Maize Cultivation (Corn) Process Information Guide For Beginners

Maize Cultivation Process Profit and Information For Beginner

Generally, Maize is also known as a corn in worldwide. It is a large grain plant and globally popular as a queen of grains. The maize is a third most important food and cash crops in India after wheat and rice. In India maize is grown in many states and it’s used for different purpose.

Maize is used for animal’s food, food grain, sweet corn, baby corn, green cobs, and pop corn. In Indian cooking, Corn flour is consumed widely. It is also used as a raw material in thousand of industrial products.

  • Oil
  • Starch
  • Alcoholic beverages
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Food sweeteners
  • Food cereals
  • Cosmetic
  • Film
  • Gum
  • Textile
  • Package
  • Paper Industries

The scientific name of the maize is Zea mays and belongs to the family of grasses (Poaceae).

 

Maize corn cob pictures

Climatic Requirements For Maize Cultivation

In India Maize cultivation mainly take before monsoon start and it is the Kharif crop. The maize crop generally, grows under temperatures between 22°C to 30°C and its maximum tolerates as 35°C temperatures. In a year maize crop requires at least 50 to 90 cm of rainfall.

Suitable Soils For Maize Production

Maize cultivation can be successfully done in various soils like clay loam, sand loamy, and black cotton soil. If you want a better yield of maize crop then chose a soil which has good organic matter content with high water holding capacity. In Maize farming, the PH of soil required in between 5.5 to 7.0. Before cultivate the soil test is required for to find out the deficiency of any nutrient values in the soil. If any deficiency occurs it can be cover at the land preparation stage by adding some good organic matter or compost.

 

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 Maize plant in field wallpaper

Season For Maize Crop Cultivation In India

Maize is the Kharif crop and generally, in India maize crop cultivated during the June to July, Sept to Oct and Jan to Feb seasons. You can also sow during the Nov to Dec for seed production.

Land Preparation For Maize Production

Before maize cultivation Ploughing should be done on a land for to get fine tilth. You can use the plow for plowing. You can also apply 13 to 14 tons of Farm Yard Manure per hectare (F.M.Y) and 10 Azospirillum packets in the field. For saving irrigated water you will make the furrow and ridges with 45 cm to 50 cm spacing on a land.

Seed Rate And Seed Treatment In Maize Cultivation

 Maize Seed Rate Per Hectare

  • 10 to 11 kg maize seeds are required for cultivating the one-hectare farm.

Corn Seed Treatment Chemicals

  • Apply 2 grams thiram or carbendazim on seeds.
  • One day after of seed treatment apply 600 grams of Azospirillum on corn seeds with rice gruel and leave them for 15 to 20 minutes below the shade.

Maize seed photo

How is maize grown?

In India, Maize cultivation is always done by using seeds. You must keep the 10 cm spacing between plant to plant and per second sow 2 seeds on a farm.

What fertilizer to use for maize?

Generally, every farmer applied Farm Yard Manure at the land preparation time in corn farming. But if you want a high yield of maize crop then apply following inorganic fertilizers on farm per hectare.

  • Super phosphate: 470 kg
  • Urea: 200 kg
  • Potash : 180 kg

You should also apply following inorganic fertilizers on farm per hectare after 20 days of sowing.

  • Urea: 50 to 60 kg

After 40 days of sowings apply following fertilizers on farm per hectare for getting a high yield of the maize crop.

  • Urea: 120 kg
  • Potash: 50 kg

Farmer apply fertilizer in maize farm

What nutrients are needed to grow corn?

  • Nitrogen
  • Phosphorous
  • Potassium
  • Zinc
  • Iron
  • Manganese
  • Copper
  • Boron

Best Irrigation System For Maize

In Maize farming, you can require irrigation immediately after sowing of corn seeds are done. On the basis of soil type and seasons give the life irrigation to maize crop on the third or fourth day of sowing. Life irrigation system may not require in the rainy season. Normally, up to 25 to 30 days in maize cultivation process, you can require less irrigation. Then after maize crop requires irrigation once in a week.

Irrigation in maize cultivation

Weed Control Methods In Maize Production

For a better yield of the maize crop, you may require a two hand wedding. You must remove extra weed around maize plants after 20 to 25 days of sowing and then after other weeds are taking on 40 to 45 days of sowing.

You can also apply some fertilizers on a field for remove extra weeds.

  • 500 grams Atrazin + 1000 liters water.

Pest And Diseases Of Maize In India

Major Insect Pest Of Maize

Pest effect on plant Pest effect on grain
African maize stem borer Angoumois grain moth
African pink borer Corn earworm
Armyworm Ear maggot
Corn leaf aphid Grain borers
Corn stunt leafhoppers Grain weevils
Cutworm Indian meal moth
Diabrotica beetles and rootworms Rats and birds
European maize borer Seedcorn maggot
Fall armyworm  
Flea Beetles and Flea Beetle Rootworms  
Grasshoppers  
Maize billbugs and billbug grubs  
Neotropical corn borer  
Oriental corn borer  
Southwestern maize borer  
Spider mites  
Spotted sorghum stem borer  
Sugarcane borer  
Termites  
White grubs  
Wireworms  

 

Diseases Of Maize With Pictures

Foliar diseases Stalk rots and smuts Ear rots viruses and Mollicutes
Banded leaf and sheath blight Charcoal stalk rot Aspergillus ear rot Corn stunt
Common rust False head smut Common smut Maize dwarf mosaic virus
Curvularia leaf spot Fusarium and gibberella stalk rot Fusarium and gibberella ear rot Maize streak virus
Gray leaf spot Head smut Penicillium ear rot Sugarcane mosaic virus
Macrospora leaf stripe Pythium stalk rot Stenocarpella ear rot  
Maydis leaf blight Stenocarpella stalk rot    
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot      
Polysora rust      
Sorghum downy mildew      
Spot blotch      
Sugarcane downy mildew      
Turcicum leaf blight      

 
maize disease images in farm

When Do Farmers Harvest Corn?

In corn farming harvesting of the crop is done when the outer green color cover of corn cob turns into white color. Normally, harvest time of maize crop is mid-September, though it is also taking in October.

There are many corn harvester machines are available in India but harvesting of corn crop generally, done by hand. Maize harvester machine is used for to separate corn seeds from the cob.

Maize cob on plant images

Where Is Maize Mostly Grown?

Maize Production In World

  • United States
  • China
  • Brazil
  • Argentina
  • Mexico
  • Ukraine
  • The European Union

Maize Production In India State Wise

In India, maize cultivation is largely done in north side and MP at the first position for production of maize in the country.

  • UP
  • Rajasthan
  • MP
  • Bihar
  • Himachal Pradesh
  • Jammu and Kashmir
  • Punjab
  • Karnataka
  • Andhra Pradesh
  • south india

Corn cob ready for harvest photo

Various Maize Names And Types Of Maize Varieties

Other Names Maize In India

  • Maka (Hindi, Marathi, Oriya)
  • Bhutta (Bengali)
  • Makai (Gujarati)
  • Makaa’y (Kashmiri)
  • Musikinu jola (Kannada)
  • Cholam (Malayalam)
  • Makka Cholam (Tamil)
  • Mokka jonnalu (Telugu)

List Of Varieties Of Maize In India

  • Himalayan 123
  • 30V92
  • 30B07
  • Sona
  • Kisan
  • 30R77
  • Hi-Starch
  • 32T25
  • 31T15
  • Ganga-1
  • Ganga-101
  • Ranjit
  • Deccan
  • Ganga-5
  • Ganga-Safed-2
  • Ganga-4
  • Ganga-3
  • L. 54
  • Vijay
  • Amber
  • Jawahar
  • Vikram

What are the health benefits of corn?

Maize cob photo

  • Maize is good for digestion.
  • Corn helps in Preventing Anemia.
  • Corn helps in Increased Energy.
  • Corns reduce LDL Cholesterol.
  • Corn is used for Weight Gain.
  • Corn also Prevents Diabetes And Hypertension.
  • Corn helps to Improves Vision.
  • Anti-cancer Properties.
  • Beneficial During Pregnancy.
  • Beneficial For Heart.
  • Prevents Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Combats Hair Loss And Dryness.
  • Prevents Skin Problems.

 

Maize Yield Per Hectare In India

In maize cultivation yield of crop mainly depends on the climate, field management, irrigation, variety and quality of seeds, and fertilizers. If you have a proper land and good farm management then you can get the 2500 kg corn yield per hectare.

Corn farm pictures

In the Indian market, maize or corns are very demanded. So, you can get the good returns from the maize cultivation process. This all information that is required for any farmer or investor to grow Maize or Corn.

I hope I have covered the all informative details for maize cultivation process in India. If you like this information then please gives your review in the comment box and share this information with you other investor/ farmers friends.

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