What is the impact of water scarcity on agriculture?
The impact of water scarcity on agriculture and food security is very serious. Due to climate change and increased demand for agriculture production, there is a severe water shortage crisis worldwide. Water scarcity has many implications on the agricultural industry, especially for food security.
What is the percentage of rainfall deficiency in India in agriculture?
Indian agriculture largely depends on the monsoon and so far, there is 10 percent deficiency in rainfall.
What is the extent of loss due to drought in India?
Recently the government has announced that the extent of losses due to drought, land degradation and desertification is 2.54 percent of the GDP (~2.7 lakh crore rupees). Following are a few suggestions to mitigate the impact of ever-dynamic monsoon:
What is water scarcity and why is it important?
Water scarcity is the shortage of water; specifically the lack of sufficient available fresh water for consumption, agriculture, industry, and ecology, etc. Climate change is also a major factor that contributes to water scarcity. All types of agriculture systems are highly dependent on the availability of water.
How shortage of water affect our agriculture?
Water Crisis Water scarcity has a huge impact on food production. Without water people do not have a means of watering their crops and, therefore, to provide food for the fast growing population.
What is causing water scarcity in India?
India’s water crisis is often attributed to lack of government planning, increased corporate privatization, industrial and human waste and government corruption. In addition, water scarcity in India is expected to worsen as the overall population is expected to increase to 1.6 billion by year 2050.
How much water does India use for agriculture?
3.1. India has 18% of world population, having 4% of world’s fresh water, out of which 80% is used in agriculture. India receives an average of 4,000 billion cubic meters of precipitation every year. However, only 48% of it is used in India’s surface and groundwater bodies.
What kind of water does Indian agriculture still depend on?
India is the largest user of groundwater in the world with over 60 per cent of irrigated agriculture and 85 per cent of drinking water supplies dependent on aquifers.
How has water scarcity affected India’s farming economy?
We found that farmers whose wells had dried up had their farm income severely affected, and about 25% lower than those whose wells were still operational. They cultivated less land, fewer times a year, and with less profitable crops – especially horticultural crops that require assured control of water.
What factors have aggravated the water and energy problems in India?
Intensive Industrialization,urbanisation – Industrialisation requires water not only for the industrial process but for generating power, a considerable part of energy comes from hydroelectric power. Increase in urban cities and towns along with urban lifestyles have aggravated the problem of water scarcity.
How is water wasted in agriculture?
Agriculture based on fields that temporarily flood is also a major problem because most of that water is wasted through evaporation, the forum was told. Other problems include pesticide and herbicide runoff from farm fields that pollute rivers and lakes, as well as soil erosion and salt buildup from irrigation.
Why is water required for agriculture?
Around 70 percent of freshwater withdrawals go into agriculture. The uses within the sector are very diverse and include mainly irrigation, pesticide and fertilizer application, and sustaining livestock. Further along the value chain, water is used for food preservation (crop cooling, for example) and processing.
What are the sources of water for agriculture in India?
Despite extensive river system, safe clean drinking water as well as irrigation water supplies for sustainable agriculture are in shortage across India, in part because it has, as yet, harnessed a small fraction of its available and recoverable surface water resource.
Why is agriculture in India still dependent on rainfall?
Good rains during the season result in bountiful crops which further benefit the farmers. A major portion of the country’s crop area is completely dependent on Monsoon rains as they’re not equipped with methods of manual irrigation. Simply speaking, the Indian economy gains due to good Monsoon rains in the country.
How much water does agriculture consume?
Currently, agriculture accounts (on average) for 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawals globally (and an even higher share of “consumptive water use” due to the evapotranspiration of crops).
How much grain is produced in India in 2016?
Food grain production in India, in 2016-17, was 271.98 million tons . However, by 2020, the country’s farmers need to produce 300 million tons, to meet the ever-growing demand for food. Indian agriculture largely depends on the monsoon and so far, there is 10 percent deficiency in rainfall.
Is India allowing non-plantation crops?
Currently, businesses in India are not allowed commercial cultivation of non-plantation crops. Farmers have much lower risk-taking capacity and they will be more inclined to change their practices by observing the successes of another system in their neighborhood. The government cannot have enough model farms. Allowing businesses to cultivate will bring advanced scientific practices to villages.
What percentage of global water withdrawals are agricultural?
According to the International Water Management Institute , agriculture, which accounts for about 70% of global water withdrawals, is constantly competing with domestic, industrial and environmental uses for a scarce water supply.
Why is water important for agriculture?
Using these different methods of water management is essential for agriculture, as the increasing population calls for an increase in food production.
What is irrigation management?
According to the World Bank, irrigation management works to upgrade and maintain irrigation systems, such as groundwater irrigation, that are already in place and expands the areas of irrigation to increase the amount of crops being produced. Another method is water management for rainfed agriculture. Rainfed agriculture is the most common method …
How to manage rainfed agriculture?
According to the book, Rainfed Agriculture: Unlocking the Potential, 80% of the land farmed around the world is rainfed and it “contributes about 58% to the global food basket” (xiii). Some techniques in water management for rainfed agriculture include the use of supplemental irrigation and water harvesting techniques, such as rain catchment systems and weirs or sand dams. These techniques help provide much needed water to areas where rainfall is inconsistent. Having this water helps to increase the number and quality of the crops grown.
What is the method of transporting water to crops in order to maximize the amount of crops produced?
One such method is irrigation management. Irrigation is a method of transporting water to crops in order to maximize the amount of crops produced. Many of the irrigation systems in place do not use the water in the most efficient way.
What are some techniques used in rainfed agriculture?
Some techniques in water management for rainfed agriculture include the use of supplemental irrigation and water harvesting techniques, such as rain catchment systems and weirs or sand dams. These techniques help provide much needed water to areas where rainfall is inconsistent.
What is water scarcity?
Water scarcity is the shortage of water; specifically the lack of sufficient available fresh water for consumption, agriculture, industry, and ecology, etc. Climate change is also a major factor that contributes to water scarcity. All types of agriculture systems are highly dependent on the availability of water. But when we talk about modern agriculture, the importance of water abundance increases rather more.
What are some ways to address the issue of water scarcity?
There are many ways to address this issue. One example is water reuse. You can reuse water throughout the agricultural process, which conserves water and lowers your need for freshwater.
Why is water scarcity a problem in India?
The challenge has not been resolved because there is a gap between the knowledge and governance on water scarcity. This research aims to address the gap by first analyzing the water flows embodied (virtual/hidden) in agriculture products moving between states of India to create the knowledge on the flows. Second, by linking it with the water scarcity situation, and some elements of water policy to understand the gaps in knowledge and governance to mitigate water scarcity. The research is unique because it demonstrates the importance of bridging the knowledge governance gap to mitigate water scarcity through virtual water (VW) flows assessment. Some VW-flows between the states were found to be unsustainable as they are from highly to other highly water scarce zones/states and are leading to concentration of water scarcity in already highly water scarce zones/states. In contrast, sustainable flows, i.e., from low to high water scarcity zones/states lead to distribution of water scarcity. Absence of well-informed water policy reflect the knowledge governance gap, which leads to unsustainable VW flows hence water scarcity
Why is freshwater important?
Freshwater is an essential resource for sustaining life, development, and environment. However, it is a finite and vulnerable resource, as it constitutes barely 0.1% of total global water resources [ Allan, 2011; International Conference on Water and the Environment, 1992 ]. Freshwater scarcity is a challenge to achieve water security, therefore, recently formed sustainable development goals (SDG); acknowledge the significance of sustainable use of freshwater. Further, 12th SDG “ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns,” prioritizes sustainable use of freshwater in agriculture production in developing countries to achieve economic growth and sustainable development [ United Nations, 2015 ]. This is because agriculture consumes approximately 70% of freshwater resources. In order to determine sustainability of freshwater use in agriculture, there is a need to assess the quantum of “water embedded in goods and services” which is known as virtual water (VW) [ Allan, 2011 ]. VW was conceptualized by Tony Allan to capture the economically invisible and politically silent link between water demand for water-intensive goods, and water endowment of both the exporting and importing geographical locations [ El-Sadek, 2010; Sadaf and Zaman, 2013 ]. Hence, VW concept is based on the rationale of “distribution of water scarcity,” enhancing “global water use efficiency” and “water savings.” Therefore, VW is considered as a policy relevant concept [ Global Water Partnership, 2017; Lenzen et al ., 2013; Roth and Warner, 2008 ].
How is water lost from the surface?
In hot arid climates, water is lost from the surface by evaporation or by plant transpiration in cultivated areas, leaving behind groundwater that is increasingly brackish and unsuitable for further agriculture. For coastal aquifers, the chance of contamination by sea water intrusion is likewise significant. In 2012, a project at Ben Gurion University, Israel, known as the Josefowitz Oasis Project in honor of its sponsor, was begun in the very hot and dry Arava valley of southern Israel with the purpose of growing crops with water obtained by desalination from a brackish aquifer. The key innovation here is that the groundwater used was desalinated using solar panels. Because the brackish groundwater is less salty than sea water, it was possible to use nanofiltration, which is a low-cost technology that permits limited passage of certain ions essential for plant growth. Thus, the feed water was adjusted to have concentrations of Ca 2+, Mg 2+, and SO 42− such that the permeate flow contained these ions in optimum concentrations for irrigating water. The desalination could be carried out with lower pressure than sea water RO desalination, requiring less pumping and thus less energy. It was still more expensive to carry out the desalination using the solar panels than using the electrical grid but this price difference is expected to be reduced as solar panels become cheaper and more efficient. Four staple crops were grown: maize, millet, sorghum, and potato. Overall, the crops required 25% less irrigation water and fertilizer and the productivity yields were higher than those obtained under conventional practices. The brine collected from the desalination is a useful waste product: it was used to cultivate red beets, a salt tolerant plant. It has also been proposed that the salty medium be used to grow ornamental fish.29 Figure 12 shows maize growing on sandy soil of an experimental farm irrigated with solar-powered desalinated groundwater.
How is hydroelectricity generated?
Hydropower, or hydroelectricity, is generated in a sustainable fashion by storing water in dams or reservoirs, which are not dependent on seasonal changes of water flow from a stream , as the “run-off-the-river” dams are. Hydropower is a clean, renewable energy source that does not entail carbon emissions. The potential energy of falling water turns turbines, which drive a generator that produces electricity. Hydroelectric plants are capable of up to 90% efficiency (calculated from the total electrical energy produced compared to the potential energy of the water passing through the turbine).
How will the world’s population increase in 2050?
According to United Nations estimates, the world population is expected to rise above 9,000,000,000 by 2050. This phenomenon will place major demands on increased freshwater supplies for consumer use and irrigated agriculture. Yet our Earth’s freshwater resources are finite, comprising only 2.5% of the total freshwater available from both surface water and icecaps. Preserving this precious resource is endangered partly from neglect relating to contamination and partly by the waste that arises from either an absence of adequate infrastructure in developing countries or a failing aging infrastructure in most developed countries. Compounding the problem of freshwater availability is the realization that demands for consumer use will rise as the socioeconomic status of world populations attain middle class status. In the past century, the global demand for water use has grown at more than twice the rate of population increase. 1 But perhaps the most overwhelming impact on water resources is the effect of the dramatic climate change that we have witnessed in recent years. According to the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change, the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere has risen by 0.74 °C in the last 100 years. 2 A warmer atmosphere, holding more water vapor, releases more energy during precipitation, intensifying storms and floods, increasing droughts, depleting groundwater levels, and promoting forest fires, which thereby reduce photosynthetic carbon dioxide uptake. Warmed ocean waters are less dense contributing to sea level rise, salinization of river basin deltas and coastal aquifers, and mortality of benthic fauna due to hypoxia/anoxia of dissolved carbon dioxide. Acidification of oceans from absorption of anthropogenic CO2 disrupts CaCO 3 shell formation of marine organisms. These processes contribute to a decline in food supply, which is contraindicated for a rising world population. In addition, melting mountain glaciers threaten much needed water resources for irrigated agriculture as well as limiting the supply of fresh drinking water. The real impact of water scarcity will be food scarcity.
Is water scarcity a global problem?
Water scarcity is a global reality. So are climate change and an expanding world population. Although the impact of water scarcity is felt unequally throughout the world, sufficient attention is being devoted to this problem internationally so that there is cause for optimism: creative innovations have made possible new technologies for conservation; interdisciplinary scientific approaches have discovered processes to boost the availability of freshwater resources and continue to develop mechanisms to make these more affordable; policy makers have become aware of the economic dimensions associated with adequate water access for the poor and of the potential benefits of transboundary cooperation. Responsible water management in agriculture is critical to minimizing water wastes in irrigation practices and requires the financial and economic capacity to oversee appropriate operation and maintenance.