was 185 million tonnes in 1994-95. Production of pulses in the country is, however, oscillating about 10-14 million tonnes for the last 35 years.

How much wheat was produced in 1964-65?

The total production of wheat in 1964-65 was 12.29 million tonnes which reached up to 58.33 million tonnes in 1994-95.

How did the Green Revolution affect agriculture?

Fertilizers and pesticid es polluted soil, air, and water far beyond the agricultural lands themselves, including the world’s oceans . The Green Revolution transformed not only the farming system, but local foodways and culture as farmers swapped traditional seeds and growing practices for the new varieties of corn, wheat,

How can we increase the sustainability of the gene revolution?

Some support making tweaks to the current “gene” revolution to increase its sustainability: biotechnology, the genetic modification of plants and beneficial microbes to increase yields without consuming more land, reduce pesticides and chemical fertilizers, and design plants more resilient to climate impacts. 12

Why is agroecology so popular?

Agroecology is gaining popularity as the world confronts climate change and biodiversity loss and seeks a more just food system, but the dominance of industrial agriculture makes large-scale implementation challenging. Responses to the next looming food crisis will most likely incorporate both new technological approaches and agroecological methods .

What was Borlaug’s work?

In 1970, Borlaug was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and lauded for his work to decrease food insecurity, poverty, and conflict.

What did China do with rice?

China undertook its own rice research and application of Green Revolution techniques on a massive scale to feed its growing population. Between the 1970s and 1990s, rice and wheat yields in Asia increased 50%. The poverty rate halved and nutrition improved even as the population more than doubled.

How can we meet the world’s food needs?

Paths to meeting the world’s food needs diverge considerably. There are new technological tools to help reduce waste and limit carbon emissions. Data systems can determine everything from which kinds of crops to grow in different climat ic and soil conditions to the optimal planting, irrigation, and harvest times.

What were the major problems in India and Pakistan in the 1960s?

By the 1960s, India and Pakistan were experiencing population booms and food shortages that threatened millions with starvation. The countries adopted the Mexican wheat program and the new varieties flourished, with harvests increasing considerably by the late 1960s. Rice, a staple crop for millions, was another target.

How did the Green Revolution affect agriculture?

The Green Revolution is arguably the most important episode of agricultural innovation in modern history and is best understood as an increase in agricultural productivity based on the application of modern crop breeding techniques to the agricultural challenges of the developing world (Evenson and Gollin 2003). However, the productivity gains were unevenly distributed both across countries, and over time. High-yielding crop varieties (HYVs) were developed initially for rice, wheat, and maize; subsequently, scientists extended the Green Revolution technologies to a number of other crops. The increase in food production was massive and nearly immediate in the irrigated rice-growing areas of Asia and the wheat-growing heartlands of Asia and Latin America. Other parts of the developing world received little benefit, however, from these early efforts.

What were the negative effects of the Green Revolution?

We note that critics have called attention to negative environmental impacts of the Green Revolution, such as the use and abuse of agricultural chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides), the depletion and contamination of groundwater, and biodiversity loss. Our study did not attempt to quantify these impacts. We also recognise that our analysis does not account for the complex social impacts of the Green Revolution – for example, changes in patterns of land ownership or shifts in rural social structures, leading to heterogeneous welfare effects.

When did the Green Revolution start?

The Green Revolution is often associated with the 1960s and 1970s, but rather than slowing down, the rate of adoption and the number of new HYVs increased in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. Scattered evidence from sub-Saharan Africa suggests that the HYV adoption rate has increased by as much in the 2000s as in the four preceding decades. One reason is that compared to other parts of the world, especially South-East Asia, African agriculture is specialised in cassava, sorghum, millet, and other crops for which HYVs became available relatively late. Our results consequently shed light on the divergence between South-East Asia and Africa during the second half of the 20th century, as well as providing a possible explanation for the relatively rapid growth in Africa in the early years of the 21st century (McMillan 2014).

Who wrote the food problem and the evolution of international income levels?

Gollin, D, S L Parente and R Rogerson (2007), “The food problem and the evolution of international income levels”, Journal of Monetary Economics 54: 1230-1255.

Is agriculture a dead end?

Poor countries have large and relatively unproductive agricultural sectors. Early scholars of development considered agriculture a dead end and assumed that most of the impetus for development and economic growth would necessarily come from the industrial sector (Lewis 1951, Nurkse 1953). A recent literature has challenged this view by offering theoretical models in which agricultural productivity growth is important for subsequent industrialisation (Gollin et al. 2007, Restuccia et al. 2008, Vollrath 2011). Whether and when governments should focus their development efforts on agriculture remains the topic of a lively policy debate; however, it has proved difficult to find clear causal estimates of agriculture’s potential to deliver economic growth in developing countries.

Why do rich countries subsidize agriculture?

B) Many rich countries subsidize agriculture to keep their farmers from migrating to the cities in search of work.

What is subsistence agriculture?

Subsistence agriculture is designed mainly to generate products for sale off the farm.

Which model found market-oriented gardens and milk producers in the first ring?

According to the von Thünen model , market-oriented gardens and milk producers were located in the first ring for all but which of the following reasons?

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