Ever wondered how the rice is grown? What seed has to grow through before reaching your plates?
Or If you are thinking of starting paddy farming, this article will be a perfect guide for you, telling you about the conditions in which paddy is grown?
What is the process of Paddy cultivation and Types of paddy-rice?
What is paddy farming?
Paddy is also referred to as world-famous dish i.e. rice-paddy. A small, leveled, the flooded field is worn to cultivate rice in eastern and southern Asia.
Wet-rice cultivation is that the rifest technique of farming within the region, wherever it utilizes a tiny low fraction of the whole land, however, feeds the bulk of the agricultural population.
Many paddies area unit is flooded by rivers and precipitation through the monsoon season, whereas others need to be irrigated. The paddies have damp proof subsoil and are outlined by earthen bunds to hold an average of 4 to 6 inches of water within the field for three-quarters of the season.
Ideal conditions for paddy cultivation
• Climate for Paddy Cultivation
Rice is a tropical climate crop that may grow from water level to an altitude of 3000 meters. Paddy cultivation is also done in subtropical and temperate climates under humid conditions.
A hot temperature, humidness and decent rain with irrigation facilities area are the principal needs of paddy cultivation. It additionally wants bright sunshine with temperature goes between 20⁰C to 40⁰C. Paddy cultivation can tolerate a temperature equal to or below 42⁰C.
• The season for Rice Crop
- Since rice will grow in various forms of climate and altitude, therefore, it is cultivated in several seasons in several different parts of the country.
- In areas of high rain and low winter temperature (northern and western parts) rice crop is fully grown once a year- from May to November.
- 2 or 3 crops area can grow in southern and eastern states. Our country i.e. India has 3 rice farming seasons and that are winters, summer, and autumn. However, the major rice season is ‘Kharif’ season additionally known as ‘winter rice’. The sowing time is between June to July and is harvested throughout November- Dec months. 84 percentage of the countries supply is met through this season.
- Rice cultivated throughout Rabi season also known as ‘summer rice’. It is seeded within the months of November to February and harvested from March to June. 9 percent of total rice crop grown is from this season. Early maturing varieties of rice are usually grown throughout this season.
- The pre-Kharif or ‘autumn rice’ is seeded throughout might to August. The sowing time additionally depends on rain and weather. Therefore the temporal arrangement might disagree slightly from place to place. Generally, it’s harvested throughout September- October months. 7 percent of the total rice grown is from this season. Short duration varieties are usually grown in this season which has maturity time of 90 to 110 days.
• Soil for Rice Cultivation
Almost every kind of soil will be used for rice cultivation provided the region features a high level of humidness, decent rain with irrigational facilities, and hot temperature.
The key sorts of soils for rice cultivation are black soil, red soil (loamy and yellow), dirt soil, red sandy, terai, hill, and medium to shallow black soil. It is even cultivated on silts and gravels.
If the cultivating soil has enriched organic matter and if it powders simply on drying or forms a puddle once wet then it is termed to be the ideal soil for cultivation.
• pH value for paddy farming
Rice can be grown in both alkaline and acidic soils.
How is paddy farming done?
a) Seed quality and choice:
The seed is a living product that must grow old and big, harvested, and processed properly so as to understand the yield potential of any rice selection. The smart quality seed can increase the yields by 5-20%. Using Higher quality seed results in lower seeding rates, higher crop emergence, reduced replanting, a lot of uniform plant stands, and a lot of vigorous early crop growth.
Healthy growth in initial stages minimizes weed issues and will increase crop resistance to insect pests and diseases. All of the above-mentioned factors contribute to higher yields and a lot of productive rice farms.
The good seed is of the chosen variety, full and uniform in size, viable that means more than the 80 percentage germination with smart seedling vigor), and free from weed seeds, insects, seed-borne diseases, pathogens, or alternative matter.
Choosing seed of an acceptable form of rice that suits the atmosphere is the first essential step of growing rice. Selected seed should be of high quality for a good yield.
b) Land preparation
Before the rice is often planted, the soil ought to be within the best shape for crop growth and the soil surface should be leveled. Land preparation involves plowing and digging to level the soil.
Tillage permits the seeds to be planted at the correct depth and additionally helps with weed management. Farmers often dig the land themselves with hoes and alternative instrumentation or they’ll be assisted by tractors and alternative machinery or by draft animals, like buffalo.
Then, the land is scaled to minimize the quantity of water wasted by uneven pockets of too-deep water or exposed soil. Effective land scaling permits the seedlings to become efficient and simple, which reduces the number of effort needed to manage the crop, and will ultimately increase grain quality and yields.
c) Crop transplanting
Major practices of creating rice plants are transplanting and direct seeding.
Transplanting is the most well-liked plant established technique across Asia. The pre-germinated seedlings are shifted from a bed to the wet field. It needs less seed and is an efficient methodology to manage weeds, however, needs a lot of labor. Seedlings are also transplanted by either machine or hand.
Direct seeding involves broadcasting dry seed or pre-germinated seeds and planting by machine or seedlings by hand.
The dry seed is manually broadcast onto the soil surface in the rain-fed and deepwater ecosystems and plowed to the field.
In irrigated areas, the seed is often pre-germinated before broadcasting.
d) Water use and management
Cultivated rice is very sensitive to water shortages. To confirm adequate water, most rice farmers aim to take care of flooded conditions in their field. This is often very true for lowland rice. Smart water management in lowland rice focuses on practices that conserve water whereas making certain adequate water for the crop.
In rain-fed environments when the accurate quantity of water is not offered rice production, a set of choices are offered to assist farmers to completely address different degrees and sorts of water inadequacy. It includes good land preparation and pre-planting activities followed by techniques like alternate wetting, and drying, saturated soil culture, mulching, raised beds, and use of aerobic rice which will address dryer conditions.
e) Nutrient management
At every growth stage, the rice plant has specific nutrient wants. This makes nutrient management an important facet of rice farming.
The distinctive properties of flooded soils create rice completely different from the other crop.
Attributable to prolonged flooding in rice fields, farmers are able to conserve soil organic matter and additionally receive free input of nitrogen from biological sources, which suggests they have very little or no nitrogen to retain yields.
However, farmers will tailor nutrient management to the precise conditions of their field to extend yields.
f) Crop health
The rice plant includes a big selection of ‘enemies’ within the field. These embrace rodents, harmful insects, viruses, diseases, and weeds. Farmers manage weeds through water management and land preparation, by hand weeding, and in some cases chemical application.
Understanding the interactions among pests, natural enemies, host plants, other organisms, and therefore the atmosphere permits farmers to determine whether any pest management is necessary.
Harvesting is the method of collecting the mature rice crop from the fields. Depending upon the variability, a rice crop mostly reaches maturity at around 105–150 days after the establishment of the crops.
Harvesting activities embrace cutting, stacking, handling, threshing, cleaning, and trucking. Smart gathering strategies facilitate maximize grain yield and minimize grain injury and deterioration.
h) Harvesting is often done manually or mechanically:
The manual type of harvesting is common across Asia. It involves cutting the rice crop with easy hand tools like sickles and knives. The manual gathering, however, is a labor intensive task but is incredibly effective once a crop has lodged or fallen over.
It takes approximately 40 to 80 hours per hectare to harvest rice. It also takes additional labors to collect and haul the harvested crop.
Mechanical harvesting uses reapers and combines harvesters are the alternative option. The machine separates the grain from the stalk. However, this process can also be done by hand.
Types of Paddy-rice in India:
Paddy is grown throughout the whole world with large number of varieties. In India, major varieties of Paddy-rice are:
• Aizon Rice
• Basmati Rice
• Bhut Muri
• Champaa rice
• HMT Rice
• Joha Rice
• Laxmi Bhog(West Bengal) etc there are approximately 35 varieties of Paddy in India.
The yield of rice depends upon a large number of factors like Soil type, quality of seeds, Irrigation, manure used, climate, agricultural practices and many more.
However, by application of good cultivation practices and using good quality seeds an average yield of about 2500 kilograms per hectare can be achieved.