how urbanization affects agriculture



Urbanization can benefit agricultural production with large-scale farming in China

  • Abstract. …
  • Main. …
  • Release of croplands. …
  • Increase in crop production via increased cropland area. …
  • Increase in farm size with rural consolidation. …
  • Increase in agricultural productivity. …
  • Feasibility of rural land release. …
  • Policy implications. …
  • Methods. …
  • Data availability. …

More items…

Urbanization leads to a continuous loss of agricultural land, both directly under the form of land take, and indirectly through the use of agricultural land for non-productive rural activities like recreation, horse keeping or hobby farming.


How does urbanization affect agriculture?

 · The relationship between urbanization and agriculture is examined. With heavy migrations from rural to urban areas in the United States, there have been significant changes in land utilization. Land converted to urban uses is increasing, though it has little effect on total crop production. The technological transformation of agriculture has had much larger effects and …

What are the problems facing urban agriculture?

Urbanization and rising buying power have moved Americans up the food chain. The demand for expensive animal prod- ucts grows. These forces have resulted in a dramatic escala- tion of solid waste production in cities and on farms. Urbanization and transformed agriculture have exploded the organic matter cycle. The nitrogen thrown away in farm and

What is urban agriculture and its benefits?

Urbanization affects all spheres of human life both in the rural and urban setting. Urbanization increased residential population and expansion of non-farm business and industry increases …

What are the pros and cons of urbanization?

that both agriculture value added % of GDP and agricultural value added annual % of growth had a negative relationship with the urban population , it means that as the urbanization rises more …


What is urbanization in agriculture?

The precise demographic definition of urbanization is the increasing share of a nation’s population living in urban areas (and thus a declining share living in rural areas). Most urbanization is the result of net rural to urban migration.

What are 3 effects of urbanization?

Some of the major health problems resulting from urbanization include poor nutrition, pollution-related health conditions and communicable diseases, poor sanitation and housing conditions, and related health conditions.

What are the impacts effects of urbanization?

Poor air and water quality, insufficient water availability, waste-disposal problems, and high energy consumption are exacerbated by the increasing population density and demands of urban environments. Strong city planning will be essential in managing these and other difficulties as the world’s urban areas swell.

What are 5 effects of urbanization?

Effects of Urbanization on Our CitiesPositive Effects of Urbanization. Urbanization yields several positive effects if it happens within the appropriate limits. … Housing Problems. … Overcrowding. … Unemployment. … 5. Development of Slums. … Water and Sanitation Problems. … Poor Health and Spread of Diseases. … Traffic Congestion.More items…

How does urbanization affect land use?

Urbanization leads to a continuous loss of agricultural land, both directly under the form of land take, and indirectly through the use of agricultural land for non-productive rural activities like recreation, horse keeping or hobby farming.

What are the 6 environmental impacts of urbanization?

While rapid urbanization has greatly accelerated economic and social development, it has also engendered numerous environmental problems, manifested in local climate alteration [2,3,4,5], carbon storage [6], increased air and water pollution [7,8,9], increased energy demands [10], a major reduction in natural …

How is urbanisation affecting the environment?

Urbanization also affects the broader regional environments. Regions downwind from large industrial complexes also see increases in the amount of precipitation, air pollution, and the number of days with thunderstorms. Urban areas affect not only the weather patterns, but also the runoff patterns for water.

What are the disadvantages of urbanization?

Disadvantages of Urbanization:Chances of the higher levels of pollutions like air, noise etc.Higher level of stress.Lack of natural spaces.There will be chances of spreading diseases.Traffic issues will be more.

What are the positive and negative effects of urbanization?

Most of the people see only negative sides of urbanization such as highly increasing pollution, lack of resources, destruction of habitats, social inequality etc. Society sees urbanization rather as a problem, not an opportunity, although there are also lot of positive effects of urbanization.

How does urbanization affect the economy?

Urbanization permits external scale and scope economies, reduces transactions costs, and allows specialization among firms leading to low costs of production. (2004) report that doubling the size of cities can lead to an increase in productivity of some 3– 8%.

How does urbanization affect biodiversity?

Urban areas are causing the most destruction of high-biodiversity habitat in places like coastal China, Brazil, and Nigeria. This adds up to a big loss of biodiversity, because species richness (number of species) at a site is globally on average 50% lower at urban sites than in intact natural habitat.


How does urbanization affect agriculture?

The process of urbanization will cause a certain degree of damage to UA in the process of continuous advancement, so that agriculture can only survive in remote areas ( Li Xiaofei, 2015 ). It is believed that the development of urbanization has forced cities to occupy a lot of agricultural lands and will affect the development of UA. Rapid urbanization has put tremendous pressure on densely populated farmland in the surrounding areas (Pribadi D O, Pauleit S, 2015).

How does urbanization affect the development of cities?

Urbanization has promoted industrialization and improved farmers’ production and living conditions. The development of industrialization and mechanization has saved a lot of labor, at the same time improved the level of urban agricultural production technology. In addition, with the improvement of infrastructure such as high-speed rail and highways, trade and tourism between cities become more frequent. For example, tourism will drive the development of various industries of UA in the cities, including leisure agriculture, folk culture, handcrafts, and the trading of products with local characteristics, which are closely related to the local UA. It can not only promote the level of UA in cities, but also bring the culture and products with UA characteristics to different cities for further exchange and development.

How does UA affect China?

The convenient transportation and UA of surrounding cities will also affect UA in local region. When formulating policies to promote the development of UA, the local governments need not only to pay attention to the economic conditions and environment of the local city, but also need to consider the development strategies of the surrounding regions. Try to reduce the negative impact of surrounding cities and the outflow of local agricultural labor, and absorb the agricultural production resources and elements from other areas. By building regional collaboration platforms and utilizing the resources of the surrounding areas effectively, local governments can strengthen agricultural technology exchanges and cooperation, and promote revenue of agricultural workers.

What is UA tourism?

UA not only pays attention to the agricultural production capacity, but also exerts the tourism functions like agricultural leisure, experience agriculture, and vacation. Agriculture is considered a vulnerable industry with low economic benefits and susceptibility to natural and market risks from traditional aspects. The development of UA has changed the disadvantaged position of agriculture. UA is an industry with huge economic potential and employment effects, which is based on agricultural ecological landscapes, characteristic industries, rural culture, and farming civilization, to meet the needs of urban residents in sightseeing, tasting, leisure, adventure, entertainment, participation, experience, shopping, vacation, etc ( Orsini, F et al., 2013 ). Because of urban residents’ demand for leisure and entertainment, UA will integrate agriculture and commerce, agriculture and services, agriculture and education, and agriculture and processing, to form a multi-industrial integration. Therefore, the leisure of urban residents has stimulated the development of UA from the demand side.

How to optimize land output?

To optimize the land output and improve agricultural efficiency, appropriate amounts of mechanical power and chemical fertilizers are often chosen. Contemporary economic theory shows that in the actual production process, agricultural machinery and fertilizers are important inputs, which have an important effect on agriculture production ( Jorgenson A K, Kuykendall K A,2008; Carvalho F P,2006 ). Therefore, this study considers controlling both the total power of machinery per capita and the amount of fertilizer used per capita.

What is the impact of cultivated land on agriculture?

For example, many cities have changed traditional food crops into higher-value crops such as fruits or flowers. Therefore, the area of cultivated land still has a great influence on the added value of agriculture to a certain extent. This study controls per capita cultivated area in cities.

How does urban infrastructure affect the development of UA?

The difference in urban infrastructure will cause the efficiency of resource allocation , which will have a certain degree of impact on the development of UA. In other words, the high-quality development of UA is inseparable from the improvement and development of urban infrastructure. However, infrastructure includes transportation, post and telecommunications, water and electricity, business services, and more. Among them, most factors only affect the public life of urban residents and it is difficult to measure. On the whole, the agricultural fixed asset investment within the cities can reflect infrastructure construction to some extent. The impact of investment on UA has also been confirmed by Srivastava (1986). Fixed asset investment increases agricultural production efficiency while increasing infrastructure and agricultural production conditions ( Antle et al., 1983; Podrecca et al., 2001 ), thereby affecting farmers’ income. In this study, we selected the per capita fixed-asset investment index as the control variable.

What is wasteful land utilization?

wasteful land utilization, the overshift of population to cities,

Who was the scientist who conducted a program of research in Agricultural Sanitation in the villages of China?

Agricultural Sanitation in the villages of China. His research is reported in Health and. Agriculture in China by James Cameron Scott (1952).

What percent of nitrogen is in fertilizer?

137 percent of the nitrogen in all chemical fertilizers. In con-

What is the impact of urbanization on agriculture?

Urbanization leads to the inaccessibility of land, land fragmentation, change in land supply, and rapid increment in land values. This does not create a favourable environment for the development of agriculture.

How does urbanization affect the human life?

Urbanization affects all spheres of human life both in the rural and urban setting. Urbanization increased residential population and expansion of non-farm business and industry increases the pressure on farmers and makes it more costly and difficult to farm in the traditional way.

Why is improvement in agricultural productivity important?

Improvement in agricultural productivity is hence believed to be an important contributor to the urbanization process. The argument is that higher agricultural productivity provides food and other agricultural products with less manpower and thus allows for a shift of labor out of agriculture and into industry.

What is the main aim of urbanization study?

The main aim of study is the impact of urbanization on agricultural development. Other specific objectives include:

What is the trend of urbanization in Rivers State?

A prominent feature of this global trend of urbanization is forced displacement triggered by armed conflict, violence, political instability or slow and sudden onset disasters or a combination of these factors.

What is the argument for higher agricultural productivity?

The argument is that higher agricultural productivity provides food and other agricultural products with less manpower and thus allows for a shift of labor out of agriculture and into industry. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM. Conversion of agricultural land to non agricultural uses is becoming a thing of concern in Rivers state.

How does development affect agriculture?

It is widely recognized that in addition to the direct effects development has on agriculture (the loss of land that had been in agricultural production), development also affects the remaining agriculture indirectly (Berry, 1978; Berry and Plaut, 1978; Plaut, 1980; Lopez et al., 1988; Lockeretz, 1989; Adelaja et al., 1998). These indirect effects can be placed in four categories (Lopez et al., 1988): regulatory effects, technical efficiency effects, speculative effects and market effects. For the most part, these indirect effects of development increase costs and thereby reduce the profitability of staying in production agriculture.

How does urbanization affect food security?

Urbanization has often been considered a threat to food security since it is likely to reduce the availability of croplands. Using spatial statistics and scenario analysis, we show that an increase in China’s urbanization level from 56% in 2015 to 80% in 2050 would actually release 5.8 million hectares of rural land for agricultural production—equivalent to 4.1% of China’s total cropland area in 2015. Even considering the relatively lower land fertility of these new croplands, crop production in 2050 would still be 3.1–4.2% higher than in 2015. In addition, cropland fragmentation could be reduced with rural land release and a decrease in rural population, benefiting large-scale farming and environmental protection. To ensure this, it is necessary to adopt an integrated urban–rural development model, with reclamation of lands previously used as residential lots. These insights into the urbanization and food security debate have important policy implications for global regions undergoing rapid urbanization.

What would happen if urbanization reached 70%?

With urbanization, more rural land occupied for residential use can be released than urban land can be used for expansion. For example, if the urbanization level were to reach 70% by 2030, rural land occupation would decrease by 3.8 Mha while urban land occupation would only increase by 1.7 Mha (Fig. 1 ).

What will happen to the cropland area in 2050?

Furthermore, should urbanization continue to 80% by 2050, the total cropland area would increase by 4.1% and the rural population would decrease by 61.5%, leading to a twofold increase in the rural residents’ per-capita cropland area.

How has crop yield changed in China?

Compared with the minute changes in SOC, crop yield has changed substantially, with an increase of 30% from 2000–2015 due to the increased uptake of new farming technologies, despite the net loss in cropland area as a result of urban expansion. On a spatial scale, a high crop yield occurs in the NCP and MLYRP regions (Supplementary Fig. 14) 14, which are also preferential regions for rural reclamation due to their large rural populations. More favourable natural conditions in the plains and a moderate climate make these regions the so-called bread basket of China. Thus, even urbanization occupying fertile croplands in eastern coastal China and rural land reclamation in the NCP and MLYRP can lead to an increase in the average crop yield at a national scale. If the crop yield of each land remained at the 2015 level and the change was only influenced by the land being lost or reclaimed, the projected national average crop yield would increase by 0.5% from 2015–2030. This value would further increase to 0.9% by 2050 with an urbanization level of 80% (Extended Data Fig. 5 ). Meanwhile, the crop yield might further increase by 20–40% in 2050 (relative to 2015) because crop varieties and agricultural management practices are evolving with the increase in technological and economic development accompanying urbanization (Supplementary Table 16) 15. This effect will be much larger than the increase in agricultural production derived from changes of croplands area, which may reduce the incentive for rural build-up land reclamation. Nevertheless, it is difficult to accurately predict such a long-term change of crop yield; thus, we use the 2015 yield as a robust basis for estimating the effect of urbanization on crop production.

How much more will cropland be produced in 2050?

Even considering the relatively lower land fertility of these new croplands, crop production in 2050 would still be 3.1–4.2% higher than in 2015. In addition, cropland fragmentation could be reduced with rural land release and a decrease in rural population, benefiting large-scale farming and environmental protection.

How will crop production increase in 2030?

Assuming the yield in 2015 could remain the same in the future, our findings indicate that total crop production would increase by 2.0% in 2030 and could further increase to 4.2% in 2050 (Fig. 3e,f ). These estimates are higher than the results derived from projections based on SOC, suggesting that urbanization could not only free lands, but might also increase crop yield through better agricultural management such as irrigation, fertilizer and labour training. These increases would mainly occur in the plains, such as the NCP and MLYRP, similar to the increase in SOC-predicted crop production, suggesting that, in both cases, changes in cropland area dominate future changes in crop production with urbanization (with changes in crop yield further contributing to the increase).

Where are croplands located in China?

From 2015 to 2030, new released croplands are concentrated in the NCP, Middle and Lower Yangtze River Basin, and Northeast Plain, while the intensive areas of urban expansion are the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta. Base map is applied without endorsement from GADM data ( ).

What are the expected results of urban sprawl?

So far, expected results are increased food prices, less food stability and decreased natural resources. If we look at urban sprawl in already developed areas like the U.S ., we see farmers often either have to lock into their small areas and try to meet increased demands or sell their land for development. Neither of those options allows people to make the most of their land.

Why is it so hard for small farmers to grow food?

This problem, while a legitimate issue in temperate regions like much of the U.S., is even more pronounced elsewhere. Arid and semi-arid environments make it extremely difficult for small farms to supply the food an area needs. In developing nations, the need for work tends to outweigh a family’s ability to grow their own food, which leads to them depending heavily on larger farms.

Why do farmers have to move farther away from the city?

The larger the demand on the farms becomes, the more they need land to expand. If farmers must compete with urban sprawl to keep up with demand, they often have to move farther away from the city, which leads to the same problem of needing to transport food over long distances.

What are the challenges farmers face?

Farmers and the agriculture industry face many challenges. They’re competing with other companies, but also with an expanding population and a changing climate. We are consuming land at an alarming rate, and failing to use it responsibly. Fighting urban sprawl may not be an appealing choice, but it is a necessary one.

What is the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics?

The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics is looking into what happens when developing countries in semi-arid regions have to contend with urban sprawl. They hope this will give them insight into what these specific regions face when it comes to food stability, resource availability and food production.

Can a small farm feed a population of 100,000?

Even multiple small farms are unlikely to be able to feed a population of 100,000. This problem, while a legitimate issue in temperate regions like much of the U.S., is even more pronounced elsewhere. Arid and semi-arid environments make it extremely difficult for small farms to supply the food an area needs.

Is agriculture a behemoth?

The agriculture industry, as a whole, is a behemoth. It not only needs a massive amount of space, but it generates an enormous income for industries and individuals. Environmentalists push us to “eat local,” meaning we should buy food grown close to where we live.

What are the effects of urban sprawl?

Effects of the Urban Sprawl. The first effect of urban sprawl is the consumption of agricultural land. It is a myth that Canada has unlimited agricultural resources, for only three per cent of our land is arable and has a suitable climate for growing crops. The Conservation Council of Ontario states that there are 20 million acres …

How do rural farmers help the cities?

By joining politically with the cities, by co-operating in regional planning, by being more business-like in their farming operations, and by organizing their marketing efforts , rural agricultural people are not going to change the trend, but they may help to control it instead of being controlled by it.

Why do rural people need to start co-operating more closely with their city cousins?

Therefore, the rural people must start co-operating more closely with their city cousins in order to combat the ravages of unorderly urban sprawl. Such a course requires a change in the sociological attitude of rural people.

How much land was lost to agriculture in Ontario in 2000?

The Conservation Council of Ontario estimates that by the year 2000, 1 ½ million acres, or approximately one-quarter of prime agricultural land in Ontario, lost to agriculture. Let us look at some of the effects of urban sprawl: (1) high land prices, good only for speculators, not for farmers; (2) farms divided into sub-economic units, …

How do farmers take advantage of the growing domestic market?

Farmers must take advantage of the growing domestic market by organizing their marketing programs. Up until now the farmer has been too independent, refusing to join in a common marketing plan until his back is to the wall. The time to do it is now, while there is still room to maneuver.

What do rural people do to save themselves?

There are other things which rural people must do if they wish to save themselves from extinction. In view of narrower profit margins, farmers must increase the size of their farms to make them more efficient and farmers must become more efficient managers and businessmen. Otherwise, they will find themselves taken over by big business corporations, losing their managerial status and becoming mere labourers for city companies.

Is Ontario a semi-urban province?

Ontario is becoming a province of urbanites and semi-urbanites who are destroying the rural community . The urbanites are becoming more rural and the rural people are becoming more urban as they enjoy all the amenities of city living. Geographers and census-takers are finding it increasingly difficult to define the limits of metropolitan areas.

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