how is agricultural biotechnology used



The use of agricultural biotechnology

  • Genetic engineering. Over the years, researchers have learned how to mutate organisms, moving genes from one to another. …
  • Molecular diagnostics. These methods can help detect gene products or genes which are very precise. …
  • Molecular markers. …
  • Tissue culture. …
  • Vaccines. …


Why do we need biotechnology in agriculture?

 · Agricultural biotechnology is a scope of devices, including customary rearing methods, that adjust living beings, or parts of life forms, to make or alter items; improve plants or animals; or create microorganisms for explicit …

What are the benefits of Biotechnology in agriculture?

Agricultural biotechnology, also referred to as green biotechnology, is biotechnology applied to agricultural processes. Since the advent of agriculture 10 000 years ago, farmers have used biological technology inadvertently in the refinement of methods of farming and crops through cross breeding, and various hybridization techniques.

How has biotechnology improved agriculture?

 · Agricultural biotechnology is a range of tools, including traditional breeding techniques, that alter living organisms, or parts of organisms, to make or modify products; improve plants or animals; or develop microorganisms for specific agricultural uses. Modern biotechnology today includes the tools of genetic engineering. Several United States …

What is the role of Biotechnology in agriculture?

Biotechnology is being used to address problems in all areas of agricultural production and processing. This includes plant breeding to raise and stabilize yields; to improve resistance to pests, diseases and abiotic stresses such as drought and cold; and to enhance the nutritional content of foods.


What is agricultural biotechnology?

Agricultural Biotechnology is the use of new scientific techniques based on our understanding of DNA to improve crops and livestock that are not possible with conventional breeding alone. This can be achieved in part by modern molecular plant breeding techniques such as marker-assisted selection (MAS).

How does biotechnology affect agriculture?

Agricultural biotechnology delivers biomass for food, feed, genetic modifications, and molecular tools to enhance the plant breeding potential, resulting in increased food supplies, farm income, and reduced damage to ecology and environment.

How are public attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology influenced by the social environment?

They are largely influenced by the social environment and the mass media, particularly when the issue at stake is characterized by weak involvement and lack of direct experience. This situation applies in particular to Europe, where the de facto ban on the cultivation of GMOs in most European countries, the lack of concrete experience with labeled GM food in supermarkets and the absence of public initiatives to render a practical experience with GMOs mandatory in high school education have led to rather heteronomous views on the technology. The lack of experience with GMOs has increased the influence of stakeholders in politics in the framing of the debate. By opposing GMOs they try to assure the public of their good motives and thus gaining public trust as guardians of food safety, the environment, and social values. The situation in North America in general and the United States in particular is different since farmers, consumers, and high school students mostly have made a concrete experience with the technology and this makes it more difficult for advocacy groups to portray themselves as the voices that represent the interests of consumers and producers. In the developing world there are countries in Latin America and Asia that have embraced the technology without much public debate. However, the continent that has so far been as reluctant as Europe to embrace the technology is Africa. Apart from South Africa and a few other countries that approved of the commercial release of Bt cotton, the continent remains largely GMO free. This is however not due to genuine domestic opposition to the technology but the pressure from Europe as the largest donor to African governments and the largest importer of agricultural products from Africa.

What are the different types of IP in agriculture?

In this chapter, we review the major types of IP in agricultural biotechnology, each having different rights and requirements for their protection, including: Plant breeder’s rights; plant variety protection (PVP); plant patents; utility patents; gene patenting; material transfer agreements (MTAs); trademarks; trade secrets; know-how; and geographical designations of origin. We will then provide an overview of IP-related technology transfer (TT). One of the goals of this chapter is to shed light on the freedom-to-operate (FTO) and risk-management issues that are critical to scientists. Afterward, a case study on how to conduct an FTO analysis will be presented. A discussion of the most important concerns raised by developing countries related to IP protection and access will conclude the chapter.

How can we sustain the plant biotechnology revolution?

Sustaining this plant biotechnology revolution requires long-term commitment to both public and private sector research and development (R&D). In the agricultural sector, R&D is unique among industries in at least two aspects: the truly global reach of a majority of agricultural R&D; and the historical success of what has been largely a public enterprise. In relation to other industries, research and innovation in agriculture are far more geographically dispersed ( Boettiger et al., 2004 ). Private enterprises contribute roughly one-third of global agricultural R&D expenditures, whereas public research institutions make up the other two-thirds, which is evenly split between developed and developing countries ( Pardey and Beintema, 2001 ).

What are the benefits of genetically improved bioenergy crops?

With the world turning to agricultural technologies for solutions, the twenty-first century will witness a major development of genetically improved bioenergy crops that help to mitigate climate change and contribute to the cost-effective production of biofuels ( Harfouche et al., 2010 ). The sequencing of genomes from several plant species and advances made in plant genetics and other aspects of agricultural sciences have led to technological breakthroughs that will provide the building blocks for what are likely to be major industries, with profound implications for agriculture. Not only will humankind benefit from these innovative technologies, but the efforts that spawned them are contributing to the existing body of scientific knowledge and the development of global biotechnology industries ( Singh et al., 2009 ).

Is biotechnology a fast growing industry?

Agricultural biotechnology is a fast-expanding industry in many countries of the world that will continue to offer remarkable economic, environmental, and social opportunities in the years ahead. Since its introduction about 15 years ago, plant biotechnology has achieved very important milestones in increasing global crop productivity to improve food, feed, and fiber security, and in reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture.

What is genetic modification?

Likewise, using this technique allows scientists to identify specific traits and characteristics that are valuable. Then, scientists can implement these traits and characteristics into new plants or animals to enhance them. For example, these enhancements can create better yielding plants.

What is the purpose of molecular markers?

Molecular markers are the method scientists use to identify certain valuable traits that cannot be necessarily seen from the naked eye. This process allows scientists to identify specific characteristics for implementation into new crops or livestock to create enhancements.

Is biotechnology better than conventional?

Unlike traditional vaccines, biotechnology-derived vaccines have several benefits for humans and livestock. These types of vaccines can be cheaper, healthier, and safer than conventional vaccines. Professionals can also store these vaccines at room temperature, as opposed to keeping them refrigerated. Like traditional vaccines, they work to provide protection against infectious diseases in humans and livestock.

What is agricultural biotechnology?

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) defines biotechnology as: “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products for specific use ” (Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992).

What is biotechnology in agriculture?

Modern agricultural biotechnology includes a range of tools that scientists employ to understand and manipulate the genetic make-up of organisms for use in the production or processing of agricultural products. Some applications of biotechnology, such as fermentation and brewing, have been used for millennia.

How long have farmers manipulated the genetic makeup of plants and animals?

The source document for this Digest states: Farmers and pastoralists have manipulated the genetic make-up of plants and animals since agriculture began more than 10 000 years ago . Farmers managed the process of domestication over millennia, through many cycles of selection of the best adapted individuals.

What are some examples of biotechnology?

Some applications of biotechnology, such as fermentation and brewing, have been used for millennia. Other applications are newer but also well established. For example, micro-organisms have been used for decades as living factories for the production of life-saving antibiotics including penicillin, from the fungus Penicillium, and streptomycin from the bacterium Streptomyces. Modern detergents rely on enzymes produced via biotechnology, hard cheese production largely relies on rennet produced by biotech yeast and human insulin for diabetics is now produced using biotechnology.

What is biotechnology?

Broadly speaking, biotechnology is any technique that uses living organisms or substances from these organisms to make or modify a product for a practical purpose (Box 2). Biotechnology can be applied to all classes of organism – from viruses and bacteria to plants and animals – and it is becoming a major feature of modern medicine, …

Is biotechnology more than genetic engineering?

Biotechnology is used in disease diagnostics and for the production of vaccines against animal diseases. Clearly, biotechnology is more than genetic engineering. Indeed, some of the least controversial aspects of agricultural biotechnology are potentially the most powerful and the most beneficial for the poor.

How does biotechnology help agriculture?

With better disease control and increased tolerance to drought and flooding, biotechnology leads to a significant increase in crop production. This does not just match the ever-growing demand for food but also helps farmers to lower losses.

What is agricultural biotechnology?

One can define agricultural biotechnology as a set of scientific techniques which can improve plants, micro-organisms and animals on the basis of DNA and its concepts. Arguably the use of biotechnology in agriculture is deemed to be more effective than that of agrochemical. The latter is believed to be responsible for causing environmental distress …

What is the use of scientific techniques and principles to improve and modify plants, animals and organisms?

Ans. It is the use of scientific techniques and principles to improve and modify plants, animals and organisms. It is extensively used in fields like agriculture, medicine, and genetic engineering to enhance the value of living things.

Why is genetically engineered food resistant to chemicals?

However, genetically engineered food is resistant to a variety of chemicals, including herbicides; as a result, the scale of soil erosion is significantly low. Disease Resistance.

How does a saline solution help plants?

It further helps to improve the taste and flavour of crops by enhancing the activity of enzymes present in plants. Also, it helps in keeping the yield fresh for longer.

What are the benefits of farmers?

Farmers have been able to transform crops like cotton, corn and potato to synthesise a protein that tackles issues of pests effectively. Increase in Nutrition Value. It has also enabled farmers to produce crops with a higher nutritional value and enhanced flavour and texture.

Why is biotechnology important?

Ans. Importance of biotechnology in crop improvement is multifaceted. It does not just help to increase productivity but also improves the quality of crop production. Also, it helps to eliminate the risks of infestation and disease.

What are some examples of agricultural biotechnology?

There are some purely aesthetic applications, and an example of this is the use of gene identification and transfer techniques to improve the color, smell, size, and other features of flowers.

How is biotechnology used in plants?

Likewise, biotech has been used to make improvements to other common ornamental plants, in particular, shrubs and trees. Some of these changes are similar to those made to crops, such as enhancing the cold resistance of a breed of tropical plant so that it can be grown in northern gardens.

How do plants adapt to drought?

The discovery of genes in plants responsible for sodium uptake has lead to the development of knock-out plants able to grow in high salt environments. Up- or down-regulation of transcription is generally the method used to alter drought tolerance in plants. Corn and rapeseed plants, able to thrive under drought conditions, are in their fourth year of field trials in California and Colorado, and it is anticipated that they’ll reach the market in 4-5 years.

What are some examples of genetically modified foods?

An example of this is Golden Rice, which contains beta-carotene , the precursor for Vitamin A production in our bodies.

What microbes are toxic to insects?

For years, the microbe Bacillus thuringiensis, which produces a protein toxic to insects, in particular, the European corn borer, was used for dusting crops. To eliminate the need for dusting, scientists first developed transgenic corn expressing Bt protein, followed by Bt potato and cotton.

How can biotechnology improve animal traits?

Enhancing plant and animal traits through traditional methods like cross-pollination, grafting, and cross-breeding is time-cons uming. Biotech advances allow for specific changes to be made quickly, on a molecular level through over-expression or deletion of genes, or the introduction of foreign genes.

What is the role of agriculture in biofuels?

The agricultural industry plays a large role in the biofuels industry, providing the feedstocks for fermentation and refining of bio-oil, bio-diesel, and bio-ethanol. Genetic engineering and enzyme optimization techniques are being used to develop better quality feedstocks for more efficient conversion and higher BTU outputs of the resulting fuel products. High-yielding, energy-dense crops can minimize relative costs associated with harvesting and transportation (per unit of energy derived), resulting in higher value fuel products.

What is biotechnology in agriculture?

Biotechnology is an emerging field of research as it has the potential to solve many biological problems which have not been solved until now with the conventional techniques. Biotechnology extends its applications over a broad spectrum which includes medicines, agriculture, transgenic, genetic engineering, etc.

What is the use of technology to modify or manipulate any biological system or living system for the development or improvement of products for

Biotechnology is the use of technology to modify or manipulate any biological system or living system for the development or improvement of products for various purposes. It is widely employed in different fields and agriculture is one among them. Researchers have suggested different options for increasing food production.

What is GMO in agriculture?

Genetically modified crops (GMO) are the latest advancement in the agricultural field. These crops result from the alteration in the genetic makeup of the crops. This modification leads to a number of advantages in the crops which include –. There is less loss after harvest. The crops can be modified to have additional nutrients value …

What are the options for increasing food production?

Researchers have suggested different options for increasing food production. Genetically engineered crop-based agriculture is an option, others being agrochemical based agriculture and organic agriculture. The green revolution was an initiation for increasing food production but it couldn’t meet the growing demands.

What are some examples of genetically modified crops?

One of the most common examples is that of Bt Cotton. Bt stands for Bacillus thuringiensis which, when introduced in plants develop resistance against pests like bollworms and corn borer. Thus, genetically modified crops help in optimizing the complete process of agriculture. Advancement of biotechnology in agriculture resulted in a variety …

Can crops be modified?

The crops can be modified to have additional nutrients value for human welfare.

How is biotechnology used in agriculture?

Agricultural biotechnology companies work to supply farmers with tools to increase the yield of plant and animal products, while lowering the costs of production. Agricultural biotechnology can also include production of plants such as orchids for ornamental purposes and plants …

What are some examples of biotechnologists?

For example, a commercial fish farm might raise fish like salmon, tilapia, or catfish.

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