How is recombinant dna used in agriculture


In agriculture, recombinant DNA has improved plant growth by increasing nitrogen fixation efficiencies, by cloning bacterial genes, and inserting them into plant cells. Other plants have been engineered to be resistant to caterpillar, pests, and viruses by inserting resistant genes into plant genomes.

How has DNA technology helped agriculture?

The device extracts deoxyribonucleic acid, better known as DNA, from plants. DNA is the carrier of genetic information in nearly all living things. The device helps farmers identify what is harming their crops so they can change to more resistant crops.

What can recombinant DNA be used for?

Recombinant DNA technology has also proven important to the production of vaccines and protein therapies such as human insulin, interferon and human growth hormone. It is also used to produce clotting factors for treating haemophilia and in the development of gene therapy.

What are some examples of recombinant DNA?

Through recombinant DNA techniques, bacteria have been created that are capable of synthesizing human insulin, human growth hormone, alpha interferon, hepatitis B vaccine, and other medically useful substances.

What happens to plants and animals during genetic modification?

As with most new technologies, genetic modification raises concerns, including the potential for creating undesirable effects in the food supplies of humans and wildlife and for creating herbicide resistance in weeds and pesticide resistance in insects.

Why is recombinant DNA important?

Recombinant DNA techniques are so power full because of they provide the tools to study the genetics of the organism by isolating the DNA of virtually any gene. A particular gene can be isolated and produced in large quantities through cloning and its genetic information can be read by sequencing. The function of that gene can then be analyzed by using in vitro mutagenesis to make specific alteration in that information before re introducing the mutated DNA into the organism to determine the effects of the mutation. By the late 1970s as it became clear that those tools offered the fastest and surest route to understanding the molecular mechanisms of formerly intractable process such as development and cell division, they were seized eagerly by biologists in almost every field (Bhatnagar, R, 2006). A recombinant DNA technology can be complete and achieved with the help of some elemental tools. The different tools used for the purpose are discussed below

When was recombinant DNA first used?

The era of recombinant DNA began in the early 1970s, when researchers discovered that bacteria protect themselves from viral infection by producing enzymes that cut viral DNA at specific sites. Recombinant DNA technology is the technique used in genetic engineering that involves the identification, isolation and insertion of gene of interest into a vector such as

What is the host of DNA?

Host organism is the organism into which the recombinant DNA is introduce d. The host is the ultimate tool of recombinant DNA technology which takes in the vector engineered with the desired DNA by the help of the enzymes. There are a number of ways in which this recombinant DNAs are inserted into the host, namely – microinjection, biolistic or gene gun, alternate cooling and heating, use of calcium ions, etc.

What are vectors in recombinant DNA?

These form a very important part of the tools of recombinant DNA technology as they are the ultimate vehicles that carry forward the desired gene into the host organism. Plasmids and bacteriophages are the most common vectors in recombinant DNA technology that are used as they have very high copy number.

What enzymes are used to cut DNA?

The enzymes which include the restriction endonucleases – help to cut, the polymerases- help to synthesize and the ligases- help to bind. The restriction endonucleases used in recombinant DNA technology play a major role in determining the location at which the desired gene is inserted into the vector genome. They are of two types, namely endonucleases and exonucleases. The endonucleases cut within the DNA strand whereas the exonucleases cut the nucleotides from the ends of the DNA strands. The restriction endonucleases are sequence specific which is usually palindrome sequences and cut the DNA at specific points. They scrutinize the length of DNA and make the cut at the specific site called the restriction site. This gives rise to sticky ends in the sequence. The desired genes and the vectors are cut by the same restriction enzymes to obtain the complimentary sticky notes, thus making the work of the ligases easy to bind the desired gene to the vector.

What is gene therapy?

Gene therapy is an advanced technique with therapeutic potential in health services. The first successful report in field of gene therapy to treat

How is recombinant DNA used in biology?

In biological research, recombinant DNA methods are omnipresent. They are used to study gene function by constructing mutant alleles to test phenotypes. Site-specific mutations are readily engineered into primers used in PCR amplification. This approach is particularly attractive when structural information is available or when evolutionarily conserved sequences/motifs are found within proteins. Thus site-specific changes in gene sequences directly test structure–function relationships. Alternatively, random mutagenesis of a cloned gene is used in an equally informative and unbiased approach to study gene function. DNA regulatory elements, such as promoters, can be studied in vivo by fusing them to reporter proteins, such as β-galactosidase. These reporters are used to test gene expression responses to environmental or cellular changes. Reporters can be conveniently vector encoded or integrated into the chromosome to allow accurate physiological measurements. Subcellular localization of proteins is visualized by fusing a gene product to a reporter, such as the green fluorescent protein, and observed by fluorescent microscopy. Regulatable expression vectors allow a gene product or alleles thereof to be conditionally expressed in cells. Such systems test biological responses to gene products or provide a means for protein overexpression.

How does recombinant DNA help plants grow?

In agriculture, recombinant DNA has improved plant growth by increasing nitrogen fixation efficiencies, by cloning bacterial genes, and inserting them into plant cells. Other plants have been engineered to be resistant to caterpillar, pests, and viruses by inserting resistant genes into plant genomes.

How has recombinant DNA changed the world?

Recombinant DNA has been a transformative technology, providing tools that not only have enabled tremendous understanding of life at the most fundamental levels, but that have also led to a myriad of medical and agricultural applications. Progress in recombinant DNA research continues to revolutionize approaches to life science research and biotechnology and has been possible because scientists taking the lead in developing this technology had the foresight to recognize that the promise of recombinant DNA could only be realized if they assumed responsibility for addressing the safety and ethical concerns that it raised.

How has recombinant DNA technology changed the genome?

Recombinant DNA technology has fulfilled its expectations in altering the picture of the mammalian genome. However, it has been suggested that many of the promises offered by the emerging recombinant DNA technology and its safety were unrealistic and, in any case, could be kept by using other unspecified techniques. Major practical goals could be reached using recombinant DNA technology. The production of protein hormones, interferon, and useful fermentation organisms were among the immediate short-term goals. This chapter discusses the way in which a large number of laboratories using these powerful new techniques have changed the way of thinking about the mammalian genome. Evidence has been accumulated indicating that most mammalian genes are encoded in the discontinuous pieces of DNA interrupted by intervening sequences. Studies would provide an enormous insight into the molecular mechanisms that operate to regulate the expression of these genes and assure their orderly modulation.

What temperature should a recombinant library be at?

Hybridization of a probe to a recombinant library should be carried out at a temperature ( Ti) 15°C below the probe’s Tm:

Which ratio is most efficient for ligation of fragments to plasmid vectors?

Ligation of fragments to plasmid vectors may be most efficient when i is greater than j by two-to threefold—a ratio that will favor intermolecular ligation but will still allow for circularization of the recombinant molecule. In addition, the concentration of the termini of the insert ( iinsert) should be approximately twice the concentration of the termini of the linearized plasmid vector ( iinsert = 2 ivector ).

What is the value of j in a DNA fragment?

For bacteriophage lambda DNA, j has a value of 3.22 × 10 11 ends/mL. The j value for any DNA molecule can be calculated in relation to jλ by the equation

How does recombinant DNA help plants?

Recombinant DNA and biotechnology have been used to increase the efficiency of plant growth by increasing the efficiency of the plant’s ability to fix nitrogen. Scientists have obtained the genes for nitrogen fixation from bacteria and have incorporated those genes into plant cells. The plant cells can then perform a process …

How is DNA used to increase plant resistance to disease?

DNA technology has also been used to increase plant resistance to disease by reengineering the plant to produce viral proteins. Also, the genes for an insecticide obtained from a bacterium have been inserted into plants to allow the plants to resist caterpillars and other pests.

How do plants insert genes?

The major method for inserting genes is through the plasmids of the bacterium called Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This bacterium invades plant cells, and its plasmids insert into plant chromosomes carrying the genes for tumor induction. Scientists remove the tumor-inducing genes and obtain a plasmid that unites with the plant cell without causing any harm.

What inhibits the rotting of tomatoes?

The antisense molecule inhibits the tomato from producing the enzyme that encourages rotting. Without this enzyme, the tomato can ripen longer on the vine. Previous Quiz Searching for DNA. Next Quiz DNA and Agriculture. Introduction to Biology.

How does DNA help in agriculture?

DNA is the main genetic materials of all cellular organisms; preserving DNA itself is one way of preserving germplasm resources [1]. The development of biotechnology and molecular biology make it possible for us to regulate or even control the plant traits, by using DNA sequence information, such as the structure, function and mechanism etc. DNA technologies based on DNA molecular markers, transgenic technology and gene expression have been widely used in agricultural production which have showed great potential in improving agricultural yields and quality, reducing the loss that various biotic and abiotic stress caused, promoting the utilization of germplasm resource, improving breeding efficiency and strengthening the regulation of plant growth [2-4]. These modern DNA technologies with high feasibility and necessity are important measures to guarantee the sustainable development of agricultural. Despite the agriculture including plant and animal production, DNA technologies in these fields share the same technical purpose and type. Therefore, in this study, we will review the agricultural applications of DNA technologies by introducing the utilization of DNA technologies in plant production.

How does DNA technology help agriculture?

With the development of molecular biology, some DNA-based technologies have showed great potentiality in promoting the efficiency of crop breeding program, protecting germplasm resources, improving the quality and outputs of agricultural products, and protecting the eco-environment etc., making their roles in modern agriculture more and more important. To better understand the application of DNA technologies in agriculture, and achieve the goals to promote their utilities in modern agriculture, this paper describes, in some different way, the applications of molecular markers, transgenic engineering and gene’s information in agriculture. Some corresponding anticipations for their development prospects are also made.

How does transgenic technology improve crop quality?

Transgenic technology can improve accurately crop quality and yield , compared with traditional crop, the all traits like yield, stress resistance (including disease-resistant, insect-resistant, cold-resistant and herbicide-resistant) and nutritional quality of genetically modified crops will be significantly heighten. The commercialization of genetically modified crops dramatically lowering the cost of agriculture, and bring continuously a great deal of benefits of economic, environmental and social in the world.

How are plant growth and development controlled?

In total, plant growth and development are controlled by the programmed (by time, tissue and abundance) expression of suites of genes in response to exogeneous or endogeneous queues. Hence, there is a need to generate genome-wide expression data from a range of tissues/ developmental stages in order to understand and relate phenotypic traits and gene expression profiles. And data at the transcriptome and epigenome level can contribute greatly to the application of gene information in agriculture [30].

How can we use gene information to manage every growth stage of a crop?

According to soil characteristics and the needs of crop growth development, we can use gene information to manage every growth stage of crop, and decide the consumption of various agricultural material (fertilizer, herbicide, pesticide, and hormone etc.), and which cultivation measures (girdling, bagging etc.) to use. Thus, we can make full use of the potential of soil and crop, archive the best results from field management technology, meet the needs of crop growth, and reduce agricultural materials inputs, thereby reduced the material consumption, increased commercial profits, protected the ecological environment, and realized the sustainable development of agriculture.

How does farming affect gene expression?

Crop cultivation along with many farming operations, each farming operation will cause the corresponding changes in gene expression at the DNA level, the usage of DNA technology to detect such changes at the molecular level can help us to understand regulation mechanism of farming operation on crop growth and development [27]. Now there were more and more studies about the influence of various cultivation operations on the expression level of related genes. The expression level of some genes of grape increased and expressed early because of treatment with abscisic acid [28], similarly, branch girdling makes the high expression level of citrus genes about 1 week in advance [29].

Why is genetic information important in agriculture?

People can use genetic information to observe or monitor the growth status of crops and provide guidelines for the field management, by which we can improve the efficiency of agricultural measures such as fertilization and irrigation, and regulate the maturity and growth habits and other important growth process of crop.

How does recombinant DNA technology help humans?

In the past century, the recombinant DNA technology was just an imagination that desirable characteristics can be improved in the living bodies by controlling the expressions of target genes. However, in recent era, this field has demonstrated unique impacts in bringing advancement in human life. By virtue of this technology, crucial proteins required for health problems and dietary purposes can be produced safely, affordably, and sufficiently. This technology has multidisciplinary applications and potential to deal with important aspects of life, for instance, improving health, enhancing food resources, and resistance to divergent adverse environmental effects. Particularly in agriculture, the genetically modified plants have augmented resistance to harmful agents, enhanced product yield, and shown increased adaptability for better survival. Moreover, recombinant pharmaceuticals are now being used confidently and rapidly attaining commercial approvals. Techniques of recombinant DNA technology, gene therapy, and genetic modifications are also widely used for the purpose of bioremediation and treating serious diseases. Due to tremendous advancement and broad range of application in the field of recombinant DNA technology, this review article mainly focuses on its importance and the possible applications in daily life.

When was recombinant DNA first used?

The first recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules were generated in 1973 by Paul Berg, Herbert Boyer, Annie Chang, and Stanley Cohen of Stanford University and University of California San Francisco. In 1975, during “The Asilomar Conference” regulation and safe use of rDNA technology was discussed.

What is CRISPR used for?

This system can be used to target destruction of genes in human cells. Activation, suppression, addition, and deletion of genes in human’s cells, mice, rats, zebrafish, bacteria, fruit flies, yeast, nematodes, and crops proved the technique a promising one. Mouse models can be managed for studying human diseases with CRISPR, where individual genes study becomes much faster and the genes interactions studies become easy by changing multiple genes in cells [25]. The CRISPR ofH. hispanicagenome is capable of getting adapted to the nonlytic viruses very efficiently. The associated Cas operon encodes the interfering Cas3 nucleases and other Cas proteins. The engineering of a strain is required with priming CRISPR for priming crRNAs production and new spacers acceptance. CRISPR-cas system has to integrate new spacers into its locus for adaptive immunity generation [26]. Recognition of foreign DNA/RNA and its cleavage is a controlled process in sequence-specific manner. Information related to the intruder’s genetic material is stored by the host system with the help of photo-spacer incorporation into the CRISPR system [27]. Cas9t (gene editing tool) represents DNA endonucleases which use RNA molecules to recognize specific target [28]. Class 2 CRISPR-Cas system with single protein effectors can be employed for genome editing processes. Dead Cas9 is important for histone modifying enzyme’s recruitment, transcriptional repression, localization of fluorescent protein labels, and transcriptional activation [29]. Targeting of genes involved in homozygous gene knockouts isolation process is carried out by CRISPR-induced mutations. In this way, essential genes can be analyzed which in turn can be used for “potential antifungal targets” exploration [30]. Natural CRISPR-cas immunity exploitation has been used for generation of strains which are resistant to different types of disruptive viruses [31].

Is genetic engineering a threat to human life?

Human life is greatly threatened by various factors, like food limitations leading to malnutrition, different kinds of lethal diseases, environmental problems caused by the dramatic industrialization and urbanization and many others. Genetic engineering has replaced the conventional strategies and has the greater potential to overcome such challenges. The current review summarized the major challenges encountered by humans and addresses the role of recombinant DNA technology to overcome aforementioned issues. In line with this, we have detailed the limitations of genetic engineering and possible future directions for researchers to surmount such limitations through modification in the current genetic engineering strategies.

How did DNA technology change the world?

The advent of recombinant DNA technology revolutionized the development in biology and led to a series of dramatic changes. It offered new opportunities for innovations to produce a wide range of therapeutic products with immediate effect in the medical genetics and biomedicine by modifying microorganisms, animals, and plants to yield medically useful substances [8, 9]. Most biotechnology pharmaceuticals are recombinant in nature which plays a key role against human lethal diseases. The pharmaceutical products synthesized through recombinant DNA technology, completely changed the human life in such a way that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved more recombinant drugs in 1997 than in the previous several years combined, which includes anemia, AIDS, cancers (Kaposi’s sarcoma, leukemia, and colorectal, kidney, and ovarian cancers), hereditary disorders (cystic fibrosis, familial hypercholesterolemia, Gaucher’s disease, hemophilia A, severe combined immunodeficiency disease, and Turnor’s syndrome), diabetic foot ulcers, diphtheria, genital warts, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human growth hormone deficiency, and multiple sclerosis. Considering the plants develop multigene transfer, site-specific integration and specifically regulated gene expression are crucial advanced approaches [10]. Transcriptional regulation of endogenous genes, their effectiveness in the new locations, and the precise control of transgene expression are major challenges in plant biotechnology which need further developments for them to be used successfully [11].

What are some examples of genetic engineering?

Synthesis of synthetic human insulin and erythropoietin by genetically modified bacteria [3] and production of new types of experimental mutant mice for research purposes are one of the leading examples of genetic engineering in health.

How does genetic engineering work?

Unlike tradition approaches to overcome agriculture, health, and environmental issues through breeding, traditional medicines, and pollutants degradation through conventional techniques respectively, the genetic engineering utilizes modern tools and approaches, such as molecular cloning and transformation, which are less time consuming and yield more reliable products. For example, compared to conventional breeding that transfers a large number of both specific and nonspecific genes to the recipient, genetic engineering only transfers a small block of desired genes to the target through various approaches, such as biolistic and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation [1]. The alteration into plant genomes is brought either by homologous recombination dependent gene targeting or by nuclease-mediated site-specific genome modification. Recombinase mediated site-specific genome integration and oligonucleotide directed mutagenesis can also be used [2].

Why is recombinant DNA important?

Recombinant DNA technology has also proven important to the production of vaccines and protein therapies such as human insulin, interferon and human growth hormone. It is also used to produce clotting factors for treating haemophilia and in the development of gene therapy.

What is recombinant DNA?

Recombinant DNA technology: A series of procedures that are used to join together (recombine) DNA segments. A recombinant DNA molecule is constructed from segments of two or more different DNA molecules.

How is DNA used in medicine?

In the medical field, DNA is used in diagnostics, new vaccine development, and cancer therapy. It is now also possible to determine predispositions to some diseases by looking at genes.

What is DNA sequencing used for?

First, it can be used to find genes, segments of DNA that code for a specific protein or phenotype. If a region of DNA has been sequenced, it can be screened for characteristic features of genes.

What is genetic engineering?

Genetic engineering, also called recombinant DNA technology, involves the group of techniques used to cut up and join together genetic material, especially DNA from different biological species, and to introduce the resulting hybrid DNA into an organism in order to form new combinations of heritable genetic material.

How many steps are involved in rDNA?

There are six steps involved in rDNA technology. These are – isolating genetic material, restriction enzyme digestion, using PCR for amplification, ligation of DNA molecules, Inserting the recombinant DNA into a host, and isolation of recombinant cells.

What is the first technique to be used in the laboratory?

The first, and best known technique, is recombinant DNA (rDNA). It has been the subject of intense research and development during the past ten years and has been shown to be safe when used in the laboratory. The first commercial applications have been approved (e.g. human insulin, phenylalanine, human growth hormone).


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