How to control pests in agriculture


U.S. farmers employ a range of pest management strategies to control weeds, insects, fungi, viruses, and bacteria. They till their soils, rotate their crops, scout their fields, and carefully consider factors such as plant density and planting dates. They also apply organic and synthetic pesticides.Apr 28, 2020

Can radiation be used to control pests in agriculture?

Cultural Pest Control Crop rotation – The constant plantation of a different crop on the soil will help get rid of the pest. For instance, if… Weeding or Tillage – By constantly weeding or tilling the ground, a lot of the pests are exposed to other predators. Maintaining a clean environment – …

Does pest control actually work?

 · Pests can be broken into four main categories. Vertebrate Pests. Have a backbone. Examples: Rodents, birds, reptiles, and other mammals. Invertebrate Pests. No backbone. Examples: Insets, spiders, ticks, slugs. Weeds. Any plant growing out of place. Diseases. Fungi, bacteria, viruses, and other …

What are the types of pest control methods?

 · Mix with a table spoon of dish soap and spray directly on your plants to get rid of leaf chewing insects. Alcohol spray: Get a cup of strong alcohol, preferably wood spirit, or …

How does pest and disease affect agriculture?

 · U.S. farmers employ a range of pest management strategies to control weeds, insects, fungi, viruses, and bacteria. They till their soils, rotate their crops, scout their fields, and …


How do you control pests?

Preventing PestsRemove any sources of food, water or shelter.Store items in safe and enclosed containers.Dispose of garbage regularly with a tightly closed lid.Reduce clutter or areas where pests can hide.Seal and close off any cracks or holes to eliminate outside entry.More items…•

How can we reduce pests in agriculture?

Prevent the Introduction and Spread of PestsConsider disease potential when selecting planting sites, dates, and seeding rates.Use disease-free and weed-free seed to prevent diseases and weeds from being introduced.Control alternate host plants of insects and diseases.More items…

Which is the best method for pest control?

Biological pest control is the most natural method known today. It efficiently reduces the number of pests without leaving any consequences for the rest of the environment.

What is the most common way to control pests?

Chemical Control. The most common method of pest control is the use of pesticides—chemicals that either kill pests or inhibit their development. Pesticides are often classified according to the pest they are intended to control.

What are the three methods of pest control?

As mentioned above, there are many pest control methods available to choose from, but they can be loosely grouped into six categories: Hygienic, Biological, Chemical, Physical, Fumigation, Fogging and Heat treatment.

How pests are controlled in natural farming?

In agricultural crops, crop rotation, selection of crop plant varieties, timing of planting and harvesting, irrigation management, crop rotation, and use of trap crops help reduce populations of weeds, microorganisms, insects, mites, and other pests.

What are the 4 types of pest control?

4 Common Types of Pest Control MethodsRegistered Pesticide. A registered pesticide is a term for a pesticide that can legally be used in the United States. … Insect Growth Regulators. Insects go through different stages as they grow into adults. … Repellents. … Pheromones.

What are the methods of pest control?

The control methods in integrated pest management include cultural, biological, mechanical, and chemical. As homeowners use a combination of ways to control pests, farmers also use these methods but in different ways. Depending on the audience, explain control methods from the example of a mouse in the house and/or the example of control pests in agriculture.

What is the learning objective of pests?

A pest is an organism living and growing where they are not wanted and can cause damage to plants, humans, structures, and other creatures, including crops that are grown for food. Students will learn about different types of pests and the damage they cause, including an example of pests on corn.

What causes corn to turn brown?

The corn experiences decreased photosynthesis, with the corn leaves eventually turning brown.

What are the pests that attack corn?

Other invertebrate pests can attack corn at various stages of growth. Weeds. Besides the corn plants, any other plant in the corn field could be considered weeds, as these other plants are competing for water, sunlight, and nutrients with the corn. Diseases.

What do cutworms eat?

In the larvae stage, the cutworms live near or below the soil surface. The cutworms feed on corn that has recently emerged from the ground, chewing off the small corn sprouts causing damage that often appears as if the corn has been “cut.”. Other invertebrate pests can attack corn at various stages of growth. Weeds.

What are some examples of insects that eat corn?

Examples. Vertebrate Pests. Deer, raccoons, rabbits, birds, and other creatures can eat the corn crop at various stages of the growth of the corn. Invertebrate Pests. Cutworms are the larvae of what will eventually become a moth. In the larvae stage, the cutworms live near or below the soil surface.

What are the threats to food supply?

Pests can pose a serious threat to a food supply. A major food crop is corn, which supplies humans with food that we eat, food for animals, and corn ethanol used for fuel. There are many pests to corn, including vertebrates, invertebrates, weeds, and diseases.

How to control pests in agriculture?

Natural Pest Control Methods in Agriculture. There are several methods to control the pests naturally by using cultural and mechanical methods. Also, natural pesticides can aid in the control of these pests. The pesticides which are derived solely from natural products without using chemicals are called natural pesticides.

Why are farmers using pesticides?

These pesticides are disturbing the ecosystem and are carcinogenic. To stay away from the effects of chemicals on human health, everyone prefers organic food, which is grown naturally without any chemicals.

How does temperature affect the activity of pests?

Temperature inhibits the activity of pests by making them inactive. The high temperature through steam sterilization of greenhouse, hot water treatment of bulbs, hot air treatment of godowns can be used to eradicate the pests.

Why should citrus be selected wisely?

The crop should be selected wisely according to the climatic conditions of the area and physical conditions of the field. This would help to prevent the attack of the pests. Ex- citrus plants are much prone to pests in waterlogged conditions and sandy soil.

Why do we plowing the land before sowing?

Deep summer plowing of the land before sowing is essential to provide aeration to the soil, activate friendly microbes inhabiting the soil, destroying weeds and hidden pests. Plowing is helpful to remove eggs, pupa, and small insects residing in the soil.

What are the effects of pollen on humans?

They cause pollution, make the pollen sterile and show residual effect. These chemical residues enter the food chain and cause several disorders to humans like cancer, neurological disorders, Parkinson’s disease, asthma, headaches, vomitings, depression, and it may suppress the immune system.

What is the purpose of pesticides?

Pesticides are the substances sprayed on plants to kill pests. Pesticides are both chemical and natural. Chemical pesticides compose of chemicals, and they are harmful in numerous ways. They affect beneficial insects and kill natural predators like honey bees.

What is the best pest control strategy for small crops?

Using pest repellants is a very effective pest control strategy that is applicable in both large scale crop fields and smaller gardens. The basic idea of using pest repellants is to keep the pests away in the first place.

How to get rid of pests?

1. Using Pesticides to Get Rid of Pests. The most common and effective method of getting rid of pests is to use pesticides and insecticides. I understand that these pesticides have certain poisonous chemicals to kill pests and keep them from coming back.

How to get rid of snakes in garden?

An effective and safe way to get rid of snakes from your garden is using snake traps. These traps will catch the snakes and keep them away from the garden. Remember, if you get to see a trapped snake; don’t approach it yourself, as it can be even more dangerous in such a situation.

How to keep pests away from fruit grooves?

Use Traps to Keep Pests Away. Another effective pest control strategy that is mostly used in small gardens and fruit grooves is pest traps. These traps can be quite an effective solution if you want to keep your garden organic.

What are some insects that are beneficial to plants?

Ladybugs are another insect that can prove to be very beneficial for a garden. These colorful insects feed on many small pests like mites, and they don’t damage your plants either. Therefore, try to maximize the population of these pests in your garden, as they will help you get rid of the harmful ones. 4.

What pests are good for a small garden?

Though this concept does apply to large-scale crops, it is more beneficial for smaller gardens. Certain insects and pests like spiders, toads, and wasps can be helpful for your garden.

Why is it important to know how to identify pests?

It is essential because it will allow you to identify any pest infestations in their initial stage.

How to protect crops from insects?

The protection of crops and foods from insect attack by physical and mechanical means is the simplest and most effective method. Such measures consist of destruction of insects by mechanical means, burning, trapping, protective screens or barriers, use of high or low temperature, soaking in water and drying.

How long does it take for a grain to kill in a low temperature?

Usually a temperature of 28°C or lower for at least several hours will kill most of the insects. Tribolium confusum can be killed in 24 h when exposed to subzero temperatures. Low temperatures are utilized for the control of insects in mills, warehouses and similar establishments.

What are the factors that determine the introduction of parasites?

One of the important factors governing parasite introduction for biological control is the geographical location of the area under experimentation and the conditions met within that area and presence of an indigenous fauna of a peculiar and restricted character. Introduced parasites meet with relatively little competition from indigenous forms.

Which family of insects are parasitic?

This contains several families, the most important of which are the Platygasteridae and the Scelionidae. All are parasitic on immature stages of other insects and they are predominantly primary internal parasites.

What parasites are found in sawflies?

Most of the Tryphoninae are solitary parasites of sawflies. The Ophioninae are predominantly internal parasites of lepidopterous larvae although a few develops in the grubs of root feeding scarabs in the soil.

How do parasites develop?

Parasitic insects develop as larvae on or in a single host individual from eggs generally laid on, in or near the host and usually consume all or most of the host body, killing the host and then pupate, either within or outside the host . The free living adult parasite emerges from the pupa and starts the next generation a new by actively searching for host in which to oviposit.

How many types of biological control are there?

There are 4 main types of biological control viz.:

What is the purpose of pest management?

Pest Management. U.S. farmers employ a range of pest management strategies to control weeds, insects, fungi, viruses, and bacteria. They till their soils, rotate their crops, scout their fields, and carefully consider factors such as plant density and planting dates. They also apply organic and synthetic pesticides.

Why are pesticides used in the growing season?

Though these pesticides are often applied during the growing season to increase crop yields, they are also applied to prevent stored produce from spoiling. Over time, an increasing number of U.S. farmers have chosen to cultivate crops with genetically engineered pest management traits.

When did herbicides become more common in soybeans?

Subsequent to the development of genetically engineered, herbicide tolerant (HT) crops in 1996, post-emergent herbicide use increased, particularly for soybeans. Though pre-emergent herbicide use initially declined, it has recently been increasing in corn and soybeans, perhaps due to concerns about glyphosate resistance.

What is the purpose of herbicides?

Herbicides can also be applied post weed-emergence. Rather than preventing germination, these applications target weeds that are well established and actively growing. Insecticides are used to control insect infestations.

What is the best way to control weeds?

They also apply organic and synthetic pesticides. Herbicides are widely used for weed control. These pesticides can be applied before planting, either to eliminate weeds from a field or to prevent new weeds from germinating. Herbicides can also be applied post weed-emergence.

Is there a drop in insecticide use in cotton?

Subsequent to the development of genetically engineered, insect resistant (Bt) crops, insecticide use has dropped in both corn and cotton production. However, recent concerns about rootworm resistance to Bt corn seeds may be driving soil insecticide use upwards.

How are pests controlled in crops?

Perhaps the most common way that pests are controlled in annual crops is through the use of crop rotation. For instance, corn is typically rotated with soybeans throughout much of the midwestern US. This prevents population increases of certain pests because every other year certain pests don’t have a suitable host available.#N#For potatoes it is often necessary to have several seasons of other crops planted between each potato crop, otherwise pests become too damaging. Another way that insect pests can be controlled is through an approach called Mating Disruption.

How do farmers prevent pests?

One way that farmers prevent these problems is with the use of pesticides, and this is true in both organic and conventional production systems. However; farmers control pests in many ways other than using pesticides. 1.

What is the purpose of crop-free period?

The crop-free period results in a crash in the pest population. 5. Fostering Beneficial Organisms.

How to avoid pests in the Mediterranean?

The more stable way to avoid a pest is to grow the crop in a new climate that does not favor the pest. When fruit and vegetable crops are grown in Mediterranean climates (e.g. California, Italy, Spain…) where there is little or no rain in the growing season, many diseases are avoided.

How to avoid pests in a plant?

Not all pests occur in all places. Pests like insects and diseases have co-evolved with the plant species that they are able to attack, often in the geography where the crop was first domesticated. Sometimes by moving the crop to a new location , the pest can be avoided.

What happens if pests are left unchecked?

If pests are left unchecked, crop productivity is compromised. Without good pest control, it would take a lot more land to feed humanity – land we simply don’t have. Pest damage can also compromise the storage or shelf-life of foods leading to more wasteful inefficiencies.

How do pests affect crops?

There are many pests in the world which attack plants or compete with them for the resources they need to grow. This is true for plants growing in natural stands, but also for the plants that people grow as crops. If pests are left unchecked, crop productivity is compromised.#N#Without good pest control, it would take a lot more land to feed humanity – land we simply don’t have. Pest damage can also compromise the storage or shelf-life of foods leading to more wasteful inefficiencies. Pests can also make foods dangerous through the production of mycotoxins (see contaminated corn below)

What are some insects that control weeds?

Insects control weeds by feeding on plants or by transmitting disease organisms that injure plants. Moths, thrips, mealybugs, scale insects, wasps, certain beetles, leafminers, gall midges, and other insects have been moderately successful in biological control programs for weeds. Pathogens.

What is the use of microorganisms for the management of insects and mites?

The use of microorganisms for the management of insects and mites is a special category of augmentation. There are several microbial pesticides, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa, currently registered for the management of insects and mites. For more on microbial pesticides, see p 87 in Chapter 3 of .

Why is it so hard to apply pesticides?

The result of uneven distribution in clumpy soil is that pesticide will not reach the target organism and control will be reduced.

What happens when you mix pesticides in water?

If water used for mixing pesticides contains soil particles or other impurities, the effectiveness of the pesticide may be reduced. Chemicals in the water can alter the active ingredient of a pesticide, changing its toxicity or making it ineffective against the target pest.

How do chemicals move in the environment?

Movement of chemicals in the environment can occur via leaching and runoff, as well as adsorption, absorption, volatilization, and drift caused by wind or temperature inversions. The breakdown of chemicals happens through the action of microbes, the normal action of the chemical, and sunlight (known as .

What is the difference between selective and nonselective herbicides?

Herbicides are organized in several ways, generally relating to how they affect plants or which types of plants they affect. Selective herbicides only kill certain types of plants (such as broadleaf or grass weeds); nonselective (broad- spectrum) herbicides kill all types of vegetation.

What crops can be rotated to reduce nematodes?

Rotating to a flooded crop, like rice , or a highly competitive crop, like alfalfa, can also help reduce a variety of troublesome pest species. Various crops can be used as part of a rotation sequence to reduce nematode and soil pathogens as well as provide additional benefits in broadleaf crops (Table 1-4).

What are the requirements for crop pest control?

The organic standard in 7 CFR §205.206 for crop pest, weed, and disease management specifies the following: (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1) Crop rotation and soil and crop nutrient management practices, as provided for in §§205.203 and 205.205; (2) Sanitation measures to remove disease vectors, weed seeds, and habitat for pest organisms; and (3) Cultural practices that enhance crop health, including selection of plant species and varieties with regard to suit- ability to site-specific conditions and resistance to prevalent pests, weeds, and diseases. (b) Pest problems may be controlled through mechanical or physical methods including but not limited to: (1) Augmentation or introduction of predators or parasites of the pest species; (2) Development of habitat for natural enemies of pests; (3) Nonsynthetic controls such as lures, traps, and repellents. (c) Weed problems may be controlled through:

How to manage pests in organic systems?

Pest management in organic systems necessarily relies on preventing pest problems from becoming economi- cally damaging. Prevention, in turn, relies on maintaining a vibrant and healthy soil ecology, as well as supporting biodiversity above ground through diverse rotations, pro – viding habitat for beneficial organisms, and reducing habi – tat for pests. When preventative measures, which include physical and cultural controls, are not able to control pest populations, the option of last resort is the use of allowed pesticides. Regular monitoring of your crop (buy a hand lens!) will pro – vide information about the status of both pest and benefi – cial populations. It is important to be able to identify which critters are pests, which are beneficials, and which are “neu – tral,” as well as the various life stages of pests and benefi- cials and what they eat. Organic pest management may include the use of pheromone traps, release of beneficial insects, use of trap crops, and other organically approved techniques (see Rules Relating to Pest Management, next page).

How to prevent insect infestations in bedded plants?

To prevent insect infes- tations, use good screening at doors and vents of hoop houses and greenhouses. For bedded plants grown outdoors, floating row covers can prevent some early-season infestations until plants are robust enough to outgrow the pests.

How to keep pests out of a field?

Exclusion—keeping a pest out of a field, bed, hoophouse or greenhouse—is a useful concept in organic production, particularly for hard-to-manage soil-born pests (i.e., phytophthora and nematodes) and insect pests. Clean equipment and tools can help prevent soil pests from inadvertently spreading from one field to another. To prevent insect infes- tations, use good screening at doors and vents of hoop houses and greenhouses. For bedded plants grown outdoors, floating row covers can prevent some early-season infestations until plants are robust enough to outgrow the pests. If treatment with an organically approved pesticide becomes necessary, remember that these are most effective when plant surfaces are well covered. Sufficient pressure, combined with appropriate nozzle selection and posi- tioning, will promote good coverage.

Why is it important to identify pest damage early in the cropping cycle?

Correct identification of pest damage early in the cropping cycle is important, so that effective options can be considered to reduce pest populations and damage. Insects can also be disease vectors, so recogniz- ing the symptoms of common (insect-vectored) diseases and knowing your organic management options is valu- able.

Why is organic pest management important?

Healthy soils are the basis of good pest management because they support plant health and resilience—the abil – ity of the plant to recover from pest damage. If possible, plant cultivars that are resistant to some of the main pests (diseases, nematodes, and insects) in your area.

Is Bt a pesticide?

Use of pesticides is a last resort in organic production. This grower had an infestation of cabbage loopers that was likely to cost him more money than the cost of con- trolling the pest, so he applied one of several organically allowed formulations of Bacillus thuringi- ensis(Bt). Bt-based pesticides are generally most effective against smaller-sized catepillars, but this picture shows a dead 3rd or 4th


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