How have peasants fared in agricultural development in south africa

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Why do peasants produce?

Peasants produce primarily for subsistence and household maintenance rather than for profit. This subsistence first economic orientation is not necessarily the product of an inherent anti-market bias; rather it derives from the reality that in most cases peasants are fortunate simply to break even.

What happened to South Africa’s agricultural sector post 1994?

South Africa’s decision to play by the global rules of free trade post 1994 put the country’s agricultural sector in a difficult position. While it was expected to compete against the best in the world, the support that could have helped it was taken away.

Is there a demand for subsistence farming in South Africa?

There is a growing demand to improve subsistence farming or informal small scale farming in South Africa. SouthAfrica.co.za provides factual and well-researched content on a variety of topics relating to agriculture, translated into all 11 official South African languages.

What makes South Africa’s agricultural sector unique?

Market: South Africa’s agricultural sector is one of the world’s most diverse, consisting of corporate and private intensive and extensive crop farming systems, including vegetable, fruit, nuts, and grain production.

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What role does agriculture play in the development of African societies?

Yet, while agriculture is generally an important component for Africa’s development, its ability to generate growth and reduce poverty varies across and within countries, as well as across different agricultural subsectors.


Why peasant farming is important?

The importance of peasant farming Peasant agriculture, the Panel argued, contributes positively to food security, overall economic development, employment and income, productivity, sustainability, landscape, biodiversity, climate, emancipation and cultural heritage.


How did settled agriculture develop in Africa?

The first efforts to domesticate plants in West Africa started slowly. Eventually, West Africans began to settle and grow their food full-time. From 3000 BCE to 1000 BCE, the practice of farming spread across West Africa. These early farmers grew millet and sorghum.


What is farming by peasants?

Peasant farming is an agricultural mode of production, defined by ten interconnected rules, such as seeking self-sufficiency in all of the farm’s operations, respecting the surrounding environment (including local communities), and sparing scarce resources such as gas and water.


What was the role of the peasant?

The Peasants Most of the people on a feudal manor were peasants who spent their entire lives as farmers working in the fields. The responsibility of peasants was to farm the land and provide food supplies to the whole kingdom. In return of land they were either required to serve the knight or pay rent for the land.


What are problems faced by peasant farmers?

Poor means of production, lack of finances, problems of preserving, and high prices of beans at sowing-time, encourage farmers to avoid these obstacles by sowing three-times a year.


How did settled agriculture affect the lives of early societies in western central and southern Africa?

Settled agriculture significantly changed life in early societies of the Western Sudan and the Bantu-speaking societies of central and southern Africa led to numerous migrations, population booms, and the establishment of various communities and kingdoms throughout Africa.


Why are African farmers poor?

In fact, there are major obstacles that limit the success of small-scale farming in Africa. These obstacles can be categorized in four sections, namely: 1) climate, 2) technology and education, 3) financing and 4) policy and infrastructure. Smallholder farmers in Africa are still among the poorest in the world.


What did African farmers do when the land were settled in no longer fertile?

When the soil was no longer fertile and farmers could not grow enough food for themselves and their livestock, they moved and set up another village. Activity 3 Answer the questions below about the African farmers.


What did peasants spend most of their doing?

Peasants spent most of their time farming their strip of land assigned to their family. Typical crops included rye, oats, peas and barley which were harvested with a sickle, scythe or reaper. Peasants would also work cooperatively with other families when it came to tasks such as ploughing and haying.


Why did the peasants treat the land as their own?

The grandmother of lomov’s aunt had given the free use of land to the peasants of the grandfather of natalya’s father. The peasants use the land for 40 years. They started thinking that the land belong to the chubukov’s….& Thus they treat the land as their own.


Who has defined peasants as small agricultural producer?

Firth justified his use of the term arguing that “Like the European peasantry the Oriental peasantry are communities of producers on a small scale, with simple equipment and market organisation, often relying on what they produce for their subsistence” (1946: 22).


What is the purpose of the SA farmers project?

The project, which is conducted in collaboration with Stats SA, is aimed at improving the accuracy of agricultural statistics, including information on smallholder farmers across South Africa.


What is the Land and Agricultural Development Bank of South Africa?

The Land and Agricultural Development Bank of South Africa. (link is external) operates in the primary agriculture and agribusiness sectors. As a development finance institution, its mandate is to address agricultural and rural development in South Africa.


What are the sources of credit for farmers?

Credit and financial assistance. The six major sources of credit for farmers are banks (56%), agricultural cooperatives and agribusinesses (9%), the Land and Agricultural Development Bank of South Africa (the Land Bank) (30%), private creditors (3%), and other creditors and financial institutions (2%).


How many hectares of land will be used for farming in 2030?

By 2030, as per the NDP, government aims to ensure that one million hectares are used to produce crops including fruit and livestock, and provide superior breeding animals to targeted smallholder and subsistence farmers. In 2019/20, government planned to finalise a register of farmers and agriculture statistics.


What is an agricultural holding account?

Agricultural Land Holding Account (ALHA): The ALHA was established in terms of the Provision of Land and Assistance Act of 1993, which gives legal effect to the proactive acquisition of land, where the Minister may , from money appropriated by Parliament for this purpose, acquire land for the purposes of this Act.


What is the central component of land inequality?

According to the Presidential Advisory Panel on Land Reform and Agriculture, a central component of inequality within land inequality is insecurity of tenure that results in economic exclusion of the majority of South Africans, particularly women and youth in rural and urban areas.


What is the Agricultural Research Council?

Agricultural Research Council (ARC) , as the main agricultural research institution in South Africa, is to conduct research and development, and effect the transfer of technology to promote agriculture and industry, contribute to a better quality of life, and facilitate and ensure the conservation of natural resources.


What is the agricultural sector in South Africa?

South Africa’s agricultural sector is one of the world’s most diverse, consisting of corporate and private intensive and extensive crop farming systems, including vegetable, fruit, nuts and grain production. The well-developed commercial farming in South Africa is the backbone to the country’s agricultural economy.


How to start a crop farm in South Africa?

How to Start Crop Farming. Before a farmer can start crop farming in South Africa, they need to look at the resources available – water, land, funds and labour. This will affect the type of crop, time of planting, and size of planting…. more.


What is the production of non-indigenous flowers and foliage in South Africa?

Floriculture in South Africa is the production of non-indigenous flowers and foliage such as roses, carnations, chrysanthemums and grasses. Floriculture in South Africa includes the cultivated production and wild harvesting of fynbos or ‘Cape Flora’…. more


What is the climate of South Africa?

South African climate ranges from subtropical to Mediterranean, allowing for a multitude of farming opportunities. The country’s biodiversity ensures that products such as grains, fruit and wine are exported and preferred for its exceptional quality. There is a growing demand to improve subsistence farming or informal small scale farming in South …


What are the fruits that are grown in South Africa?

Fruit Farming in South Africa consist of oranges and apples to table grapes and dragon fruit, South Africa is a land of fantastic fruit and one of the main fruit producing countries in the world…. more.


Why is soil maintenance important?

As the world population is already at an above sustainable level it will become all the more important to protect the major renewable, sustaining natural elements of the earth …. more.


Is vegetable farming in South Africa?

Vegetable farming in South Africa is not simply a matter of throwing some seeds in the ground and waiting for perfect produce. Optimal conditions vary from plant to plant… more


How much food will Africa need by 2050?

If current rates of African food production continue, the continent will meet just 13 percent of its food needs by 2050. Sustainable agricultural intensification depends on the implementation of innovative practices based on sound scientific research that account for local and national needs and conditions.


What is the biggest obstacle in Africa?

The largest obstacle may be the current state of hunger and malnutrition in Africa: 239 million Africans are chronically undernourished and almost half of children under five have experienced stunted growth due to malnutrition.


What was South Africa’s decision to play by the global rules of free trade post 1994?

South Africa’s decision to play by the global rules of free trade post 1994 put the country’s agricultural sector in a difficult position. While it was expected to compete against the best in the world, the support that could have helped it was taken away. At the same time, the countries it was competing against were very supportive …


Why are hectares planted for wheat now one third of what they were in the late 1980s?

Hectares planted for wheat are now one third of what they were in the late 1980s. This is because it is cheaper to import wheat than to grow it. The same is true of cotton.


Why did the new democratic government need to address the challenges of rural development?

The focus at the time was on transforming the sector to achieve these political goals rather than to prepare for global competition.


What sectors absorb the majority of the workforce?

The agriculture and mining sectors absorb the majority. Employment in the sector has declined substantially over time. In the 1970s agriculture used to employ over 2 million people on farms alone, or about a quarter of the employed. By 2014, fewer than 700,000 were employed on farms, less than 5% of the employed.


What is the average rainfall in South Africa?

It is classified as a semi-arid area, meaning its rainfall is low and erratic. The country has an average annual rainfall of less than 500 mm compared with the global average of 860 mm. Only 12% of its 1.2 million square kilometres is suitable for agricultural use.


Is South Africa a trading partner?

South Africa has also found new markets. Its biggest trading partners are now in Africa, overtaking the EU which used to dominate most facets of trade. There has also been more diversification in terms of products such as soybeans. These are in high demand globally and investment is increasing to support production.


What is SA agricultural export?

The SA agricultural sector remains a net exporter, with exportable volumes of various commodities growing annually, subject to weather conditions. In 2020, SA’s agricultural exports hit $10.2 billion, a 3% increase from the prior year and the second largest level on record. At the same time, agricultural imports fell 8%, leading to a 26% annual increase in the agricultural trade surplus, which widened to $4.3 billion in 2020. The top 10 export products were citrus, grapes, wine, apples and pears, maize, nuts, sugar, wool and fruit juices, with Africa and Europe serving as the largest markets for SA agricultural exports (followed closely by Asia).


What causes volatility in crop prices?

1. Volatility influenced by climate change, political actions, and social change, amongst other factors. Variable weather conditions and climate change cause a fluctuation in yields, which impacts local and global supply dynamics. This creates volatility in volumes and crop prices.


How many farms will be there in 2020?

In October 2020 the Minister of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development announced that the government would be making 896 farms (totaling 700 000 hectares of under-utilised or vacant agricultural State land) available for emerging farmers.


What is the long term health of agriculture?

The long-term health of the agricultural sector relies heavily on the sustainability of farming methods. Farming practices must not only ensure profitable yields but also the wellbeing of the factors of production: the environment, the farm workers and the surrounding communities.


How much maize will be exported in 2021?

Industry estimates suggest the country could export 2.8 million tons of maize in 2021/2022, the largest volume since the 1994/1995 season.


Is agriculture homogeneous?

Complexity: Agriculture is not homogenous – there are many different crops and food types, each with their own unique and fragmented supply chains. There is diversity within each crop, in terms of how and where it is produced, and by whom.


Is the SA agricultural market in need of alternative sources of funding?

In the wake of the Land Bank saga – which in April 2020 saw the biggest agricultural funder in the country default on its debt, precipitating a severe liquidity challenge – the SA agricultural market is in need of alternative sources of funding.


How does agriculture help the economy?

However, there is no consensus on the issue of whether agriculture is the most appropriate way to fight poverty in developing countries. One school of thought argues that since the majority of people in most developing countries are in rural areas and most of them are engaged in agricultural production or agriculture-related activities, agriculture is the most effective way to reduce poverty. The second school of thought recognises the contribution of agriculture to poverty alleviation but attaches more importance to non-agricultural activities (e.g. rural non-farm enterprises and social services). For example, McIntosh and Vaughan (1996:91) state that “… the notion that a broadly based smallholder agriculture can be created, and that it can transform the character of the agricultural production system is an inappropriate premise on which to build policy frameworks designed to improve livelihoods” in South Africa. Noting these divergent views on the role of smallholder agriculture in poverty alleviation, the following section outlines the positive contribution of agriculture, especially smallholder agriculture, to poverty alleviation.


Is smallholder agriculture a public good?

Therefore, little progress can be expected in achieving the objectives of agricultural development without government involvement. Some of the initiatives of the South African government aimed at promoting smallholder agricultural development are outlined in this section.

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