How important is agriculture in the middle east

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While agriculture in the Middle East represents a mere 13% of the region’s GDP, the sector plays a strategically important role in promoting resilient food systems, keeping critical economic sectors alive, and forming the base of many economies.

While agriculture in the Middle East represents a mere 13% of the region’s GDP, the sector plays a strategically important role in promoting resilient food systems, keeping critical economic sectors alive, and forming the base of many economies.May 19, 2021

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What is the contribution of Agriculture to the Middle East economy?

Agriculture plays an important role in the economies of most of the countries in the Middle East. The contribution of the agricultural sector to the overall economy varies significantly among countries in the region, ranging, for example, from about 3.2 percent in Saudi Arabia to 13.4 percent in Egypt.

What is the current farming practice in the Middle East?

Current farming practice in the Middle East is usually to plough these residues back into the soil, or they are burnt, left to decompose, or grazed by cattle. These residues could be processed into liquid fuels, solid fuels or thermochemically processed to produce electricity and domestic heat in rural areas.

What crops are grown in the Middle East?

Wheat and barley are the major staple crops grown in the Middle East region. In addition, significant quantities of rice, maize, lentils, chickpeas, vegetables and fruits are produced throughout the region, mainly in Egypt, Syria, Saudi Arabia and Jordan.

How much of the Middle East’s water is used for agriculture?

Almost two-thirds of the Middle East population lives in areas lacking sufficient renewable water resources to sustain crop production. On average, 83% of water use in MENA goes to agriculture, in contrast to the mere 4% devoted to industrial purposes.

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Is agriculture an important economic activity in the Middle East?

Historically, agriculture has played a key role in the development of many economies of the Middle East and North Africa; initially in the production of cereals and livestock and later in the development of fruits, vegetables and cash crops from irrigated or partially irrigated land.


What is the agriculture in the Middle East?

Wheat and barley are the major staple crops grown in the Middle East region. In addition, significant quantities of rice, maize, lentils, chickpeas, vegetables and fruits are produced throughout the region, mainly in Egypt, Syria, Saudi Arabia and Jordan.


How important is agriculture to developing countries?

Agriculture is also crucial to economic growth: in 2018, it accounted for 4% of global gross domestic product (GDP) and in some least developing countries, it can account for more than 25% of GDP.


In what country in the Middle East is commercial agriculture important?

Agriculture in Saudi Arabia is focused on the export of dates, dairy products, eggs, fish, poultry, fruits, vegetables, and flowers to markets around the world as it has achieved self-sufficiency in the production of such products.


Is there fertile land in the Middle East?

Fed by the waterways of the Euphrates, Tigris, and Nile rivers, the Fertile Crescent has been home to a variety of cultures, rich agriculture, and trade over thousands of years. Named for its rich soils, the Fertile Crescent, often called the “cradle of civilization,” is found in the Middle East.


What kind of food is grown in the Middle East?

Grains are the basis of the Middle Eastern diet, where wheat and rice are considered staple foods. Barley is also widely used in the region, and maize in addition has become common in some areas.


Why is agriculture so important?

Agriculture provides food, clothing, and shelter. It helps people to enjoy a higher quality of life.


Why is agriculture important to many countries?

Agriculture can be important for developing countries in several ways; where food security is weak it can be a vital source of nutrition, it provides income for farmers and farm workers and thus revenues for rural areas, job opportunities in related areas such as processing and in some cases export revenue and thus …


What is importance of agriculture?

Agriculture provides most of the world’s food and fabrics. Cotton, wool, and leather are all agricultural products. Agriculture also provides wood for construction and paper products. These products, as well as the agricultural methods used, may vary from one part of the world to another.


What is the importance of agriculture in Egypt?

Agriculture is a major component of the Egyptian economy, contributing 11.3 percent of the country’s gross domestic product. The agricultural sector accounts for 28 percent of all jobs, and over 55 percent of employment in Upper Egypt is agriculture-related.


Which country has the most agricultural land in the world?

Indonesia tops the chart showing countries with the largest overall area, with 225,000 square kilometres taken by permanent cropland, or 12.4% of its total. Second on the list is China, with 160,000 sq km – some 1.7% of its total land area.


Why is Middle East less developed?

Although a millennium ago the Middle East was not an economic laggard, by the 18th century it exhibited clear signs of economic backwardness. The reason for this transformation is that certain components of the region’s legal infrastructure stagnated as their Western counterparts gave way to the modern economy.


What is the role of agriculture in the Middle East?

The contribution of the agricultural sector to the overall economy varies significantly among countries in the region, ranging, for example, from about 3.2 percent in Saudi Arabia to 13.4 percent in Egypt. Large scale agricultural irrigation is expanding, enabling intensive production of high value cash and export crops, including fruits, vegetables, cereals, and sugar.


What is the Middle East’s agricultural waste?

Agricultural Wastes in the Middle East. Large quantities of agricultural wastes are produced annually in the Middle East, and are vastly underutilised. Current farming practice in the Middle East is usually to plough these residues back into the soil, or they are burnt, left to decompose, or grazed by cattle.


What are the main sources of fuel in Egypt?

These crop residues are by-products of common crops such as cotton, wheat, maize and rice. The total amount of residues reaches about 16 million tons of dry matter per year. Cotton residues represent about 9% …


Can Jatropha be grown in arid regions?

Energy crops, such as Jatropha, can be successfully grown in arid regions for biodiesel production. Infact, Jatropha is already grown at limited scale in some Middle East countries and tremendous potential exists for its commercial exploitation.


Egypt

Egypt is the 14 th biggest rice producer in the world and the 8 th biggest cotton producer in the world. Egypt produced about 5.67 million tons of rice and 635,000 tons of cotton in 2011. The area of cotton crop cultivation accounts for about 5% of the cultivated area in Egypt.


Saudi Arabia

Although the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is widely thought of as a desert, it has regions where the climate has favored agriculture. By implementing major irrigation projects and adopting large scale mechanization, Saudi Arabia has made great progress in developing agricultural sector.


Mediterranean Region

Despite the fact that MENA is the most water-scarce and dry region worldwide, many countries across the region, especially those around the Mediterranean Sea, are highly dependent on agriculture.


About Dirk Lechtenberg

Dirk Lechtenberg is a pioneer in the production and use of alternative fuels. He is the founder and Managing Director of the consulting company MVW Lechtenberg & Partner (Germany). He is the recipient of the Global Fuel award 2012 by the Cement & Lime Magazine.


How many people are in the Middle East dependent on agriculture?

Out of the region’s total population of 296 million people, 84 million, or 28%, are entirely dependent on agriculture. Historically, agriculture has long been at the center of social and economic life in the Middle East, with diets relying on the production of cereals and livestock, and later, fruits and vegetables produced on carefully irrigated …


What is sustainable agriculture?

The countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) are at the forefront of the “large-scale” agritech movement through collaborative partnerships between start-ups, private businesses, and governments.


What is agritech in agriculture?

Agritech is part of efforts to localize food production and empower local communities.


What is the first indoor vertical farm in the UAE?

Designed to address the fact that the UAE’s imports more than 80% of its food requirements, Badia Farms emerged as the Gulf ’s first indoor vertical farm. This soilless farming method for agricultural growth is estimated to use 90% less water than open fields.


What is the purpose of animal waste in Egypt?

In Egypt, the start-up Wastilizer uses animal waste to produce plant fertilizers, intending to enhance the quality of crops based on the concept of a circular economy. Meanwhile, the Lebanese start-up Riego has developed an irrigation system using hardware and software to reduce agricultural water consumption.


How much money does Abu Dhabi invest in agritech?

The UAE has made the most significant investment in this field to date, with the Abu Dhabi Investment Office (ADIO) investing no less than $100 million in agritech companies in the context of its National Food Security Strategy.


What is the Middle East?

It is the birthplace and spiritual center of religions such as Christianity , Islam, Judaism, Manichaeism, Yezidi, Druze, Yarsan and Mandeanism, and in Iran, Mithraism, Zoroastrianism, Manicheanism, and the Baháʼí Faith. Throughout its history the Middle East has been a major center of world affairs; a strategically, economically, politically, culturally, and religiously sensitive area. The region is one of the regions were agriculture was independently discovered, and from the Middle East it was spread, during the Neolithic, to different regions of the world such as Europe, the Indus Valley and Eastern Africa.


Where did the Middle East originate?

The term “Middle East” may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office. However, it became more widely known when American naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902 to “designate the area between Arabia and India”. During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying for influence in Central Asia, a rivalry which would become known as The Great Game. Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but also of its center, the Persian Gulf. He labeled the area surrounding the Persian Gulf as the Middle East, and said that after Egypt’s Suez Canal, it was the most important passage for Britain to control in order to keep the Russians from advancing towards British India. Mahan first used the term in his article “The Persian Gulf and International Relations”, published in September 1902 in the National Review, a British journal.


What countries were in the Middle East in 2008?

According to the World Bank ‘s World Development Indicators database published on July 1, 2009, the three largest Middle Eastern economies in 2008 were Turkey ($794,228), Saudi Arabia ($467,601) and Iran ($385,143) in terms of Nominal GDP.


What are the top 6 languages spoken in the Middle East?

The six top languages, in terms of numbers of speakers, are Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Kurdish, Hebrew and Greek . Arabic and Hebrew represent the Afro-Asiatic language family. Persian, Kurdish and Greek belong to the Indo-European language family. Turkish belongs to Turkic language family. About 20 minority languages are also spoken in the Middle East.


What are the major ethnic groups in the Middle East?

Arabs constitute the largest ethnic group in the Middle East, followed by various Iranian peoples and then by Turkic speaking groups ( Turkish, Azeris, and Iraqi Turkmen ). Native ethnic groups of the region include, in addition to Arabs, Arameans, Assyrians, Baloch, Berbers, Copts, Druze, Greek Cypriots, Jews, Kurds, Lurs, Mandaeans, Persians, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, and Zazas. European ethnic groups that form a diaspora in the region include Albanians, Bosniaks, Circassians (including Kabardians ), Crimean Tatars, Greeks, Franco-Levantines, Italo-Levantines, and Iraqi Turkmens. Among other migrant populations are Chinese, Filipinos, Indians, Indonesians, Pakistanis, Pashtuns, Romani, and Afro-Arabs .


What are the two regions of the Middle East?

Various concepts are often being paralleled to Middle East, most notably Near East, Fertile Crescent and the Levant. Near East, Levant and Fertile Crescent are geographic concepts, which refer to large sections of the modern defined Middle East, with Near East being the closest to Middle East in its geographic meaning. Due to it primarily being Arabic speaking, the Maghreb region of North Africa is sometimes included.


What countries are in the Near East?

In 1958, the State Department explained that the terms “Near East” and “Middle East” were interchangeable, and defined the region as including only Egypt, Syria, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Qatar.


1. Introduction

1Worldwide, agriculture has seen a relentless decline in its gross domestic product (GDP) contribution and employment capacities compared to industry and services. The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is no exception. Agriculture’s share of GDP hovers in the single digits in most countries.


2. The Importance of Agriculture in MENA

4Agriculture is MENA’s largest water consumer and still provides a substantial proportion of employment in some of the region’s countries. Its contribution to economic prosperity is much smaller. In most countries agriculture’s value added as percentage of GDP is in single digit territory.


4. The State of Food Security in MENA

19Food self-sufficiency is not food security, although the two are often wrongly equated in MENA. Hardly any country in the world is not reliant on other countries for at least some food items, while net export capacities are concentrated in a few countries (FAO, 2012; MacDonald, 2013).


5. Domestic Food Prices and the Politics of Subsidies

27Global food prices are different from local food prices, which are moderated by subsidies and local costs of food processing and distribution. The latter partly depend on the quality of logistics infrastructure and on domestic fuel costs and might show different price dynamics than those of agricultural raw materials.


6. Macro Food Security, Import Dependence and Self-Sufficiency Agendas

33Even if food security in MENA countries should not be confused with self-sufficiency and depends to a large extent on broader economic development and food imports, it does not mean that domestic agriculture does not play a role.


7. World Market Dependence and Trade-Based Food Security

37Given population growth, limited agricultural potential and changing diets, MENA economies will continue to rely heavily on food imports. Sourcing these imports has become more expensive since the food price spikes of 2007/08 and 2011.


8. Challenges of Agriculture, Food Security, and Development in MENA

43Arable land and water resources in particular are scarce in MENA countries and form an impediment to any expansion of agriculture. In some countries agricultural production has actually had to be reduced in order to ensure water security (Alterman and Dziuban, 2010).

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