Prawn Farming Guide At Home For Beginners | Cultivation

Prawn Farming | Cultivation 

Little About Prawn Farming or Cultivation

Are you interested in starting your own Prawn farm as a business plan? Then you are at the right platform. Today, I am here with all the information about Prawn farming such as the Investment, food, pest and disease and also, what is the profit margin in the Prawn farming.

Is Prawn a fish?

Yes… Prawn is a type of fish, which has plenty of market demand because of its taste and also their benefits in numbers of the country, all over the globe. Besides consuming more in India, Prawns are also consumed in United Kingdom, Japan, United States, including the Commonwealth countries on large scale.

Prawn farming has their own importance in the fisheries industry. Nowadays, Prawns have acquired a specific place in the diet of many peoples all over the globe. Many peoples are fond of eating Prawns, as directly, as fried or in any other way…

This farming business does not require much capital and also a large land. Nowadays, numbers of people are doing this; Prawn farming business and earning millions of money. Friends, earning millions of money from it is not a hard working job, but it requires proper care and management. So, it is essential to learn, only correct and proper information about Prawn farming to earn a great success in this farming business.

Benefits of Prawns

Prawns are not only beneficial in the business sector but are also beneficial to us in various ways. Prawns are rich in minerals and vitamins, which are able to treat numbers of diseases, present in our healthy body making us sick or unhealthy or unfit.

Now, let us learn what are the health benefits of eating Prawns in the following section.

  • Prawns are the excellent source of The presence of Selenium in our body directly prevent the growth of cancer cells in the body. So, Prawns can keep us from many cancer.
  • The content of fatty acids in the Prawns is too high, which is helpful in keeping a healthy heart.
  • Prawns are also an excellent source of Calcium, which is helpful in strengthening the bones.
  • The Vitamin E present in the Prawns is also helpful in keeping healthy skin and also preventing all the skin infections.
  • The Vitamin B12 presence in the Prawns is also beneficial in the cleaning of the nerves and arteries of our body.
  • Prawns are low-calorie food. So, eating Prawns is also beneficial in weight loss and being healthy.

Presence of all these minerals and vitamins in Prawns, consuming them is beneficial in many ways. Eating Prawns is also helpful in preventing many diseases, present in our to make healthy and fit.

Think Before Starting Prawn Farming

It is a great idea to start farming smartly, and a smart farmer always considers about the essential, cost and investments and also some task before starting this farming business. Here is a guide for you, learn these points, take some time and think about them before starting Prawn raising the business.

  1. Learn how many types of Prawns are there in the world and decide of them, which one can give you more profit?
  2. Also, learn the how much it cost to start a new Prawn farm, depending on the scale of your business.
  3. Also, think about the fodder, care, and management needed for the growing Prawns economically.
  4. Also, learn how to prepare Prawn nutritious fodder at home only? if you not much capital.
  5. Also, think of the space, cost, initial capital required for starting Prawn farming.
  6. Also, learn how to test your water to find out the elements present in it.

Whatever is this, it is advised to take a visit to your nearest Prawn farm, if available to learn all these points in deeper and also better information about this.

How to Start Prawn Farming

Nowadays, Prawn Farming business is being very popular and is also increasing more. New growers select this business plan firstly rather than going for any other commercial farming business because of great profit margin. And, the popularity of Prawns in the market is being raised more and more from day to day. There is also a great demand of Prawns in the food processing industry, because of which Prawns are growing more by the new growers.

Apart from all these shrubs, Prawns farming can also be done with other commercial farming, such as duck farmingfish farming, etc. Nowadays, it is possible to raise Prawn all time during the complete year and the craziness of it is also increasing.

For having your own Prawn farm, you must have sufficient size pond as basic essential. If you have not any pond, then it is advised to take one on lease or construct your own pond. It is great ideas to take pond on the lease.

As with Commercial fish farming, this farming business also requires a pond having sufficient size, so that Prawn can grow well. So, for commercial Prawn farming, a 1,500 sq feet area is good enough to start a new Prawn farming business. Prepare a pond having dimension 8 X 8 feet for farming Prawns which should have a depth of about 5 feet deeper.

Initial Investment in the Prawn Farming

This farming business does not require much capital as an initial investment and can give you good returns in a very short time period. A capital of 75,000 as the initial investment is good enough to start a profitable prawn farming business in a one-acre pond. In around 8 to 9 months, you will be able to harvest this costliest yield. The costliest input in this farming is the investment of baby prawns or living prawns. You can collect those growing prawn easily from the market. Usually, the price of one kg baby or living prawns is ranging from Rs 300 to 500. However, raising high quality and fast growing baby Prawns can lead to good profits.

So, here below is the calculation of all material along with their cost, which is essential to start a new prawn farm.

Type of Investment Cost of that Investment (in Rs)
Cost of Prawn Shed Rs 15,000
Cost of Food Rs 5,000
Cost of Fertilizer Rs 5,000
Cost of preparing a pond [one time (100 feet pond)] Rs 30,000
Cost of Miscellaneous Investment Rs 20,000
Total Expenses  Rs 75,000

Note that the above mention calculation can vary from person to person depending on the level of business. This can also vary depending on the selection of various equipment.

Site Requirements

Fro starting a prawn farming business, a land is an essential need having sufficient size to raise the prawns in the pond. So, select a good farm location for your business of growing prawns commercially. Availability of water at that location is also basic essential. Also, pay attention to the distance, how near is your farm from the nearest local market. Establishing a prawn farm near a city is can reduce the cost of transportation to raise your profit from the products. A city connected with roads is the best way of cheapest transportation with any vehicle.

Infrastructure

There is some basic requirement, without which the business of growing or raising prawns is not possible and is also not profitable one. So, it is a good idea to acquire all the basic needs of prawn, which needed initially for the growing prawns as a business plan.

Here below is the list of all the basic requirements, required for prawn farming.

  • A pond with a good and clean water source
  • Healthy and quality baby prawn to raise
  • Farm shades
  • Manpower: Low-cost labor
  • Some vehicles for the means of transportation for carrying your product to the market
  • A good and quality food; should have a well stock
  • A net to collect the prawn from the pond

Prawn Culture In The Pond

Preparing A Fertile And Productive Pond

For starting the commercial prawn farming, you have to construct a sufficient size pond so that prawns can grow well and you can obtain healthy and quality product from this business plan to earn good returns. Note that your prepare pond should not have the depth of more than four feet and is also should have well designed such as square construction or circle construction.

The base of your prepared pond must have clean surface along with soil pH, ranging from 7 to 8. Spray a suitable disease resistant chemical fertilizers on the side surfaces of the pond to keep away the selected baby prawn from the disease in the pond.

Also, an addition of cow dung manure is also helpful in increasing the fertility and reproductive capacity in the pond and also enhances the growth of plants and planktons. Now, the pond should be filled up with clean water. Leave that filled for about ten days, so that this commercial small creature can grow in the pond.

Breeds Selection

Breed selection in this farming business is also an important task that decides the amount of profit in your business. Growing fast growing and high yielding breed of prawns will definitely yield more production at the last. Grow specific high yielding breed, depending on your climate condition. Since growing breed which is fast growing in nature and requires a minimum care and management is always beneficial in earning good returns.

Water Treatment

To produce healthy prawns, it is very important to treat that cultivating pond water. First of finding out the what elements are presents in that pond water? Then after, supplement the pond water with all essential elements required for producing higher and quality prawns with the help of suitable water treatment.

Growing Prawns

After placing the certain prawn larvae, let them time grow under the supervision of the skilled and expert in the Hatchery, at least 1 month for better prawns development. When the prawns reach the maturity age of one month and their initial growth level is going correctly, then you can put them in the growing pond.

How much Prawns per pond?

If your pond is 50 meters long, 30 meters wide, and two feet deeper, then you can put at least more than 3,000 Prawns in it. Give them food, two to three times a day for their healthy development. Stable Oxygen level and proper feeding are also main factors, which enhances the Prawn’ growth for better production.

Do maintain the Oxygen level in your pond for achieving higher production, and check it regularly.

Feeding of Your Prawn Pond

Nowadays, numbers of the variety of fodder available in the market for the nutritious diet of your Prawn, but it is a little bit expensive. And because of this, small-scale farmers are unable to purchase this expensive fodder due to money shortage.

One can easily prepare this nutritious diet at home only by using the vegetable west particle, along with extra fodder, giver to the husbandry animal… and can get relieved from the tension of buying the expensive fodder for the Prawns. You can also use the cow dung for the preparation of nutritious and healthy fodder along with the almonds, corn and such like protein-rich food to meet the protein requirement.

Provide this expensive or homemade nutritious fodder in sufficient amount, at least thrice a day.

Prawns Disease And Their Treatment

All like other farming business, diseases are also observed in this Prawn farming business. Viral infected diseases are common in this farming such as

  • White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV),
  • Yellowhead Disease Virus (YHDV),
  • Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV),
  • Infectious Hypodermal and Haematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV),
  • Vibrio harveyi, etc are some common diseases that observed in the commercial Prawn farming.

It is essential to prevent your pond from all these observed diseases to obtains a higher yield and to maintain the quality of the Prawns. However, maintaining water quality can avoid, all these observed diseases.

Harvesting Prawns

The harvesting time of Prawn is mainly depended on the Prawn condition along with the market demand and price. They are collected with the help of cast net from the various area of growing pond on the basis of average weight and shape, size. At the harvesting stage, the soft shell is should be less than 5 % in the pond. This can be achieved by scheduled harvesting of the Prawns between 2 moultings. Molting can be identified by the existence of exuviae in the growing pond.

If your Prawns weigh averagely around 30 gm, then harvesting should be after a week of the exuviae appearance. Where the upcoming molting can be observed after two weeks.

Iced those collected Prawns or store them at nearby cold store or shift them to the processing plants within 10 hrs of harvesting.

Yield

If growing Prawns is done with advance Prawns farming techniques, then one can easily earn about more than 3 lack by just investing Rs 50,000 as the initial capital in this business plan.

One can raise this profit by taking proper care and good management of the Prawn farm and also selecting a high yielding and fast growing Prawns breed.

Broccoli Farming | Detailed Informations & Guide for Best Yield

Broccoli Farming – Detailed Informations & Guide

Little About Growing Broccoli

Suddenly, You may think that What is Broccoli?… Basically, Broccoli is also one of the delicious and edible green vegetable plants, which falls under the cabbage family. In general, the large flowering head of broccoli is eaten as a vegetable in our day to day life.

In fact, it is a cool-season crop, which can be grown in the spring season & fall season. The main advantage of growing Broccoli is that this green vegetable plant can be harvested throughout the year if plantation is done accurately.

As a member of the cabbage family, it is a most selected for the home garden. Fresh heads of broccoli are rich in almost all kinds of vitamins & minerals. Apart from this, they are tasty and delicious as a raw in salads as well as when lightly steamed and frozen well. And, it the best choice for making a big profit in the rural area as a good economy.

However, when it comes to the description of Broccoli plant, a large and green flower heads grows on its plant, specially arranged in a tree-like structure and branching out from a thick and edible stalk. The edible head is covered by several leaves. It also resembles the cauliflower which does not belong to this family.

It is eaten as a raw, boiled, steamed as well as in the stir-fried state. It is one of the most nutritious green vegetables in the world. As it is full of minerals and vitamins. It is an excellent source of iron, magnesium, and calcium along with vitamin ‘A’ and vitamin ‘C’.

The word “Broccoli” is an Italian plural of ‘Broccolo’ which mean’s “the flowering top of a cabbage”.

Basically, this can be grown in indoors, pots, containers, greenhouses, poly house, as well as under the shade nets. Presently, Growing Broccoli hydroponically is the best idea, which helps in getting excellent yields with a minimum input in this vegetable crop.

Scientific Name or Botanical Name of Broccoli

The scientific name and botanical name of broccoli is Brassica oleracea. It belongs to the family Brassicaceae and to the genus Brassica.

Local Names of Broccoli

Wild cabbage, Chinese broccoli, Headless cabbage, White flowering broccoli, Bróculi chino (Spanish), Chinesischer Brokkoli (German), Jie lan cai, Gai lan (Chinese), Kailan (Malay), Broccoli de Chine (French), Phak khana (Thai), Kairan (Japanese), brukuuli (Arabic), broccolo (Italian), Hari phool gobhi (Urdu), Broccoli (Swedish), ανθοκράμβη or brókolo (Greek), brokolice (Czech), Brókkoli (Russian), and Brokoli (Turkish).

World Top 10 Producer of Broccoli

India holds second positions in the list when it comes to the production of broccoli vegetables after China. However, learn the list of top 10 broccoli producer in the world:

  1. China
  2. India
  3. Spain
  4. Mexico
  5. Italy
  6. France
  7. United States
  8. Poland
  9. Pakistan
  10. Egypt

Most Productive Broccoli Varieties for Commercial Farming

When going for commercial vegetable production, it is essential to growing the best productive variety of broccoli in order to get excellent vegetable yield with minimum care and management.

So, here I had listed worlds most productive varieties of broccoli, best suitable for commercial farming in different climate conditions. Check out all.

  • Paraiso (Hybrid broccoli Paraiso) – It is best for crown cut, bunching, and florets. It is also best for florets processing. It attains maturity after about 75 days from transplanting Or in 95 days if directly sowed on the main field. Its plant has an excellent upright habit, and it produces heads with a large dome and fine, dark-green beads.
  • Gemini – It produces uniform heads with nice presentation. And, are best suitable for concentrated harvesting. This fresh market hybrid is perfect for summer and autumn crown production.
  • Constellation – It produces dense heads on the erected plant. It is also best suitable for concentrated harvesting.
  • Blue Wind – It heads are medium sized, blue-green in color with small and attractive beads. It gives uniform production and is easy to harvest. After maturity, Harvest immediately because it does not hold in the field as well as later varieties. It has Unsized seed.
  • Tahoe RZ – They have very high yield potential. And, performs their best from cool to hot climate conditions. They produce smooth, dense and high domed heads with small to medium, uniform beads. They have attractive dark green color and are excellent for crowns.
  • Emerald Crown – It is very uniform, medium maturing heavy-headed domed variety of broccoli with small beads on a small-framed plant. It can be grown well from cool season to warm season (avoid growing in rainy season). It can extend the Green Magic slot into cold due to its resistance to purpling. They produce excellent quality crown cuts in a very short time period in all NAFTA regions.
  • Centennial – It has small beads, smoother heads with minimal sides hoots. In fact, it is a multi-use broccoli variety that performs it best in all kind of Marathon slots. The main advantage is, it can be grown throughout the year in the cool coastal growing regions.
  • Marathon – For commercial broccoli farming, Marathon is widely adaptable variety. And, it gives outstanding results for the fresh-market bunching, processing, and the increasingly popular crown cut market. It produces small bead with a high dome and heavy head.
  • Imperial – This broccoli variety performs it best during the long-day climate conditions with a gentle warm condition. It produces a tight dome with nice, dark-green small, beads. It is also multi-used variety and mostly grown for bunching, crown cut, and processing.
  • Avenger – An excellent choice for the processing markets and crown cut. It produces tight, heavy, dome-shaped, blue-green heads with short bracts having thick stems and very small beads. When it comes to growing areas, it is widely adopted in U.S., Mexico, and Guatemala to get excellent results with great yield potential.

However, they can be also classified based on their colors. Like Broccoli raab, Heading Type (Green), Romanesco, Sprouting Type (Green and Purple), etc.

Where Does Broccoli Grow?

Broccoli can be grown in greenhouses, poly houses, pot, containers, in backyards or on large scale commercially. However, it is essential to growing broccoli in suitable climate conditions with soil required to obtain optimum production.

Climate Conditions for Broccoli Farming

Basically, it is a cool-season crop that can be cultivated throughout the year under controlled conditions like greenhouses and playhouses. If not possible, it can be grown in both; spring and fall on the open and large field.

Broccoli can thrive their best in growing temperature around 18 °C to 20 °C. And, for excellent germination, the ideal soil temp should be around 20 °C to 22 °C.

But, do not that this crop is very sensitive to both, very low and high temp during growing period. So, for cultivating broccoli in such type of region, farmers should go with improved varieties having a good tolerance to high temperatures.

Soil Requirement for Broccoli Farming

Soil Selection is an important task for the commercial broccoli cultivation. This vegetable crop can be grown over a wide range of soil from light sandy loams to heavy clay loams with good drainage capacity and should also rich in all organic matters.

However, to obtain excellent yield with optimum production, cultivation should be done on clay loam or deep sandy loam soil with good amount of humus content and good drainage capacity.

The optimum soil pH for good yield should be in between 6.3 to 7.2 pH value. Cultivation of broccoli on soil having soil pH less than 6.0 should be avoided. However, for growing on such kinds of soils, it should be corrected by applying only required amount of lime.

To achieved excellent production from commercial broccoli farming, it is advised to keep rotating the crop with other non-crucifers crops. It is also advised to the grower to go for a soil test before growing on the field. It will help to learn the suitability of soil. And, also helps to understand the nutrients and minerals deficiency, which need to be corrected.

How to Grow Broccoli Vegetables?

Land Preparation for Broccoli Farming

Land preparation also plays a very important role in the commercial broccoli cultivation. So, bring down the soil in fine tilth form by giving two or three plowing before planting. Extra weeds should be removed along with other dead material from the field.

For single row planting on raised beds, furrows of 0.5 meter apart should be made, whereas, for double row planting, it should be 1.0 meter wide and 0.5 meters apart.

Propagation in Broccoli Farming

Propagation in Broccoli vegetable farming is mainly done by seeds. It can be achieved by direct seeding on the main field. Or by transplanting the seedlings, grows on nurseries beds on the field.

Presently, Modern farmers used to grow broccoli seedling, raised in nurseries using the cell trays.

Planting in Broccoli Farming

When it comes to planting broccoli vegetables, they can germinate their best at 12 ºC soil temp. However, they require hot climate conditions with moist and slightly acidic fertile soil during the growing period.

For growing by direct seeding on the field, highly qualified seeds should be sown directly to the ground by keeping some distance between them. However, for transplanting the nursery-raised seedlings, transplant the seedlings having 3 to 6 true leaves and are three to four weeks old.

Broccoli Growing Season

For spring plantations, transplantations should be done around 2 weeks before the last spring frost. It helps to lessen down the maturity days, around 10 days less.

And, for fall plantation, seeding should be done around 85 days before the first fall frost appears. Fall plantation is the best suitable for growing this vegetable crop as they thrive their best under cool climate conditions. On an average, planting should be done from mid to late summer

Broccoli Planting Depth

Seed should be sown, around 1/2 inch deep. And, seedling should be transplanted slightly deeper than they were grown originally.

Thinning of seedling should be done in case of overseeding in order to give room for the broccoli to grow healthily.

Seed rate & Spacing in Broccoli Farming

Spacing and Seed rate varies accordingly to the selected cultivar, soil quality, and fertility, planting method, etc. However, on an average, 300 gm to 500 gm quality seeds are good enough for planting on unit hectare land.

However, after spending and transplanting seedling, thinning should be at about 3 cm apart after 2 to 3 days of germination.

Spacing for single row planting should be 40 cm to 45 cm apart, whereas, for double row planting, the spacing should be 60 cm to 65 cm. Grown seedling must be watered sufficiently for several hours before planting on the field in order to avoid the wilting during transplanting. A light irrigation must be done, just after transplanting the seedlings.

Irrigation in Broccoli Farming

The first irrigation should be carried out, just after transplanting the seedlings on the main field. However, the frequency of irrigations depends on the type of soil and climate conditions. It is very important to maintain the proper soil moisture during the complete growing period to ensure higher production.

After the first irrigation, subsequent irrigations should be carried out at an interval of 7 to 10 days, depending on soil moisture level and weather conditions.

Make sure to not get wet the developing heads while watering the plants. In case of drought and hot conditions, it is essential to provide consistent soil moisture with regular watering & never let the soil dry. Mulching is the best option to prevent higher moisture loss and extra weed growth.

Manures and Fertilizers in Broccoli Farming

This vegetable crop responds very well to the application of manures and fertilizers. In fact, it requires well fertile soil in order to get optimum production. So, about 10 tonnes of Well-decomposed farmyard manure should be applied at the time of land preparation per unit hectare land. One can also apply it about 3 to 4 weeks before the seedling transplantation.

Also, at the time of planting seedlings on the main field, about 120 kg of Nitrogen, 80 kg of Phosphorous, and 80 kg of Pottasium should be applied to this crop. The nitrogen should be given in different split doses.

  • The half dose should be given at the time of seedling transplantation.
  • The 2nd dose, about 1/4 should be given after about 30 to 35 days of planting.
  • The remaining 1/4 should be given after about 45 days of planting.

Pests and Diseases in Broccoli Farming

In commercial farming of broccoli, it is very important to control pests and diseases in order to ensure high-quality production. So, check the list of all diseases, pests, and insect that are commonly observed in the broccoli production.

Broccoli Diseases

  • Alternaria leaf spot Alternaria brassicae
  • Black rot Xanthomonas campestris
  • Clubroot Plasmodiophora brassicae
  • Powdery mildew Erysiphe cruciferarum
  • Sclerotinia stem rot (White mold) Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
  • White rust Albugo candida
  • Blackleg Phoma lingam
  • Downy mildew Hyaloperonospora parasitica
  • Wirestem (Damping-off) Rhizoctonia solani
  • Ring spot Mycosphaerella brassicicola

Broccoli Pests & Insects

  • Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella
  • Flea beetle (Crucifer flea beetle) Phyllotreta Cruciferae
  • Large cabbage white (Cabbageworm) Pieres Rapae
  • Thrips (Western flower thrips, Onion thrips, etc.) Frankliniella Occidentalis
    Thrips tabaci
  • Root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp.

Harvesting in Broccoli Farming

In a very short time period, around 80 to 90 days from the planting on the main field, broccoli attain their maturity. However, the maturity age varies depending on the cultivar. Quality broccoli heads should be harvested, when they attain their full maturity with proper size and firm. And, never wait until the clustered buds begin to open.

Cutting off the broccoli heads along with 25 cm of the edible stem portion should be carried out manually with local workers with good supervision in order to maintain the quality of vegetable. For harvesting, make use of a sharp knife in order to cut the head stem, little above from the below head. Most of the cultivar has side-shoots which allow other heads to develop, even after the main head being harvested. This also helps in getting production at different interval of time.

To get good quality of heads, the best time of harvesting is the early morning. And, then after, packing of heads should be done as soon as possible after cutting from the plants.

Yield in Broccoli Farming

The yield of this crop depends on numbers of factors including variety, soil type, climate and other garden management skills, practiced during the cultivation.

However, on an average, one can easily obtain 200 to 250 quintals per unit hectare land, depending upon the variety.