How have cool chains affected agriculture


Importance of Cold Chain in Agriculture Prevent food loss The traditional chain of production to consumption of perishable has mass food losses. From the time of harvest, processing, packaging, and transporting loss of food occurs at every stage. The cold chain prevents such losses.


How does weather inconsistency affect agriculture?

Weather inconsistency is a common phenomenon in the present-day world and a threat to agriculture. Farmers have to stay alert in sudden and frequent weather changes in order to ensure high yields and manage risks. Online tools with weather features are valuable assistants when it comes to climate change and agriculture.

What are the biggest challenges facing the food and agricultural sector?

Supply chain risk is one of the biggest challenges for firms in the food and agricultural sector. Simon Lusher from JLT Speciality looks at how to tackle the biggest problems. 1. Non-damage business interruption

What are the effects of cattle on the environment?

Cattle and other large grazing animals can even damage soil by trampling on it. Bare, compacted land can bring about soil erosion and destruction of topsoil quality due to the runoff of nutrients. These and other impacts can destabilize a variety of fragile ecosystems and wildlife habitats.

Why is there a global crisis in sustainability in agriculture?

The reasons for this have to do with ecological factors. Global climate change is destabilizing many of the natural processes that make modern agriculture possible. Yet modern agriculture itself is also partly responsible for the crisis in sustainability.


How is the supply chain affecting agriculture?

The same bottlenecks at shipping terminals, surface transportation issues and labor shortages plague agricultural importers, too. Now, crop protectants, fertilizers, tires and parts for farm equipment, computer chips for tractors and more are all in short supply. Fertilizer costs have increased to unprecedented highs.

How blockchain is impacting the agriculture industry?

Blockchain technology in agriculture market like distributed ledgers and smart contracts have the ability to weed out counterfeits in agri-food production and supply chains, handing healthier products to consumers, generating trust between business players, and enabling a better life at a global scale.

How has blockchain technology improved agriculture?

Blockchain technologies can track all kinds of information regarding plants, including the quality of the seed, how crops grow, and even create a record of a plant’s journey once it leaves the farm. This data can increase the transparency of supply chains and reduce issues related to illegal and unethical production.

What is the importance of value chain in agriculture?

High value chains can contribute to food security in the dimensions of access, availability and quality of food primarily by the increase of production volumes, farm diversification, generating higher incomes, reducing postharvest losses, and upgrading technologies to use more efficiently natural resources and …

How does blockchain improve supply chains take any farming product and explain?

The blockchain technology enables the traceability of information in the food supply chain and thus helps improve food safety. It provides a secure way of storing and managing data, which facilitates the development and use of data-driven innovations for smart farming and smart index-based agriculture insurance.

What is supply chain in agriculture?

The “supply chain” stage refers to the steps taken to deliver food from the farmer to the consumer. Transformed into sellable goods, these products can be processed, packaged and stored before eventually being transported to market.

Why is blockchain important in food supply chain?

Blockchain technology is establishing new forms of trust across the food industry supply chain while promising better quality food for end consumers.

How is artificial intelligence used in agriculture?

AI systems are helping to improve the overall harvest quality and accuracy – known as precision agriculture. AI technology helps in detecting disease in plants, pests and poor nutrition of farms. AI sensors can detect and target weeds and then decide which herbicide to apply within the region.

How might blockchain technology be leveraged in a farm to market design?

Utilizing blockchain, the company’s online commodity exchange connects farmers and buyers to a larger pool of customers locally, regionally, and globally. Both can view prior trade history, view what local cash prices are doing, as well as analyze the depth behind the bid and offer.

Which was one result of the development of cool chains?

Which was one result of the development of cool chains? They increased the distance that fresh produce could travel. Which describes a change in agriculture that shows the clearest impact of development of agribusiness? The networks of production and distribution have become more efficient.

What is agricultural value chain?

An agricultural value chain is defined as the people and activities that bring a basic agricultural product like maize or vegetables or cotton from obtaining inputs and production in the field to the consumer, through stages such as processing, packaging, and distribution.

What is value chain and supply chain in agriculture?

Agricultural value chain is to the integrated range of goods and services (value chain) necessary for an agricultural product to move from the producer to the final consumer.

What happens when temperature exceeds crop level?

For example, if temperature exceeds a crop’s optimal level, if sufficient water and nutrients are not available, yield increases may be reduced or reversed. Elevated CO2has been associated with reduced protein and nitrogen content in alfalfa and soybean plants, resulting in a loss of quality.

What are the effects of rising CO2 on crops?

This direct effect of rising CO2 on the nutritional value of crops represents a potential threat to human health.

How does carbon dioxide affect shellfish?

This diagram shows the impact pathway of carbon dioxide emissions on the shellfish market. Carbon dioxide is absorbed by oceans, resulting in ocean acidification. Acidification reduces the size and abundance of shellfish, which in turn leads to decreased harvest and eventually to changes in prices for consumers.

How does drought affect livestock?

Drought reduces the amount of quality forage available to grazing livestock. Some areas could experience longer, more intense droughts, resulting from higher summer temperatures and reduced precipitation. For animals that rely on grain, changes in crop production due to drought could also become a problem.

How does heat affect animals?

In 2011, exposure to high temperature events caused over $1 billion in heat-related losses to agricultural producers.[1] Heat stress affects animals both directly and indirectly. Over time, heat stress can increase vulnerability to disease, reduce fertility, and reduce milk production.

How much did Michigan cherries lose in 2012?

Corn Belt, and premature budding due to a warm winter caused $220 million in losses of Michigan cherries in 2012. [1]

What are the stresses that fisheries face?

Many fisheries already face multiple stresses, including overfishing and water pollution. Climate change may worsen these stresses. In particular, temperature changes could lead to significant impacts. This map shows the annual centers of biomass for three species in the northeastern United States from 1968 to 2015.

Why is agriculture important?

Agriculture is vital to our lives. We need to eat. Irrespective of where you live, agriculture sustains life but is one of the most climate-sensitive activities. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) issued a report in 2013 called, ” Climate Change and Agriculture in the United States ” ( read it here ).

Can corn be harvested sustainably?

Crop residue harvest, particularly from corn, has the potential to provide additional income streams to producers and rural communities, but the impact on soil carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions indicates that only part of the residue can be harvested sustainably.

What are the consequences of excessive applications of chemical plant protection products and their leakage on the global level?

Coastal water pollution and acidification of the oceans are the consequences of excessive applications of chemical plant protection products and their leakage on the global level. The reduction of herbicide and fertilizer volumes with precision agriculture techniques help to eliminate the issue.

Why is smart farming important?

Smart farming is an important achievement in global climate change and agriculture solutions. Precision agriculture is based on site-specific farm management that helps to save farmer’s resources and reduce environmental pollution.

Why are adaptive plants important?

Adaptive plants are more vibrant and resilient to unfavorable climatic conditions. They require fewer herbicides or fertilizers and are more resistant to waterlogging or droughts. Reduced chemical inputs contribute to nature protection, and thus adaptive species are a winning solution in terms of climate change and agriculture.

How does water infiltration help the ecosystem?

Proper water infiltration prevents flooding and waterlogging as well as helps to avoid chemical and water leakage. It enables farmers to reduce the usage of water resources and tackle soil erosion. However, this technique of agriculture and climate adaptation needs a thoughtful approach to ensure ecosystem biodiversity. First, there must be enough water to maintain plant health (especially those that need wetlands to grow). Second, drainage must not contribute to excessive herbicide or fertilizer runoffs.

What is no till farming?

No-till farming is a field-management practice with no or minimum soil disturbance. No-till agriculture prevents soil erosion and promotes carbon sequestration, which is beneficial regarding climate change and farming.

How does drip irrigation help farmers?

Nonetheless, improved irrigation systems and drip or tape irrigation, in particular, help farmers to provide necessary moisture with reduced water spend. Mulching and crop residue also beneficially contribute in this regard, assisting to resolve the farming and climate change issues.

What is crop rotation?

Crop rotation is an old and efficient agricultural method that proved to be successful in weed and pest management as well as chemicals application. Crop diversification is beneficial for the ecosystem biodiversity and gastronomic experiences of mankind.

How does industrial agriculture affect the ecosystem?

Industrial agriculture treats the farm as a crop factory rather than a managed ecosystem, with minimal biodiversity over wide areas of land. This lack of diversity in farming operations exposes farmers to greater risk and amplifies climate impacts such as changes in crop viability and encroaching pests. Intensive inputs.

What is the industrial model that dominates our nation’s agriculture?

In fact, the industrial model that dominates our nation’s agriculture—a model that neglects soils, reduces diversity, and relies too heavily on fertilizers and pesticides—mak es US farms susceptible to climate impacts in several ways. The combination of advancing climate change and an already-vulnerable industrial system is a “perfect storm” …

Why are industrial farms so expensive?

The industrial farm’s heavy reliance on fertilizers and pesticides may become even more costly to struggling farmers as climate impacts accelerate soil erosion and increase pest problems. Heavy use of such chemicals will also increase the pollution burden faced by downstream communities as flooding increases.

Why do farmers increase irrigation?

Farmers may also increase irrigation in response to rising temperature extremes and drought, further depleting precious water supplies. A family surveys their flooded farm and corn fields in Wever, Iowa, 2012. Projected impact of climate change on yields of corn, wheat, soybeans and cotton by the years 2080-2099.

What are the changes in precipitation patterns?

Changing precipitation patterns. Rainfall patterns have already begun shifting across the country, and such changes are expected to intensify over the coming years. This is likely to mean more intense periods of heavy rain and longer dry periods, even within the same regions.

Does business as usual protect food supply?

Business as usual won’t protect the future of our food supply —or the well-being of the farmers and communities that produce it. We need to take concrete steps to prepare for climate impacts on agriculture and to reduce both their severity and our vulnerability to them.

Is agroecology underfunded?

With climate change, farmers need science more than ever, yet public funding for research that can help them cope has been in short supply. Agroecology research—which produces the kind of long-term, literally root-deep solutions that can help farms stay viable for generations— has been particularly underfunded.

Why is supply chain mapping important?

Thorough supply chain mapping is one way they can go about mitigating their exposures and ensuring their reputation is not damaged. Considerable work has been done by governments to improve regulation and checks on imported and exported products.

What is supply chain risk?

Supply chain risk is one of the biggest challenges for firms in the food and agricultural sector. Simon Lusher from JLT Speciality looks at how to tackle the biggest problems.

What are some examples of products that attract high prices?

For example, certain products such as extra virgin olive oil and Manuka honey attract high prices and are therefore targeted by criminals who substitute or adulterate with inferior quality oil or honey and then sell, under false pretences, as a premium product.

Why is the insurance industry so well developed?

The insurance industry has well-developed wordings to help companies cope with political risk exposure. Furthermore, with the increased investment by banks in third world and emerging markets, financial institutions are more concerned about their exposures which is driving demand for political risks cover. 4.

What are the effects of land use changes on agriculture?

In almost every case, land use changes — say, deforestation, or paving over green space for suburban expansion — result in more surface warming.

How much carbon dioxide does organic farming remove from the air?

We’ve said it before and we’ll say it again: Organic agriculture can remove from the air and sequester 7,000 pounds of carbon dioxide per acre per year. The Rodale Institute study that found that staggering number also found that, when properly executed, organic agriculture does not compromise yield.

Does drought increase yield?

As a matter of fact, in drought years, it increases yield, since the additional carbon stored in soil helps it to hold more water. In wet years, the additional organic matter in the soil wicks water away from plant roots, limiting erosion and keeping plants in place.

Why is it so hard to meet the demand for accelerated agricultural productivity?

The reasons for this have to do with ecological factors. Global climate change is destabilizing many of the natural processes that make modern agriculture possible.

How do cattle damage soil?

Cattle and other large grazing animals can even damage soil by trampling on it. Bare, compacted land can bring about soil erosion and destruction of topsoil quality due to the runoff of nutrients. These and other impacts can destabilize a variety of fragile ecosystems and wildlife habitats. Chemical Fertilizer.

What is the effect of nitrogen on soil?

In addition, fertilizer application in soil leads to the formation and release of nitrous oxide, one of the most harmful greenhouse gases.

What causes algae blooms in China?

Nutrient pollution is a causal factor in toxic algae blooms affecting lakes in China, the United States, and elsewhere. As excessive amounts of organic matter decompose in aquatic environments, they can bring about oxygen depletion and create “dead zones” within bodies of water, where nothing can survive.

What are the consequences of irrigation?

One of the most obvious consequences is the depletion of aquifers, river systems, and downstream ground water. However, there are a number of other negative effects related to irrigation.

How much land is used for growing corn?

According to World Bank figures, in 2016, more than 700 million hectares (1.7 billion acres) were devoted to growing corn, wheat, rice, and other staple cereal grains—nearly half of all cultivated land on the planet.

Which country is the leading producer of nitrogen fertilizers?

They are particularly effective in the growing of corn, wheat, and rice, and are largely responsible for the explosive growth of cereal cultivation in recent decades. China, with its rapidly growing population, has become the world’s leading producer of nitrogen fertilizers.



  • The cold chain industry is a field that is creating millions of jobs for the country. This includes warehouse operatives, drivers, system analysis, representatives, and importers down to the delivery man in the retail shop. The whole line and stage of production will create direct and rela…

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Impacts on Crops

Impacts on Livestock

Impacts on Fisheries

International Impacts

  • Despite technological improvements that increase corn yields, extreme weather events have caused significant yield reductions in some years. Source: USGCRP (2009) Click the image to view a larger version. Crops grown in the United States are critical for the food supply here and around the world. U.S. farms supply nearly 25% of all grains (such as wheat, corn, and rice) on the globa…

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