How indian agriculture is viable


Structurally, farming needs to be made economically and ecologically viable in India. Instead of further liberalisation of agriculture, state intervention for better pricing, investments in water harvesting and an agroecological transition could ensure a more resilient system to weather shocks like the current one.


How can Indian agriculture become more sustainable?

The industry and the government are already supporting the shift to sustainable agriculture by popularising the use of science-based good agronomic practices (GAP) that are climate-smart and financially viable. Enhanced collaboration will be a critical imperative to transform Indian agriculture.

What was the agriculture like after independence in India?

Indian agriculture after independence. With the farmers and the government officials focusing on farm productivity and knowledge transfer, India’s total foodgrain production soared. A hectare of Indian wheat farm that produced an average of 0.8 tonnes in 1948, produced 4.7 tonnes of wheat in 1975 from the same land.

How to diversify agricultural production in India?

Dissemination of Agricultural Technology: New approaches towards the dissemination of agricultural technology such as the Agriculture Technology Management Agency (ATMA) model have contributed to diversification of agricultural production in Assam and Uttar Pradesh. This extension approach is now being scaled-up across India.

What is the economic contribution of Agriculture to the Indian economy?

Still, agriculture is demographically the broadest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of India . The total agriculture commodities export was US $3.50 billion in March – June 2020.


Is India good at agriculture?

India is ranked under the world’s five largest producers of over 80% of agricultural produce items, including many cash crops such as coffee and cotton, in 2010. India is one of the world’s five largest producers of livestock and poultry meat, with one of the fastest growth rates, as of 2011.

Why is India best for agriculture?

With the highest mountain range in the world, the Himalayas to its North, the Thar desert to its West, the Gangetic delta to its East and the Deccan Plateau in the South, the country is home to vast agro-ecological diversity.

Is agriculture really profitable in India?

As we know, agriculture is the most profitable sector Worldwide. The economy of any country depends upon the agriculture sector. Here, today, we are talking about top 5 most profitable crops in India. India is the second-largest country that involved in the agriculture sector.

Is India self sufficient in agriculture?

So far, India has achieved self-reliance in agriculture by producing a reasonably large amount of food, and also being a net exporter of agri-produce. The high dependence on imports for edible oils — hovering around 55 to 60 per cent of consumption — however, remains a concern.

Why agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy?

Answer: Agriculture is called the backbone of Indian economy because 70% of Indian population are engaged in agriculture and raw material for the Industrial sectors like food processing company, textile industry comes from the agricultural sector.

Which country is No 1 in agriculture?

China is the world’s largest grain producer, yet has grown more dependent on food imports in recent decades. Much of India’s output is produced by subsistence farmers and consumed locally.

How can Indian agriculture be profitable and successful?

Export of fruits and vegetables is a very profitable business with low investment. Cultivation of medicinal plants and herbs is yet another profitable agriculture business. If you have basic knowledge of medicinal plants and you have enough land, then you can earn good profits from its cultivation.

Does agriculture have a future in India?

The agriculture sector, currently valued at US$ 370 billion, is one of the major sectors in the Indian economy. According to the Economic Survey 2020-21, GDP contribution by the agriculture sector is likely to be 19.9% in 2020-21, increasing from 17.8% recorded in 2019-20.

Why Indian farmers are poor?

As per experts’ opinion the factors which contribute to the poor performance of the Indian agricultural sector are multi-dimensional, such as: poor access to reliable and timely market information to the farmers, absence of supply and demand forecasting, poorly structured and inefficient supply chains, inadequate cold …

What is India’s main source of income?

It is the service sector which is the main source of national income. Therefore service sector contribute more than 50% of the GDP. But it is the agricultural sector which employs more than 50% of the population. In that sense, more number of people in India are supported by agriculture.

Is India a food surplus country?

Currently, India is a net exporter of food grains and has a surplus rice and wheat production but has to pull up the socks to produce pulses. From 1947 to the 1980s, the net import of cereals in the country was over 41 lakh tonnes.

Which sector is the backbone of Indian economy?

There are 63.4 million MSMEs in India which contributes around 29% of India’s GDP, 49 % of exports, MSME sector is considered as the backbone of Indian economy, as it provides employment to 111 million people, said Shri Reddy.

How much of India’s crop yield is sustainable?

Despite these recent accomplishments, agriculture has the potential for major productivity and total output gains, because crop yields in India are still just 30% to 60% of the best sustainable crop yields achievable in the farms of developed and other developing countries.

How did India become self-sufficient in the 1970s?

Such rapid growth in farm productivity enabled India to become self-sufficient by the 1970s. It also empowered the smallholder farmers to seek further means to increase food staples produced per hectare. By 2000, Indian farms were adopting wheat varieties capable of yielding 6 tonnes of wheat per hectare.

What is the nutritional standard in India?

Though the available nutritional standard is 100% of the requirement, India lags far behind in terms of quality protein intake at 20% which is to be tackled by making available protein rich food products such as eggs, meat, fish, chicken etc. at affordable prices.

How much wheat did India produce in 1948?

A hectare of Indian wheat farm that produced an average of 0.8 tonnes in 1948, produced 4.7 tonnes of wheat in 1975 from the same land.

What is India’s biggest supplier?

It has become one of the world’s largest supplier of rice, cotton, sugar and wheat. India exported around 2 million metric tonnes of wheat and 2.1 million metric tonnes of rice in 2011 to Africa, Nepal, Bangladesh and other regions around the world.

What was the net export of India in 2004?

This represents explosive growth, as in 2004 net exports were about $5 billion . India is the fastest growing exporter of agricultural products over a 10-year period, its $39 billion of net export is more than double the combined exports of the European Union (EU-28).

How much did India export in 2013?

India exported $38 billion worth of agricultural products in 2013, making it the seventh largest agricultural exporter worldwide and the sixth largest net exporter. Most of its agriculture exports serve developing and least developed nations.

Why the need to adopt agriculture in the future?

Farmers need to be adapted so that they can continue to produce crops and raise livestock in a changing environment. They may need to change what crops they grow, the timing of important farming activities, how they manage their water use, and what shelter or shade they provide for animals.

New technologies needed for the future of agriculture in India

Farmers need to understand the need for new technology. New techniques can help farmers save time that can be used effectively in other activities and professions. The limited use of mechanized farming techniques has hindered the development of a more organized and productive agricultural sector.

Digital agriculture application in future of agriculture in India

The application of digital agriculture includes technical interventions based on remote sensing, soil sensors, unmanned aerial surveys, and market insights, to enable farmers to integrate crop and soil health conditions at different stages of production allows imagining and testing.

Implementation of digital agriculture in India

An important factor behind the gradual adoption of digital farming in India is the importance of isolated smallholder farms in the country, which complicates data collection.

Benefits of digital agriculture

Implementing these technological solutions enables reliable management and monitoring of farms. Because farmers get a complete digital analysis of farms in real-time, they can act accordingly and do not need to use excessive pesticides, fertilizers and reduce overall water consumption. Other benefits include:

Emerging trends in the future of agriculture

India is the largest exporter of agricultural products. Therefore, it is one of the major emerging trends in agricultural marketing under liberalization. Due to deregulation, the volume of agricultural exports under the WTO principle is increasing and it has the potential to grow shortly.

Developing new biological techniques in agriculture

During the Green Revolution, the large-scale use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides was encouraged to meet the growing demand for food to feed a growing population. Increasing population, the ever-increasing demand for food, and unlimited exploitation of natural resources pose serious threats to the environment and agriculture.

How much land is used for agriculture in India?

The agricultural land in India features around 157.35 million hectares, only next to the U.S.A. Next, the agriculture land use in India depends upon the following factors: The quality of land: It should be of good quality in order to bear fruitful agricultural produce.

Why is agriculture shifting in India?

After clearing up forest land, farmers carry the agricultural activities on it for the next 2-3 years. This is because of the retardation in the fertility and soil quality of the farmland.

What is land utilization?

Land utilization refers to the process of using agricultural land effectively in order to produce a cultivable yield. The land utilization procedure is inclusive of the production of goods such as crops, and services such as forest lands engendering rich biodiversity.

What are the factors that determine land use in India?

Some other factors governing land use in India are as follows: Size of the economy. Composition of the economy. Population and demography of a specific region. Division of land shares under forests, cultivable lands, fallow lands, and permanent pastures. Employment and occupation in the agricultural sector.

What is shifting agriculture?

Shifting agriculture is referred to as Bera in Madhya Pradesh, Podu in Odisha and Andhra Pradesh, Ponam in Kerala, and Jhum in Assam. Crops such as paddy, millets, maize, vegetables, etc. are suitable for this kind of farming.

What is subsistence farming?

Subsistence Farming in India. It is one of the pivotal traditional and massively practiced farming activities in India. In this, the entire family cultivates specific farmland. Most of the farmer families are financially backward and therefore, they use natural manure and primitive tools while farming.

What is dry agriculture?

Dry agriculture promotes soil conservation. It also controls the cost of inputs and fertilizer purchases. It uses moisture as an active ingredient while carrying out cultivation. Areas practicing this activity are Malwa Plateau Deccan Plateau, areas of Bihar and Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, etc.

How does agriculture help India?

To make the agricultural sector more productive, there is an immediate need to focus on sustainable mechanization and make it accessible. India highly subsidizes the agriculture sector, and as a result, it is important to invest in technology that is efficient and environmentally sustainable. Conservation of water and electricity should be a priority and should receive encouragement from the state. The government should also support, encourage and invest in companies that work towards agricultural transformation in India.

How can sustainable technology improve agriculture?

In today’s world, it is imperative to make use of sustainable technology which not only increases agricultural productivity but also ensures improvement of social and environmental footprint at every stage. Providing access to farmers with agricultural tools, machinery and modern technology can create a shift for them from subsistence farming to market-oriented farming. In the context of India, where the agricultural sector provides employment to 50% of the labor force and is one of the major producers of rice, wheat, pulses, spices, cotton, meat and sugar, the goal is to enhance food security for a population of 1.3 billion. The shift towards sustainable mechanization in agriculture would not only improve efficiency and agricultural productivity but in developing countries like India, it would also lead to the development of food supply chains.

What is agricultural transformation?

Agricultural transformation is the process that leads to increased farm productivity, making farming commercially viable and strengthening interlinkages with other sectors of the economy. For agricultural transformation, there are key areas that require focus. Farmer’s access to financial resources is one of the major challenges that India faces. Even though there has been an increase in the sales of tractors all across India giving rise to mechanization in the sector, it is also important to make mechanized equipment accessible to all farmers, even the farmers with small and scattered land holdings. Mechanization of the agriculture sector is imperative to increase the productivity of the farmers but it should also occur in an environmentally-sustainable manner.

How does Powerland Agro work?

The Powerland Agro Tractor Vehicle has played an incredible role in the agricultural transformation of India through mechanization by manufacturing all-terrain vehicle (ATV) for farms. It is changing the landscape of the utility and farming industry in India by launching versatile tractors for the Indian farmers which can tow, pull, plow as well as spray and run power tools. During the ongoing fourth industrial revolution, it is imperative to invest and innovate in the domain of automation of traditional manufacturing and industrial practices. To integrate sustainable mechanization in the agricultural sector, Powerland is currently working on developing its autonomous electric vehicle platform with robotic capabilities.

What is the future of agriculture in India?

The future of Indian agriculture. There is a need for work on cost-effective technologies with environmental protection and on conserving our natural resources. Agriculture in India is livelihood for a majority of the population and can never be underestimated.

How will globalization affect India?

Increasing population, increasing average income and globalisation effects in India will increase demand for quantity, quality and nutritious food, and variety of food. Therefore, pressure on decreasing available cultivable land to produce more quantity, variety and quality of food will keep on increasing.

How can nanotechnology be used in agriculture?

Nano-materials in agriculture will reduce the wastage in use of chemicals, minimise nutrient losses in fertilisation and will be used to increase yield through pest and nutrient management.

What changes were made to agricultural marketing after 2003?

Agricultural marketing reforms after 2003 made changes in marketing of agricultural outputs by permitting private investment in developing markets , contract farming and futures trading, etc. These amendments in marketing acts have brought about some changes but the rate is less.

Why is biotechnology important?

Use of biotechnology and breeding will be very important in developing eco-friendly and disease resistant, climate resilient, more nutritious and tastier crop varieties. 4. Some technologies will be frequently and widely used in future and some will become common in a short time while some will take time to mature.

How many internet users will India have in 2025?

India has improved remarkably in its digital connectivity and market access has become very easy. The number of internet users is projected to reach 666.4 million in 2025. Farmers will be behaving more smartly with mobiles in hands and would be able to be more aware and connected with different stake holders.

Is India’s crop productivity low?

In spite of all these facts, the average productivity of many crops in India is quite low. The country’s population in the next decade is expected to become the largest in the world and providing food for them will be a very prime issue. Farmers are still not able to earn respectable earnings.

Why is it important to transform Indian agriculture?

To ensure safe, affordable & enough food and overcome farmers’ challenges around low productivity & income, it is critical to transform Indian agriculture. There is a need to enable farmers to earn sustainable farm incomes and be globally competitive.

How can digital tools help farmers?

Digital tools in agriculture can help farmers produce with less resources and make data-driven decisions in real-time. New technologies like drones are revolutionising the world of smallholder farming. Drones can help identify weeds, pests and diseases and localise application of agrochemicals.



The history of agriculture in India dates back to the Indus Valley Civilization. India ranks second worldwide in farm outputs. As per 2018, agriculture employed more than 50% of the Indian work force and contributed 17–18% to country’s GDP.
In 2016, agriculture and allied sectors like animal husbandry, forestry and fisheri…

Definition of farmer

The Indian government National Policy for Farmers. Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. pp 4. Accessed on 22 March 2021.</ref>
Indian farmers are people who grow crops. Various government estimates (Census, Agricultural Census, National Sample Survey assessments, and Periodic Labour Force Surveys) give a different number of farmers in the country ranging from 37 million to 118 million as per the different defin…


As per the 2014 FAO world agriculture statistics India is the world’s largest producer of many fresh fruits like banana, mango, guava, papaya, lemon and vegetables like chickpea, okra and milk, major spices like chili pepper, ginger, fibrous crops such as jute, staples such as millets and castor oil seed. India is the second largest producer of wheat and rice, the world’s major food staples.


Vedic literature provides some of the earliest written record of agriculture in India. Rigveda hymns, for example, describes ploughing, fallowing, irrigation, fruit and vegetable cultivation. Other historical evidence suggests rice and cotton were cultivated in the Indus Valley, and ploughing patterns from the Bronze Age have been excavated at Kalibangan in Rajasthan. Bhumivargaha, an Indian Sans…


Indian irrigation infrastructure includes a network of major and minor canals from rivers, groundwater well-based systems, tanks, and other rainwater harvesting projects for agricultural activities. Of these, the groundwater system is the largest. Of the 160 million hectares of cultivated land in India, about 39 million hectare can be irrigated by groundwater wells and an additional 22 million hectares by irrigation canals. In 2010, only about 35% of agricultural land in …


As of 2011 , India had a large and diverse agricultural sector, accounting, on average, for about 16% of GDP and 10% of export earnings. India’s arable land area of 159.7 million hectares (394.6 million acres) is the second largest in the world, after the United States. Its gross irrigated crop area of 82.6 million hectares (215.6 million acres) is the largest in the world. India is among the top three global producers of many crops, including wheat, rice, pulses, cotton, peanuts, fruits an…

Agriculture based cooperatives

India has seen a huge growth in cooperative societies, mainly in the farming sector, since 1947 when the country gained independence from Britain. The country has networks of cooperatives at the local, regional, state and national levels that assist in agricultural marketing. The commodities that are mostly handled are food grains, jute, cotton, sugar, milk, fruit and nuts Support by the …


“Slow agricultural growth is a concern for policymakers as some two-thirds of India’s people depend on rural employment for a living. Current agricultural practices are neither economically nor environmentally sustainable and India’s yields for many agricultural commodities are low. Poorly maintained irrigation systems and almost universal lack of good extension services are among the f…

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