How have agricultural activities affect freshwater and coastal zones

One of the major effects of agricultural non-point source pollution is eutrophication of water bodies due to nutrient runoff. Rivers draining regions that are intensively cultivated can carry excess nutrients into coastal areas. The following image is a schematic of this process:

Agriculture activities affecting water= nitrates and phosphates leak into the water mainly from fertilizers-leads to eutrophication. Agriculture destroys habitats because soil pollutants and depletes soil nutrients and top soil. Toxic pollutants from industrial and urban areas.

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How can the Coastal Act help with maximum agricultural production?

Another way to facilitate maximum agricultural production is to provide optimal permit processing for agricultural development. The Coastal Act supports various levels of permit processing, including exemptions, waivers, administrative permits, and Coastal Development Permits, as discussed in the preceding sections.

How does agriculture affect the environment?

This has also fragmented habitats and ecosystems, affecting species populations and ranges and biodiversity. Agricultural activities include growing crops (left) and raising livestock (cows, right), which often requires the burning of fossil fuels to power farming equipment.

How does the Coastal Act define the coastal zone?

The Coastal Act defines the coastal zone differently than its predecessor statute, extending it beyond 1,000 yards of the mean high tide to up to several miles inland. Thus, the location of any particular agricultural operation weighs into permitting requirements.

How big is the coastal agriculture industry?

Introduction 1.1 Coastal Agriculture Agriculture is a $47 billion industry in California, with over 400 crops grown on 76,400 farms, encompassing 25.5 million acres of land – equal to approximately a quarter of the total land area of California.


Which of the following agricultural practices would most likely lead to improved water quality in nearby streams and rivers?

What agricultural practices would most likely lead to improved water quality in nearby streams and rivers? reducing the amount of fertilizer (nutrient management), integrated pest management, conservation tilling, basins, etc.


How does deforestation affect the environment?

The loss of trees and other vegetation can cause climate change, desertification, soil erosion, fewer crops, flooding, increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and a host of problems for indigenous people.


What is deforestation and why is it important?

Trees are cut down for timber, waiting to be transported and sold. Deforestation is the purposeful clearing of forested land. Throughout history and into modern times, forests have been razed to make space for agriculture and animal grazing, and to obtain wood for fuel, manufacturing, and construction.


Which of the following would be the best way to mitigate deforestation?

Which of the following would be the best way to mitigate deforestation? Grow more diverse timber products to increase economic value in an area.


How does deforestation affect the water cycle?

Deforestation can disrupt the water cycle by decreasing precipitation which can lead to changes in river flow and water volume. Research has shown that the Amazon needs 80% of the trees standing to continue this critical hydrological cycle.


Which change is an environmental effect of deforestation and farming?

The loss of trees and other vegetation can cause climate change, desertification, soil erosion, fewer crops, flooding, increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and a host of problems for indigenous people.


Which of the following is a way that trees have been negatively impacted by human use?

Cutting down entire regions of trees for product use is another negative impact of human activity on trees. Humans cultivate trees for harvesting fruit, nuts, and other products as well, which increases the populations of those specific trees. You just studied 23 terms!


How many trees are in the world?

3.04 Trillion treesWhile it is virtually impossible to know how many trees are in the world, satellite imaging has helped procure a rough estimate. A study in the journal of ‘Nature’ reported close to 3.04 Trillion trees on earth. And though this might seem like a lot- it’s not! 3.04 Trillion trees make for almost 422 trees per person.


Which of the following is are the main factor s responsible for the rapid rate deforestation?

Answer:Direct causes of deforestation are agricultural expansion, wood extraction (e.g., logging or wood harvest for domestic fuel or charcoal), and infrastructure expansion such as road building and urbanization.


What are certified wood products?

A product containing certified wood is one where the wood used has been verified as harvested in a sustainable way – including the impact of the harvesting on the surrounding environment in terms of protecting the biodiversity of an area, erosion control and preserving water resources.


What is deforestation Wikipedia?

Deforestation or forest clearance is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land that is then converted to non-forest use. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests.


What is called reforestation?

Reforestation is the process of planting trees in a forest where the number of trees has been decreasing. Afforestation is when new trees are planted or seeds are sown in an area where there were no trees before, creating a new forest.


How do mangroves affect biodiversity?

… Mangroves and swamp are encroached for cultivation land, resulting in habitat loss and the degradation of biodiversity. The application of fertilizers, pesticides, and agricultural effluent disposal lead to a higher risk of water pollution and lower fish yield, as reported in many coastal zones [1] [2] [3] [4]. With spatial proximity to the coastline, agricultural production must include objectives regarding the improvement of farm productivity through environmentally friendly practices, the encouragement of advisory services and appropriate policies, and the maintenance of water flows as well as quality to support coastal resources [1,2, [5] [6] [7]. …


What are the three farming systems in Vietnam?

Based on a sample of 234 farmers in this area, SCP (Structure–Conduct–Performance) analysis revealed three farming systems: integrated aquaculture–mangrove (IAM), intensive shrimp (ISH), and rice-based (RB) farming. The evaluation of farm performance among the systems indicated that ISH incurred the highest values of variable cost and sustainable family income. Meanwhile, IAM obtained the lowest production cost due to the availability of allocated natural resources. The imbalance of applying synthesized fertilizers and an overdependence on nitro-based fertilizers were reported in the case of RB systems. In comparison with the other coastal areas of Vietnam, these farming systems achieved a lower level of production efficiency. It is urgent for policy makers to take action to promote sustainable farming practices in accordance with the stringent enforcement of environmental standards to reduce potential impacts and strengthen the coexistence of systems. Additionally, the purpose of securing rural livelihood under coastal development is aligned with the recommended solutions for economic improvement in this study.


2.1.1 Opportunities

The following three particular types of opportunity are identified in Part A of these guidelines as being potentially important in the development of agriculture in a coastal area:


2.1.2 Constraints

Constraints specifically affecting agriculture and agricultural development in coastal areas, arise principally from:


2.2.1 Potential harmful effects of agriculture on the coastal environment

The constraints already discussed occur largely as a result of agricultural activities suffering from one-sided or reciprocal competitive and antagonistic interactions.


2.2.2 Potential benefits of agricultural development for the coastal environment7

There are a number of ways in which appropriate agricultural development can have positive impacts on coastal ecosystems.


How does diverting freshwater affect food?

Diverting freshwater for crops and livestock, which in turn decreases the amount of water available for other organisms and for other human needs and activities. Increasing food availability. Industrial and technological innovations increased the reliability of food supplies, especially the last 70 years, which in turn has played …


What are some examples of agricultural activities?

Crops are also used for industrial processes, for example, palm oil is used in many products from frying oil to cosmetics, sugar cane waste is used for biofuel, and cotton is used for textiles.


How does deforestation affect the ecosystem?

Deforestation and other forms of habitat loss to make land available for crops and grazing livestock. Habitat loss often alters populations, species ranges, and the biodiversity in ecosystems. Fire is often used in deforestation, which releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Deforestation can also decrease soil quality by increasing erosion, necessitating the use of fertilizers that can also disrupt ecosystem biomass and productivity.


How does human activity affect erosion?

These human activities can increase erosion rates 10 to 100 times. In turn, increasing erosion decreases water quality by increasing sediment and pollutants in rivers and streams.


What are the negative effects of nutrient rich runoff?

Increasing the amount of nutrients in soil or water, especially nitrogen and phosphorous. These nutrients increase plant and algae growth, but also have negative impacts on other species. For, example, in aquatic environments, nutrient-rich runoff can cause large amounts of algae grow – when the algae die, they are consumed by bacteria which can reduce oxygen levels in the water, killing fish and other species. This process is known as eutrophication.


How have humans altered the Earth’s land?

Livestock are also used for labor. Humans have altered Earth’s land for thousands of years through agricultural activities. Industrialization of many agricultural activities over the last 300 years, and especially over the last 70 years, has allowed us to greatly expand our land use.


What is the process of algae dying?

This process is known as eutrophication.


What is agriculture in the coastal zone?

Agriculture in the coastal zone is both a coastal resource and a priority land use that is protected by a number of policies in the Coastal Act.4 The Coastal Act addresses agriculture by:


What is the coastal act?

The Coastal Act is a land use planning and resource protection law that applies a specific set of land use planning principles and resource protection provisions to proposed development located within the coastal zone. Chapter 3 translates the Coastal Act’s objectives into a series of policies that encourage specific priority land uses, protect coastal resources, and plan for new development in the context of development constraints (e.g., coastal hazards). New development must be consistent with the Chapter 3 policies of the Coastal Act.


What is the coastal act section 30601.3?

Coastal Act Section 30601.3 provides the Commission with the authority to act upon a consolidated permit for projects that require two coastal development permits , one from the local government with a certified LCP and one from the Commission. This authority to consolidate permit review is triggered if the applicant, local government, and Executive Director (or Commission) consent to consolidate the permit. The Chapter 3 policies of the Coastal Act serve as the standard of review for such permits.


What is a public hearing in the coastal act?

The Coastal Act allows for local governments to include a provision in their LCPs to waive the public hearing requirement for certain minor developments. Local governments may waive the requirement for a public hearing for minor development which a local government determines is consistent with its certified LCP, requires no discretionary approvals other than the subject Coastal Development Permit under review, and has no individual or cumulative adverse effect on coastal resources or public access to and along the coast.29 The local government may only waive the requirement for a public hearing if public notice is provided, consistent with specific public noticing provisions, and no parties specifically request a hearing.30 This public hearing waiver can be utilized for qualifying development that is appealable to the Commission. If there are no objections to waiving the public hearing, and the hearing is


What is a coastal development permit?

Pursuant to the Coastal Act, development undertaken in the coastal zone generally requires a Coastal Development Permit. The first step in determining whether an agricultural activity requires a permit is to determine whether the activity meets the statutory definition of “development.” Coastal Act Section 30106 defines development as follows: “Development” means, on land, in or under water, the placement or erection of any solid material or structure; discharge or disposal of any dredged material or of any gaseous, liquid,solid, or thermal waste; grading, removing, dredging, mining, or extraction of any materials; change in the density or intensity of use of land, including, but not limited to, subdivision pursuant to the Subdivision Map Act (commencing with Section 66410 of the Government Code), and any other division of land, including lot splits, except where the land division is brought about in connection with the purchase of such land by a public agency for public recreational use; change in the intensity of use of water, or of access thereto; construction, reconstruction, demolition, or alteration of the size of any structure, including any facility of any private, public, or municipal utility; and the removalor harvesting of major vegetation other than for agricultural purposes, kelp harvesting, and timber operations which are in accordance with a timber harvesting plan submitted pursuant to the provisions of the Z’berg-Nejedly Forest Practice Act of 1973 (commencing with Section 4511).


How much is agriculture in California?

Agriculture is a $47 billion industry in California, with over 400 crops grown on 76,400 farms, encompassing 25.5 million acres of land – equal to approximately a quarter of the total land area of California.1 Foreign export of agricultural products accounts for nearly half of California’s agricultural income.2 The remaining 53% of the state’s agricultural income is derived domestically, with over one-third of the country’s vegetables and two-thirds of the country’s fruits and nuts grown in California. In addition, many of California’s communities provide thriving local farmers’ markets, particularly where residents express interest in agricultural products that are organic, grown locally, or use socially responsible practices. Coastal agriculture includes both cultivated farmlands as well as ranchlands used for grazing or raising of livestock, poultry, bees, and dairy stock.


Is a development exemption required under the Coastal Act?

Development must be reviewed against the exemption language on a project-by-project basis because there are a number of exceptions specified in the statute and its implementing regulations which trigger permitting requirements. In addition, it should be noted that any of the exemptions described above may not apply if a prior permit involving the property included a restriction that specifically requires a CDP for future improvements .

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