- 1 Cotton Farming Introduction Process and Profit
- 2 How to Grow Cotton?
- 3 How is Cotton Grown?
- 4 How to Plant Cotton?
- 5 Irrigation in Cotton Farming
- 6 Application of Manure and Fertilizers in Cotton Farming
- 7 Cotton | Pests, and Diseases
- 8 Harvesting Cotton
- 9 Yield in Cotton Farming
Cotton Farming Introduction Process and Profit
Presently, cotton crop is an important crop which is grown most by the peoples. Basically, cotton farming is a fibers crop, which is mainly done because of too much rate of cotton in the market all over the globe. In fact, cotton farming is the base of the cotton textile industry since it is the only source of getting cotton fibers. Cotton is also used by the vanaspati industry and for preparing fodder for dairy cattle to enhance the milk production.
However, the Cotton farming business plan is still a profitable business plan, if done with good farm management practices and a suitable variety of cotton is cultivated.
Also, following is the list of some factors, because of which, this crop is cultivated most.
- More availability of water for irrigation
- Numbers of pesticides and insecticides for cotton crop to control the harmful pest & diseases in crop
- Availability of labor at very low rate for laborious work
- High yielding cultivar of cotton are there
In India, Gujarat tops the list of cotton production list. However, this farming can be cultivated all over the world.
So, let’s learn how to grow cotton successfully and create a huge income from this business plan.
How to Grow Cotton?
Select a High Yielding Cotton Variety
All over the world, there are uncountable cotton varieties are there, which are cultivated by the people depending on the climate condition and the availability of sources and market demand.
In cotton farming, selecting a proper variety of cotton is the most important task that needs the most attention because an unusual cultivar of cotton can give loss in many ways like lower the production.
However, selecting a high yielding cotton variety is can helps us more is producing more cotton. Also, select only that cultivar of cotton which comes in picking in earlier numbers of days and should have high fiber %age and also good ginning capacity so that you can get more profit from this business plan.
Where to Buy Cotton Seeds | Cotton Variety
After selecting a high yielding and fast growing variety of cotton seeds, do not purchase them from market evenly because all the retailers are not selling the original one. The duplicate organization tries to sell the duplicated in the name of the original.
So, purchase only tested and certified cotton seeds for commercial cotton farming. So, bought seeds should be treated well with a good liquid fertilizer such as Bavistin and Thiram. About 3 to 4 kg of certified seeds is sufficient enough for growing cotton commercially. Keep some seeds for filling the gaps.
How is Cotton Grown?
Agroclimatic Condition for Growing Cotton
Cotton is a fibers crop which requires more water and a fertile soil to grow well. However, growing cotton in moist weather in hot climate condition is considered as the best to produce more.
This crop requires a good sunshine with sufficient water during the flowering and fruiting time. However, a sunny atmosphere with warm and humid atmosphere leads to higher production in cotton farming. Unusual climate condition at the time of ball formation invites numbers of pests, insects, and diseases in this crop.
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Following are the ideal condition for growing cotton, let’s learn
Ideal temperature: For growing cotton profitably, grow this crop in the atmosphere where the temp ranges between 23 °C to 28 °C during all the growth stage.
Good Rainfall: About 70 % of this crop is fed through the rainfall. So, growing this crop in a good rainfall also helpful in cotton farming. However, an annual rainfall of 140 cm to 180 cm is enough. Wind is also helpful in this crop.
Best Soil For Cotton
If you meet all the above agro-climatic condition, then cotton growing on a suitable type of soil is the good thing. So, grow your cotton crop on well irrigated black soil, well irrigated deep black soil, of which the pH range from 6 to 8.
Note that saline soil is not good cotton growing. Your soil should have good drainage capacity. So, do not operate cotton cultivation on such types of soil which is saline and does not have good drainage.
Preparing Soil for Cotton Farming
For growing cotton, your soil should be leveled and it should be fine tilth form. For bringing your soil in fine tilth form, normally two to three plowing with tractors are sufficient enough.
To increase soil fertility, it is a good idea to add well-rotted farmyard manure at about 10 tonnes per hectare at the time of the last harrowing. Nowadays, neem cake has many advantages over the farmyard manure. So, add about more 1000 Kg per hectare with the addition of manure.
How to Plant Cotton?
When to Plant Cotton?
This crop thrives best in dry and hot season in a humid atmosphere. So, it should be planted in such condition to get more production.
Plant this crop before the onset of the rainy season so that your crop get all the essential factors and can grow well. However, depending on the cotton variety and region of cultivation, cotton planting season varies.
Cotton Crop Spacing
All over the globe, the cotton plantation is done with various kind of spacing in accordance with the climate condition and cotton variety, used for cultivation.
Considering the varietal characters & soil type, the cotton plantation can be done by keeping the spacing of 3′ x 4′ x 3′ and 2.5′ x 5′ x 5′. However, the spacing for heavy soil should be 4′ x 3′ & for medium soil, the spacing in cotton crop should be 3′ x 3′ with planting in the single row.
Seed Rate in Cotton
Seed rate in cotton farming varies according to the type of soil and variety used for cultivation. However, for growing cotton on 1-hectare land, about 3 to 4 kg of cotton seeds is sufficient enough. However, about 10,000 plants to 12,000 plants are the best for commercial cotton cultivation.
Way of Plantation
Cotton plantation should be done by manually or by hand. Plant cotton seed directly in the soil with hand. They should be planted by keeping the planting depth, 3 inches deep.
Irrigation in Cotton Farming
Basically, this crop is fibrous crop which needs more water than unusual and other cash crops. So, cultivate this crop only on water irrigated placed or where the rainfall is too long. Since this crop takes about four to five months to become ready for harvesting, there is consistently need of water during all the growth stage of this crop, especially at the time of flowering, fruiting, and ball formation.
Nowadays, farmers are more using the drip irrigation system than the traditional method of irrigation because there are too many advantages of drip irrigation system over the traditional method. With drip irrigation system, there is no need of labor work and there is no waste of time and water. Drip irrigation system utilizes water the best as possible. With this, it is easy to add up manure and fertilizers to crop frequently and easily to all the crop plants.
With drip irrigation system, it is possible to grow cotton, almost in all kinds of soil with the availability of fewer water sources. Also, drip irrigation system enables us for early plantation of cotton. Cotton farming with this system results in the uniform growth of cotton during almost all the stages.
Application of Manure and Fertilizers in Cotton Farming
Timely application of suitable fertilizer and manure in cotton farming, enhance the production many times. So, take care of this also. Also, a high yielding and grown intensive cotton variety need more nutrients to produce more. Mainly, it requires more Nitrogen, Potassium Phosphorus, and Magnesium for healthy vegetative growth. The cotton crop requires essential nutrients along with sulfur, zinc, magnesium, for more production along with balance application of K (Potassium).
So, make your soil more fertile by adding about 1000 kg of neem cake along with well-rotted farmyard manure at the time of soil preparation onwards. However, adding up about 125 kg of Nitrogen, 80 kg of Phosphorous, and 80 kg Potassium during it vegetative growth can help us more in enhancing the production.
Apply all those essentials on the basis of requirement and never make use of harmful fertilizers.
Cotton | Pests, and Diseases
In cotton farming, following are the main pests, which usually observed and can reduce your production. Learn the list:
- Cotton Aphid
- Plant Bugs
- Stink Bugs
- Spider Mites
Learn how they look like and remove them as soon as they observed in your crop.
This crop is more prone to diseases also. Following are the common diseases of Cotton:
- Vascular Wilt Disease
- Black Arm Disease or Angular Leaf Spot
- Anthracnose Disease
- Grey Mildew or Dahiya Disease
- Leaf Spot or Blight Disease
- Boll Rot Disease
- Root Rot Disease
- 2, 4-D Injury Disease
- Layla or Reddening Disease
- Tobacco Streak Virus Disease
Apart from this, there also some seasonal diseases in the cotton crop, that are also responsible for cotton production.
In the market, there are many liquid pesticides and insecticides of cotton are available, which are effective in controlling all these kinds of pests and diseases in cotton farming.
Learn the symptoms, then make use of suitable pesticides on the basis of types of pest and disease.
How to Harvest Cotton?
This crop takes about four to five months to become ready for harvesting. This crop can be harvested either by manual picking or a harvester. Harvesting manually is a slow process but is more preferred because it retains more fibers.
A longer stay of boll open in your field may result in bad quality cotton production. So, cotton should be harvested manually at regular interval. With harvester, it is not possible to harvest cotton frequently and also it cost more.
As the boll opens frequently for some time periods, hand picking is the best & suitable way of harvesting cotton at regular intervals. And also to minimize the fiber loss in cotton to get more rates in the market. For growing cotton commercially, conduct picking with more labors at a time. Also, picks your cotton crop about 3 to 4 per season at regular interval to get more & more production.
When is Cotton Harvested?
Start harvesting when the boll starts to open in your farm. This pushes the fibers outside from the boll to expose them to the outside conditions. The process of boll opening does not affect the quality of fibers in anyways.
Picking should be done, a week after the boll opening so that the quality and quantity of fiber or cotton does not lose. A longer stay of these open boll in the field may lead to color change and also fibers to shrink which directly lessen the quality of your cotton via affecting the essential fiber characters such as strength length, and micro air.
Dew is also a key factor that can lower the cotton fiber quality. So, cotton should be harvested at regular interval to maintain the quality of fibers.
Yield in Cotton Farming
The yield of cotton farming depends on numbers of key factors such as type of soil, cotton variety, suitable agroclimatic condition and also the good farm management practices.
However, with advance cotton farming techniques, it is possible to obtain 70 to 80 quintal of cotton from one-hectare land with drip irrigation system. Decide your own, how much are you going to earn on the base of the local cotton market price? One can also produce more than it, depending on his skills and management.