Why was Cotton considered a cash crop in America?
Native Americans were observed growing cotton by the Coronado expedition in the early 1540s. This also ushered the slave trade to meet the growing need for labour to grow cotton, a labor-intensive crop and a cash crop of immense economic worth. As the chief crop, the southern part of United States prospered thanks to its slavery-dependent economy.
What were the advantages of cotton as a crop?
Positives: How did The Cotton Gin Help?
- Before it required a total of 100 man hours to separate cotton seed away from raw cotton fibers
- The Cotton Gin automated the separation process
- The machine could generate up to fifty pounds of cleaned cotton
- England highly benefited from the production of cotton separated by using the Cotton Gin
- Price of cotton decreased by a tremendeous rate
Why was cotton called the cash crop?
Thus cash crops allow:
- farmers to earn a living
- individuals to buy their food and buy a wider diversity of food than if they raise their own food
- societies to grow, develop cities, industry, etc. (because everyone doesn’t have to grow their own food anymore and instead can go to universities, work in factories, pursue science, build infrastruct
Why is cotton an important crop?
Because it appreciates our ample rainfall, tolerates extended drought and excels during extreme summer heat, cotton has a built-in competitive advantage over almost any other potential crop a grower could produce.
Why are cotton plants important to farmers?
Because the plants are grown in various environments, cotton farmers can choose from many varieties of cotton that are bred to be productive in various environmental and cultural conditions. After the seeds are planted and the plants begin to grow and develop, they must be protected from insects, diseases and weeds.
How long does it take for cotton to grow?
After the plant flowers, the cotton fibers (lint) develop on the seed in the boll in three stages. In the “elongation” stage (0 to 27 days), the fiber cell develops a thin, expandable primary wall surrounding a large vacuole, and the cell elongates dramatically. During the “thickening” stage (15 to 55 days), the living protoplast shrinks, while a secondary wall composed almost entirely of cellulose is deposited inside the primary wall. By the “maturation” stage, the secondary wall fills most of the fiber cell volume, leaving a small central cavity (the lumen) containing the cytoplasm and the vacuole. As the boll opens, the fiber cells rapidly desiccate, collapse and die. As the tubular cells collapse, they assume a flat, ribbon-like form with twists, called “convolutions.”
What is ginning cotton?
The ginning process yields two products with cash value –– cotton fiber and cottonseed. After ginning, the fiber is compressed into bales. At this stage, the fiber is referred to as “raw cotton.” Samples are taken from both sides of each bale and sent to the U.S. Department of Agriculture for classing. The cottonseeds removed during ginning are shipped to cotton oil mills.
How to convert cotton into marketable products?
To convert the harvested cotton into marketable products (fiber and seed), gins have to dry and clean the seed cotton (removing plant parts and field trash), separate the fiber from the seed, further clean the fiber, then place the fiber into an acceptable package while preserving its quality. American upland cotton is “saw ginned.”.
What is the process of separating cotton fibers from the seeds?
Ginning. Ginning, in its strictest sense, is the process of separating cotton fibers from the seeds –– the process revolutionized by Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin in 1794. Today’s cotton gin is required to do much more.
Where are cottonseeds shipped?
The cottonseeds removed during ginning are shipped to cotton oil mills. Short fibers (“linters”) that were not removed by ginning remain on the seeds. At the oil mill, the linters are removed from the seeds by delinting machines, employing the same principles as saw gins.
What is cotton used for?
In addition, cotton is a water-thirsty crop and around 6% of the water for irrigation in India is used for cotton cultivation. Its seed (binola) is used in the vanaspati industry and can also be used as part of fodder for milch cattle to get better milk.
Which states are cotton producing states?
Introduction of favorable Fertilizer is good for the production of cotton. Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, A.P. are the principle cotton producing states in India.
Why do crops need drip irrigation?
c) Because it eliminates intermittent water stress, drip irrigation allows the crop to approach its production potential for more days of the season thus resulting in higher yields.
How to prepare cotton flatbed?
In Cotton production, the preparation of a good flatbed is very important. This can be done by plowing & disc harrowing. Plowing should be followed by harrowing operation making the fine til soil particle. For an advanced method of drip irrigation soil should be well prepared. Add 4 to 5 tons of well-decomposed FYM or compost before the last harrowing. In the soils having termites or white grub, add 750 to 1000 Kg/ha of Neem cake along with FYM.
How much cotton is rainfed?
Seventy percent of cotton is rainfed. Clear sunshine & proper moisture level during boll formation is required. Moisture stress from 60 days to 120 days directly reduces the yield. More sunshine and warm humid climate favor the growth of the cotton crop. The low temperature at the boll opening creates a problem in the harvest.
What is the most important fiber in India?
Cotton is one of the most important fibers and a cash crop of India and plays a dominant role in the industrial and agricultural economy of the country. Cotton is the most important fiber crop not only of India but of the entire world. It provides the basic raw material (cotton fiber) to the cotton textile industry. Cotton in India provides a direct livelihood to 6 million farmers and about 40 -50 million people are employed in the cotton trade and its processing. Indian cotton production is heavily associated with the intensive use of hazardous pesticides. Data reveals that Cotton cultivation in India consumes 44.5% of the total pesticides used in the country. In addition, cotton is a water-thirsty crop and around 6% of the water for irrigation in India is used for cotton cultivation. Its seed (binola) is used in the vanaspati industry and can also be used as part of fodder for milch cattle to get better milk.
What percentage of India’s cotton is staple?
About 44 percent of the total cotton production in India is of the medium staple. Rajasthan, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, and Maharashtra are its main producers.
What is agriculture produce?
Agriculture items include a wide variety of food products consumed by both humans and animals. Agriculture produce can mean raw or processed commodities.
What is the most important crop for animals?
One of the major crops that provides animal fodder is hay. While you may not think immediately of this item when asked, “What are agricultural products?”, it’s an important one for large grazing animals like cattle, goat, sheep, and horses.
What is corn used for?
Corn is the main energy ingredient used in feed for other agricultural products, like livestock. In 2019, the United States produced 13.7 billion bushels of corn, specifically for grain. Around 10 to 20% of the United States’ corn production is exported to other countries. US Major Crops & Agriculture Guide.
Why do cattle come first in cash receipts?
The fact that cattle come in first in cash receipts, shows just how much steak, hamburger, and other beef products are very much in demand. In addition to providing food as agri products, cattle can also help farmers reduce the risk of range fires because they graze on grasses and can keep them from getting too high.
How much does agriculture contribute to the US economy?
Agricultural production contributes approximately $1.053 trillion to the United States economy. The agriculture sector accounts for 11% of total US employment. Note that as you review American agriculture statistics on the list of agricultural products, you may see many references to 2017.
What is sustainable agriculture?
This means farming in a way that ensures the ability to produce ag products for multiple generations by not stripping away the factors that contribute to healthy crops.
How many acres of land are used for farming?
The United States has a total surface area of 2.43 billion acres. Of that acreage, approximately 897.4 million acres are used for farming. Agricultural production contributes approximately $1.053 trillion to the United States economy.
What are the products of agriculture?
Fuel. Agricultural products can also be used to produce fuel. Ethanol—produced from corn, sugarcane, or sorghum —is the agricultural fuel product in widest use. Agricultural production byproducts can be used in industrial applications such as textiles or used to reinforce plastics. 2 .
What are crops and animal products used for?
Crops and animal products are used for food, animal feed, and non-food products used by humans.
How Does Agricultural Production Work?
Land is used to grow crops that have an intended use in one of the four categories. The crops are purchased by businesses that specialize in processing them for their expected purposes and then sold to manufacturers or distributors.
What is considered an agricultural product?
The basic guideline for what constitutes an agricultural product is as follows: Any agricultural commodity or product, whether raw or processed, including any commodity or product derived from livestock, that is marketed in the United States for human or livestock consumption. 3 .
What are the four groups of crops?
Agricultural crops turned into products fall into one of four groups: foods, fuels, fibers, or raw materials . Roughly 11% of the planet’s land is dedicated to crop production, and close to 26% is being used for animal pastures. 1 .
What are some examples of food products?
Some examples of food products are grains and cereals. Some of the crops are turned into feed and fed to animals, which then produce dairy products like milk or are turned into food for humans or other animals. Honey and farmed fish are also some examples of food products.
What is the meaning of “storing raw materials”?
Storing or preserving raw materials before the start of the production process. Storing, preserving, handling, or moving finished goods. Storing or processing agricultural products at co-ops, grain elevators, dairies, or meatpackers. Raising animals for personal use.
What are the impacts of cotton growing on the environment?
Diversion of water and its pollution by cotton growing has had severe impacts on major ecosystems such as the Aral Sea in Central Asia, the Indus Delta in Pakistan and the Murray Darling River in Australia.
How does cotton affect soil quality?
Most cotton is grown on well-established fields, but their exhaustion leads to expansion into new areas and the attendant destruction of habitat .
How much did the Better Cotton Initiative help farmers?
In addition, the Better Cotton Initiative helped these farmers reduce pesticides by 47 per cent and chemical fertilizer by 39 per cent across over 300,000 hectares in 2012. Yields are just as good, and there is an average 11 percent increase in income compared to farmers who are still using conventional practices.
What is the Better Cotton Initiative?
With support from IKEA, WWF began a pilot project to promote better ways of growing cotton. Due to its immediate success, the project evolved into a multi-stakeholder organization called the Better Cotton Initiative. Farmers that adopt the Better Cotton standards commit to: and promote decent work.
What is WWF cotton?
WWF is working with farmers, government agencies, buyers and investors at key stages of the market chain—from the field to the clothes shop—in a joint effort to promote more ecologically and ethically sound cotton .
How to show your support for sustainable cotton?
Show your support for sustainable cotton by contacting your favorite clothing companies and asking them if they’re part of the Better Cotton Initiative.
How to improve cotton?
Farmers that adopt the Better Cotton standards commit to: 1 minimize the harmful impact of crop protection practices; 2 use water efficiently and care for the availability of water; 3 care for the health of the soil; 4 conserve natural habitats; 5 care for and preserve the quality of the fiber; 6 and promote decent work.
What is the science of agriculture?
Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops and raising livestock. It includes the preparation of plant and animal products for people to use and their distribution to markets. Agriculture provides most of the world’s food and fabrics. Cotton, wool, and leather are all agricultural products.
How did agriculture help people?
Agriculture enabled people to produce surplus food. They could use this extra food when crops failed or trade it for other goods. Food surpluses allowed people to work at other tasks unrelated to farming. Agriculture kept formerly nomadic people near their fields and led to the development of permanent villages.
How do farmers protect their crops from pests?
Traditionally, farmers have used a variety of methods to protect their crops from pests and diseases. They have put herb-based poisons on crops, handpicked insects off plants, bred strong varieties of crops, and rotated crops to control insects. Now, almost all farmers, especially in developed countries, rely on chemicals to control pests. The definition of “pest” ranges from insects to animals such as rabbits and mice, as well as weeds and disease-causing organisms—bacteria, viruses, and fungi. With the use of chemicals, crop losses and prices have declined dramatically.
What animals did people domesticate?
People also domesticated cattle and pigs. Most of these animals had once been hunted for hides and meat. Now many of them are also sources of milk, cheese, and butter. Eventually, people used domesticated animals such as oxen for plowing, pulling, and transportation. Agriculture enabled people to produce surplus food.
What tools did people use to make food?
Over time, improved farming tools of bone, stone, bronze, and iron were developed. New methods of storage evolved. People began stockpiling foods in jars and clay-lined pits for use in times of scarcity. They also began making clay pots and other vessels for carrying and cooking food.
How did agriculture contribute to the rise of civilizations?
Start of Agriculture. Over centuries, the growth of agriculture contributed to the rise of civilizations. Before agriculture became widespread, people spent most of their lives searching for food—hunting wild animals and gathering wild plants.
Where did agriculture originate?
The earliest civilizations based on intensive agriculture arose near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Mesopotamia (now Iraq and Iran) and along the Nile River in Egypt. Improved Technology. For thousands of years, agricultural development was very slow. One of the earliest agricultural tools was fire.
Why are cotton crops toxic?
Bugs love cotton, from bollworms, plant bugs, and stink bugs, to aphids, thrips and spider mites. Cotton farmers’ usual solution is to douse crops in $2-3 billions worth of pesticides annually—$819 million of which is so toxic that it’s classified as hazardous by the World Health Organization. To make matters worse, cotton consumes more pesticide than any other single crop—so even though cotton is grown on only 2.5% of the planet’s agricultural land, it accounts for 16% of all insecticides used worldwide.. The toxic agrochemicals used in the cotton industry are linked to everything from cancer to infertility and birth defects, and these chemicals don’t stay in the cotton fields, either. Because of the heavy irrigation required to grow cotton, chemicals are quickly washed into surrounding rivers and regional groundwater, and entering every aspect of the ecosystem from there—including rainwater. Cotton pesticides now contaminate land, air, food and drinking water in the USA, India, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Brazil, Australia, Greece and West Africa.
How much fertilizer do cotton farmers use?
To replace these nutrients, cotton farmers use an average 360 pounds of fertilizer per acre of cotton field every year. Some of these nitrates are then transformed into nitrous oxide—a greenhouse gas 300 times more potent than CO2. But fertilizers don’t just go up into the air.
How to kill bugs in cotton?
Another drastic measure to kill off pests is to pull the otherwise perennial cotton plant fully out of the ground right after harvesting and start new plants from seed every year. This exterminates any eggs before bugs can hatch. While this may be effective in combating pests, it deprives the soil of valuable nutrients that the decomposition of the roots would otherwise have provided. To replace these nutrients, cotton farmers use an average 360 pounds of fertilizer per acre of cotton field every year. Some of these nitrates are then transformed into nitrous oxide—a greenhouse gas 300 times more potent than CO2.
What percentage of cotton is genetically modified?
50% of cotton grown worldwide is the genetically modified Bt cotton. In northern China, 95% of cotton is of the Bt variety. Bt cotton contains a gene from a common soil bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis (shortened to Bt) and produces a toxin that kills cotton’s number one enemy, the bollworm (also known as Helicoverpa armigera).
How much water does cotton need to grow?
Cotton needs a lot of water to thrive. According to the World Wildlife Fund, it takes no less than 2,000 gallons of water to produce one cotton t-shirt —this is the equivalent of the water needed to sustain one person for close to 11 years. Globally, cotton consumes 100 billion gallons of water every year.
Why are farmers so poor?
So why are these farmers so poor? You’d think that they would have an economic advantage competing with the West. The answer lies in cotton subsidies. Every year, US taxpayers lavish $4 billion on their cotton farmers, in order to slash cotton prices by 50%. A practice begun in response to the Great Depression, US cotton subsidies apply no matter the farmer’s yield (in fact, the practice often rewards the successful)—which means that cotton producers in the poorest regions of the world are unable to compete with the low prices of their rich American counterparts.
Does cotton dust cause lung cancer?
The cotton dust in the ginning factories where they work is known to cause lung cancer at an early age. 99% of the world’s cotton farmers live and work in the developing world where illiteracy, poor labelling of pesticides, and inadequate safeguards inflict great damage on vulnerable communities.