How much groundwater is used in agriculture

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Agriculture uses about 70% of the groundwater pumped for human use globally and about 53% of the groundwater pumped in the US (USGS: Groundwater use in the United States ). In some parts of the world, groundwater is pumped at a faster rate than natural processes recharge the stored underground water.

Full
Answer

What percentage of groundwater is used for agriculture in the US?

About 70% of groundwater withdrawn globally—including in the U.S.—is used for agriculture. In some arid countries, 90% of groundwater use is for irrigation. The U.S. Geological Survey estimates that groundwater provides about 30% of the nation’s surface streamflow.

How much groundwater is used for irrigation each day?

Some 57.2 billion gallons of groundwater are used daily for agricultural irrigation from 475,796 wells. 16 In 1900, the U.S. used only 2.2 billion gallons of groundwater daily for irrigation from 17,000 wells.

How much groundwater is there in the world?

Some 2.78 million trillion gallons of groundwater, 30.1 percent of the world’s freshwater, are estimated for the entire planet of Earth. 1 Of the total 349 billion gallons of freshwater the United States withdraws each day, groundwater is estimated to be 79.6 billion gallons, or 26 percent. 2

Is shallow groundwater good for agriculture?

What we found When people think of groundwater and agriculture, the usual focus is on irrigation. Shallow groundwater can subsidize water availability during drought and enhance crop yield, but when groundwater becomes too shallow, such as during flooding, it limits oxygen availability to roots and harms crop productivity.

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How much groundwater is used in Indian agriculture?

More than 90 percent of groundwater in India is used for irrigated agriculture. The remainder — 24 billion cubic meters — supplies 85 percent of the country’s drinking water. Roughly 80 percent of India’s 1.35 billion residents depend on groundwater for both drinking and irrigation.


How is groundwater used in agriculture?

Many farmers rely on irrigation, which uses groundwater from aquifers—underground water sources naturally fed by rainfall, snowmelt and other water that infiltrates the soil. Depleting the aquifers of water faster than it can refill results in reduced groundwater quantities and, therefore, reduced crop yield potential.


What percent of groundwater is used for irrigation?

Fresh groundwater irrigation withdrawals in these five States cumulatively accounted for 46 percent of the total fresh groundwater withdrawals for all categories nationwide. Nearly all groundwater withdrawals (97 percent) were from freshwater, predominantly used for irrigation.


What percentage of ground and surface water is used for agriculture?

Agriculture is a major user of ground and surface water in the United States, accounting for approximately 80 percent of the Nation’s consumptive water use and over 90 percent in many Western States.


Why are farmers using groundwater more and more now?

Answer: due to lack of rain..they are using ground water to irrigate..


What is the percentage of groundwater?

World Water DistributionWater sourceWater volume in cubic milesPercent of total waterGroundwater5,614,0001.7Fresh2,526,0000.76Saline3,088,0000.94Soil Moisture3,9590.00111 more rows


How much groundwater do we use?

The United States uses 82.3 billion gallons per day of fresh groundwater for public supply, private supply, irrigation, livestock, manufacturing, mining, thermoelectric power, and other purposes.


What is the percentage of groundwater in India?

In urban India, 50 percent of the water supply is groundwater-based.


What percentage of water does agriculture use?

As previously mentioned, 70% of the world’s water is used for agriculture annually. That’s over 2 quadrillion gallons of water, enough to cover the entire United States in 2 feet of water.


How much water is wasted in farming?

Farming accounts for 70 percent of the water consumed and most of its wasteful use, said representatives of 130 nations at the World Water Forum discussing water management. One-fifth […]


What agriculture uses the most water?

Irrigated agriculture remains the largest user of water globally, a trend encouraged by the fact that farmers in most countries do not pay for the full cost of the water they use.


Why is agriculture important in the Yahara watershed?

This supply is changing due to trends in weather, municipal pumping, land use, and farming practices, which could affect crop access to groundwater and , in turn , the region’s capacity to grow food.


Why is shallow water important?

Shallow groundwater can subsidize water availability during drought and enhance crop yield, but when groundwater becomes too shallow, such as during flooding, it limits oxygen availability to roots and harms crop productivity.


How much groundwater is in the Earth’s crust?

The total volume of groundwater in the upper 2 km of the Earth’s continental crust (not inclusive of high-latitude North America or Asia) is approximately 22.6 million km 3 , of which 0.1 million km 3 to 5.0 million km 3 is less than 50 years old (judged as “modern” or recently recharged). [5]


What is the most extracted raw material in the world?

Groundwater is the world’s most extracted raw material with withdrawal rates currently in the estimated range of 982 km 3 /year. [1] About 70% of groundwater withdrawn worldwide is used for agriculture. [2] Groundwater provides almost half of all drinking water worldwide. [3]


What is groundwater in science?

Publications. Data and Tools. Groundwater refers to all subsurface water, specifically that part of groundwater which is in the saturated zone. Groundwater sources are called aquifers: geologic formations that contain sufficient saturated permeable material to yield significant quantities of water to wells and springs.


How often does the USGS estimate water use?

Date published: March 3, 2019. Status: Active. Total Water Use. The USGS has estimated water use for the United States every 5 years since 1950. Estimates are provided for groundwater and surface-water sources, for fresh and saline water quality, and by sector or category of use.


What is the National Water Quality Assessment Program?

Geological Survey has groundwater studies that focus on water-quality conditions in principal aquifers of the United States. The Program specifically focuses on aquifers that are important to public supply, domestic, and other major uses.


How much groundwater was withdrawn in 2015?

In 2015, about 84,600 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of groundwater were withdrawn in the United States for various uses including public supply, self-supplied domestic, industrial, mining, thermoelectric power, aquaculture, livestock, and irrigation.


What is the status of the USGS?

Status: Active. Water Use in the United States. The USGS works in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies to collect water-use information, then compiles these data to produce water-use information aggregated at the county, state, and national levels.


How often is water used in the US?

The USGS has estimated water use for the United States every 5 years since 1950.


Is surface water considered freshwater?

For the purposes of the USGS water-use reports, surface water with less than 1,000 milligrams per liter ( mg/L) of dissolved solids is considered freshwater, and the remainder is considered saline. Surface-water resources are often evaluated by watershed. The most recent USGS water-use estimates by…


What is the role of water in agriculture?

Water is a critical input for agricultural production and plays an important role in food security. Irrigated agriculture represents 20 percent of the total cultivated land and contributes 40 percent of the total food produced worldwide. Irrigated agriculture is, on average, at least twice as productive per unit of land as rainfed agriculture, …


How much will agriculture grow in 2050?

Combined with the increased consumption of calories and more complex foods, which accompanies income growth in the developing world, it is estimated that agricultural production will need to expand by approximately 70% by 2050.


How does the World Bank help agriculture?

The World Bank supports countries with sustainable intensification of agriculture through critical investments in irrigation infrastructure and key institutional reforms, which also help achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on efficient use of water as well as on eliminating hunger. Water is a critical input for agricultural production …


How much of the world’s freshwater withdrawals are agriculture?

Currently, agriculture accounts (on average) for 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawals globally (and an even higher share of “consumptive water use” due to the evapotranspiration of crops). The movement of water will need to be both physical and virtual. Physical movement of water can occur through changes in initial allocations …


How much water is needed for future demand?

However, future demand on water by all sectors will require as much as 25 to 40% of water to be re-allocated from lower to higher productivity and employment activities, particularly in water stressed regions. In most cases, such reallocation is expected to come from agriculture due to its high share of water use.


How does water move?

Physical movement of water can occur through changes in initial allocations of surface and groundwater resources mainly from the agricultural to urban, environmental, and industrial users. Water can also move virtually as the production of water intensive food, goods, and services is concentrated in water abundant localities …


How much groundwater does the US use?

The United States uses 82.3 billion gallons per day of fresh groundwater for public supply, private supply, irrigation, livestock, manufacturing, mining, thermoelectric power, and other purposes. 8. California pumps 17.4 billion gallons per day of groundwater for all purposes, 2.4 times as much as the second-ranked state — Texas (7.2 bgd). 9.


How much groundwater is used for irrigation?

16 In 1900, the U.S. used only 2.2 billion gallons of groundwater daily for irrigation from 17,000 wells.


How long does it take for groundwater to refill?

Scientists estimate it could take 6,000 years to refill naturally if it were ever to be fully withdrawn. 17. Texas leads the nation in the number of irrigation wells with 81,511. 18.


Why is adequate time needed to replenish groundwater reservoirs?

Adequate time is needed to allow replenishment of underlying groundwater reservoirs (aquifers); also such areas must be properly managed in order to prevent water-soluble waste products stored in these areas from infiltrating and polluting the underground supply.


What percentage of the water used in the US is groundwater?

Groundwater accounts for 39 percent of all the water used by U.S. municipalities. 14. Michigan, with an estimated 1,121,075 households served by private water wells, is the largest state market, followed by Pennsylvania, North Carolina, New York, and Florida. 15. Irrigation accounts for the largest use of groundwater in the United States.


What is groundwater?

Groundwater Facts. Groundwater is the water that fills cracks and other openings in beds of rocks and sand. Each drop of rain that soaks into the soils moves downward to the water table, which is the water level in the groundwater reservoir. Groundwater does not normally occur in underground streams, lakes, or veins.


Where is groundwater found?

Groundwater is the water that fills cracks and other openings in beds of rocks and sand. Each drop of rain that soaks into the soils moves downward to the water table, which is the water level in the groundwater reservoir. Groundwater does not normally occur in underground streams, lakes, or veins. Groundwater is found in soils …


What are the topics examined in the irrigated agriculture?

Topics examined include the following: The value of irrigated agriculture to U.S. agriculture; Where irrigation occurs across the United States; Crops produced with irrigation; Trends in water use and onfarm irrigation efficiency; Private and public investment in irrigation improvements; and. Definitions.


What is the largest share of the nation’s consumptive water use?

Irrigated agriculture , which accounts for the largest share of the Nation’s consumptive water use ( see definitions ), makes a significant contribution to the value of U.S. agricultural production. In 2012, irrigated farms accounted for roughly half of the total value of crop sales on 28 percent of U.S. harvested cropland.


How many acres of land were irrigated in 2012?

Roughly 56 million acres—or 7.6 percent of all U.S. cropland and pastureland—were irrigated in 2012. Nearly three-quarters of irrigated acres are in the 17 western-most contiguous States (referred to as the Western States hereafter).


What percentage of acres were irrigated in 1984?

In 1984, 62 percent of irrigated acres relied on gravity irrigation systems compared with only 34 percent of irrigated acres in 2013. Over the same period, the share of irrigated acres using pressure-sprinkler irrigation systems rose from 37 to 76 percent (note that some acres may be irrigated with both systems).


What states have irrigated acres?

Contractions in State-level irrigated acreage exceeded 10 percent in Texas, Colorado, Oregon, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. In recent decades, much of the expansion in irrigated acreage has occurred in the more humid Eastern States.


How much money was spent on irrigation in 2013?

Approximately $2.64 billion was spent on irrigation facilities and equipment on U.S. farms in 2013. About 72 percent ($1.91 billion) of these investments were on land in the West, where most of the Nation’s irrigated land is concentrated. The majority of U.S. irrigation investment is financed privately.


What is annual crop consumptive use?

Annual crop consumptive-use estimates refer to the quantity of water actually consumed (taken up) by the crop plant over its various crop-growth stages for crop retention and evapotranspiration. Withdrawal estimates generally reflect diversion system conveyance losses, while estimates of field water applied do not.

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