Lemon Farming – Step By Step Guide to Growing Lemon Tree Commercially

Lemon Farming | A guide to growing Lemon fruit trees

The following post is about Lemon Farming or How to grow Lemon Tree Commercially.

Little About Lemon Farming

Citrus is one of the most important fruit crop, which is highly demanded by the people throughout the globe. And, lemon fruit is the most important fruit of the citrus category.

Lemon is mostly asked because of its extensive bitterness. It is also known for its juice and pulp throughout the different portion of the world. It is mostly asked for its extensive bitterness. Its extensive bitterness is beneficiary in curing numbers of disease and disorder. It is full of amazing medicinal value, and it is especially recommended to the pregnant women.

So, one can easily create a big profit through growing this citrus fruit, lemon fruits in a big area at commercial scale, or can grow it as indoor fruit plant tree.

So, let us learn how to grow Lemon trees commercially.

Lemon Varieties

There are numbers of Lemon varieties, which are popular for growing in different geological regions according to their climate conditions and soil requirement.

lemon varieties

However, here I had listed some of the most popular varieties of Lemon fruit tree, which are highly recommended for growing in different climate condition with high yielding capacity.

  • Verna – Its production accounts for about 70 % of the total lemon production in the world. It is originated in Spain. And it is mainly produced in Alicante and Murcia. It bears an average to large size lemon fruit, with a pronounced nipple & well-developed neck. The skin is rough, thick, and irregular, but the pulp is tender. It has juice with an appropriate acidity content, although it is less abundant than in other varieties.
  • Fina – It comes from an old Spanish variety produced near the river Segura. Its productions account for about for 20% of the production of total lemon fruit production. It bears Spherical or oval fruit, with a short and smooth nipple with thin skin. The pulp is contained highly juice content along with few seeds in it. And, the tree is vigorous, highly productive and thorny in nature.
  • Eureka – It is mainly cultivated outside the Mediterranean area. Especially in South Africa, California, Australia, Argentina, and Israel. It bears fruit with average to thin thickness skin, usually smooth. However, it is bit rough. The fruit contains very fewer seeds with a higher level of acidity juice content.
  • Lisbon – It is an Australian lemon variety, cultivated in the great areas of the desert of Arizona. It bears fruits similar to the Eureka lemon variety. However, it has a less definite nipple with the rough texture of the skin. And, the juice levels and its acidity level in fruit are similar to that of Eureka variety.
  • Primofiori – It bears rounded & oval shape lemon fruit, with a short and smooth nipple.  Along with thin skin and juicy pulp with very fewer seeds.
  • Villafranca – It bears fruit with more seeds in comparison to the Eureka variety. However, the fruit tree is more vigorous. And, it is very difficult to distinguish both varieties when they are adult.
  • Femminello – It includes several selections of average size lemons with quite thick skin & less juice content fruit than other lemon varieties, but more acidic content. However, the seeds amount depends on harvesting purpose.
  • Génova – This variety is mostly cultivated in South America and surrounding area. It bears fruits having a smooth skin and a substantial and acid pulp.
  • Meyer – This variety is hybrid of the lemon tree, orange tree and the mandarin tree. It bears fruits similar to the orange, large in size and round shape, with a small nipple. Th fruit skin is yellowish orange, smooth, soft and thin in nature. However, it lacks the characteristic smell of lemons. The pulp of this variety is dark yellow, very juicy and tender with more or less 10 seeds inside in it.

Where Do Lemon Tree Grow?

For commercial growing of Lemon fruit trees, it is essential to obtain optimum lemon fruit production with less input and efforts. And, this is possible only with a suitable cultivar grown in suitable climate condition and preferred soil. So, learn what soil and climate condition do lemon fruit tree preferred for optimum growth of fruit plant.

lemon farming intercropping and irrigation

Climate Conditions Required for Lemon farming

When it comes to climate requirement of this fruit plant, the sub-tropical climate conditions are best suitable for optimum growth with excellent fruit development of this crop.

Keep in mind that a temp. below 40 ‘C is dangerous for the young plant’s growth and development. And, a Soil temperature about 250 ‘C is best suitable for optimum root growth.

Dry, arid climate conditions along with well-defined summer with low rainfall (range – 75 cm to 250 cm) is most favorable for the excellent growth of this fruit crop.

Do not that High humidity ensures the spreading of numbers of diseases. Frost is also highly injurious to this crop. During summer, Hot wind results in the desiccation and flower drop with young fruits drop.

It can also grow up to some altitude, around 2000 m and adapted to a cooler climate condition.

Location & Land Selection for lemon farming

Lemon can be grown over a wide range of soils. However, few soil properties such as soil fertility, soil reaction, drainage, free lime and salt concentrations, etc. are some very important factors which determine the planting density, plant grown, and amount of fruit yield. So, care to be taken while selection land for lemon farming.

Lemon fruit plant can flourish well on light soils having a good drainage capacity. And, deep soils having pH range from 5.5 to 7.5 are considered as the best suitable for lemon tree farming. But, do note that they can be grown up to a pH ranges from 4 to 9. Havier soils and light loam soils with well drainage facility subsoils are supposed to be the ideal for growing lemon trees.

Do note that the presence of calcium carbonate (CaCo3) in very high concentration within the feeding zone may affect the growth adversely.

How to Plant Lemon Fruit Plant?

In commercial lemon fruit farming, planting method, plant density, placing between lemon plants, time of plantation, and method of planting are more responsible for the fruit production and yield. So, care to be taken in all these crucial points of Lemon farming.

Soil Preparation for lemon farming

Growing lemons on suitable land ensure healthy fruit production with excellent quality of fruits. So, the land should be plowed, cross plowed and leveled well before planting seedlings on the soil.

In mountainous regions, transplanting should be done on terraces against the slopes. In such type of land, high-density transplanting of seedlings is possible as aerial space is more available than that in flat land.

Weed from the previous crop should be discarded before planting seedlings. Then after, weed should be removed at regular interval of four weeks to avails optimum growth rate and healthy plant development.

Time of Planting In Lemon Farming

This subtropical crop can be cultivated throughout the year. However, the best time for planting lemon trees in from June to August.

For planting lemon young seedlings, a pit having a size of two feet of each (60 cm X 60 cm X 60 cm) should be dug. Then, about 10 kg of well rotten FarmYard Manure along with 500 gm of superphosphate should be supplemented per each pit before planting lemon young seedlings to the pit.

However, one can easily grow lemon fruit plant throughout the whole year with the facility of a good irrigation system.

Planting Density & Spacing in lemon farming

The planting spacing in lemon farming varies according to the growing cultivar of the lemon fruit (lemon variety), the soil on which cultivations is to be done, growing climate conditions, etc.

lemon farming intercropping and irrigation

However, generally, the normal planting spacing is 4.5 m X 4.5 m. One can go for high-density planting to plant more plants in comparison to the normal planting spacing (4.5 m X 4.5 m) on the basis of soil fertility and cultivar yield capacity.

With the normal planting spacing (4.5 m X 4.5 m) in commercial lemon farming, on can easily maintain about 500 plants per unit hectare land (exactly – Plant population – 494 plants / ha.

However, in too light soils, the planting spacing should be reduced to 4.0 m X 4.0 m. Whereas in the fertile soils, and in higher rainfall regions, the planting spacing should be 5 m x 5m for the optimum growth and development to obtain excellent quality fruit plant.

Irrigation In Lemon Farming

Lemon seedling needs life-saving watering up to next one year after the transplanting seedlings on the land. Especially, during winter and summer season. Watering should be followed on regular basis.

Irrigations are the primary task, which is responsible for plants healthy growth and healthy development, especially during flowering and fruiting period. It also helps the fruit to attain better shape and marketable size. Under the unirrigated condition, there are chances of damaging to spring blossom are high. And the next crop maturing in October to November may be heavier.

Always avoid overwatering. Because overwatering may lead to root rot and collar rot easily to occur.

Light irrigation in the lemon field with high frequency is always beneficial for healthy yield. Do not that water containing more than 1000 ppm salts for Irrigation in lemon farming is injurious the quality of fruits.

However, the quantity of water & number of irrigation depends on the soil type and growth stage of the crop. Partial drying out of the soil in the spring season should be done to enhance the growth rate.

Application of Manures & Fertilisers in Lemon Farming

Lemon seedling should be manure in about 3 equal doses, 3 times in a calendar year, in Feb, June, and Sept. However, the dose of manure and fertilizer varies on the basis of soil type, age, and growth of plants.

The manuring dose should be increased every year in equal proportionate to reach the full quantity on the 8th year.

Fertilisers should be spread on the ground up to the leaf drip and should be mixed up with the soil by light spading.

A light Irrigation should be applied to overcome the moisture stress, just after the application of manures and fertilizers. Also, try to give one or two micronutrient mixtures to enhance the plant growth and development for the healthy fruit production.

Intercultural Operations in Lemon Farming

lemon farming guide

Weed Control

Plowing, basin spading, weed control, etc., are some important inter-culture activities for the soil aeration and plant health. Chemical means of weed control with a suitable weedicide such as simazine, Grammaxone, Diuron, Terbsal, etc. should be adopted to minimize the weeds in the field.

Intercrops between plants

Leguminous vegetables such as cowpeas, peas, french bean, or any other vegetables, etc., can be grown in lemon orchards.

However, Intercropping is advisable only for the initial 2 to 4 years of planting seedlings.

Trimming & Pruning of Plants

Trimming and pruning of lemon plant should be done in order to enhance the growth of strong trunk. Around all shoots in the first 40 to 50 cm from the ground level developed in the early stage of growth should be eliminated. keep the central plant to remain open.

Branches of fruiting plant should be well scattered to all sides. Cross twigs along with water suckers are to be eliminated earlier.

However, the fruit-bearing trees need little or about no pruning. So, all injured, diseased, and drooping branches along with the dead wood should be removed at regular interval to initiating citrus lemon greening.

Pests & Diseases in Lemon Tree Farming

lemon fruit farming

Lemon Tree | Pests & Pests Control

The lemon tree belongs to citrus fruit plant category. So, there are chances of appearing numbers of hazardous pests and insect, which can minimize your fruit production and also the quality of fruits. So, it is a better idea to learn them and control them as sooner as they appear in your field.

The following is a list of some common pests and diseases, that are commonly observed in the commercial lemon tree farming. –

  • Ants
  • Scale
  • Mealy Bugs
  • Cottony Cushion Scale
  • Leafminer
  • Sooty Mold
  • Aphids
  • Spider mites
  • Fungus gnat
  • Citrus Thrips
  • Whitefly
  • Melanose fungus
  • Citrus Canker
  • Powdery mildew
  • Collar Rot
  • Lemon Scab
  • Black Spot
  • Gummosis


All of these insects and disease, especially disease occurs due to deficiency of various types of minerals, and macronutrients. So, try to avoid any kind of deficiency in your soil. And, if present, correct it by supplementing suitable supplement.

Also, try to make use of liquid pesticide to avoid pests and insects to ruin your field.

Lemon Fruit Harvesting

Harvesting of quality fruit should be carried out at a different interval. Usually, try to pick mature fruit at about 3 to 4 times a year. However, quality of fruit must be checked before harvesting or picked.

lemon fruit picking

They attain a proper size with a rounded shape fruit and attractive color having TSS to the Acid ratio of 12:1. And, at this stage, are best suitable for harvesting.

However, the harvesting time and season vary on the basis of market demand and variety of lemon. In general, harvesting of picking of fruit should be done from mid of January to mid of February till the end of February.

Try to harvest at proper mature fruitage to get an excellent yield of fruit. And, for the exporting purpose of lemon, harvesting should be done, as sooner as they attain their maturity shape and size with proper texture.


The yield of lemon farming varies on the basis of fertility of soil, the productivity of soil, variety of lemon grown, climate conditions and yielding capacity of lemon variety.

However, in commercial lemon farming, from the 2nd year of planting seedlings on the field, more than 50 fruit per plant tree can be picked. Which goes increases from year to next year.

And, from the 6 to 7 year of planting lemon trees, one can easily pick about 750 fruit per tree and even more than it per each year.

Post Harvesting

After harvesting fruit, a proper washing with clean water should be done in order to bring excellent fruit color. After washing dipped the fruits in Chlorinated water @ 2.5 ml per Liter of water. After that dried them partially. Then, do Citrashine wax coating with foam.

harvesting lemon

It improves fruit appearance and also maintains a good quality of fruits. After that, packing of fruit should be done after drying out them. Fruits should be packed in boxes

Have a happy lemon Farming with Excellent fruit production with best quality fruits!!!😄

Dairy Farming Project Report For Setting Up A Dairy Farm

Dairy Farming Project Report

About Dairy Farming 🐮

Friends, as we know that dairy farming business plan in India is one of the best business plan to start in India. Since anyone can start this dairy farming business plan in India from small-scale level to commercial scale business. So, it is always a good idea to learn what is the costing for set up a dairy farm.

So, today, I am here with dairy farming project report that can help you in taking the decision that what dairy breed you should raise and what is the profit margin in the dairy farming business plan in India.

🐄 Advantages of Dairy Farming 🐄

Fodder Management in Dairy Farming

There are many advantages of starting a dairy farming business plan. Some of theme are listed below –

  1. Easy to start / Low Investment Requirement –  One can easily start this business plan with low initial investment. One can purchase a dairy mammal and can easily start earning from this business.
  2. Instant and rapid Income – After starting this business plan, you will be able to get income from this business. Even you can get from the very first day of business if you got the milking cow or buffalo.
  3. Easily & cheaper fodder availability – For the feeding purpose, you can easily get the fodder for your dairy breed at a very lower rate from the villages and surrounding area.
  4. Subsidies on loan – There are numbers of schemes and loan available for starting the business of dairy farming. They also offer big subsidies for this.
  5. Low Management Required – For starting a dairy farming business, there is no need of much care and management excluding the pest and disease management in dairy farming.

How Much Costing is Required to Set up a new Dairy Farm?

However, it is not easy to start a business without learning the pre-investment capital for any business. This also helps to learn how much income you are going to learn in future? 

So, here I had mentioned all the economic parameters, which are essential for setting up a new dairy farm.

Management in Dairy Farming

The following is details for setting a new dairy farm business plan in India at small scale, for 10 dairy breed or 10 Buffaloes.

Specification Costing or Input in this Business Plan
Buffalo breed Murrah Buffalo
No’s of Animal to Raise 10 Murrah Buffalo
Animals in a Batch 5 no’s
Average Price of Murrah Buffalo (Mature) Rs 50,000
Average Price of Murrah Buffalo (Baby Buffalo) Rs 10,000
Cost of Transportation per Animal Rs 1000
Milking Capacity 10 Ltr per Animal
Area requires per animal 50 sq. feet per Animal
Cost of setting up the shed in dairy farming Averagely, Rs 120 per sq. feet
Cost of Electric Feed Cutter Rs 50,000
Cost of Dairy Farm Equipment Rs 1000 per Animal
Cost of Insurance 5 % of Animal Value (Rs 500 per Animal)
Cost of Medical Rs 1000 per Animal
Cost of Solid fodder Rs 15 per solid fodder
Cost of Dry fodder Rs 3 per kg of dry Fodder
Cost of Green Fodder Rs 2 per kg of green fodder
Labor Input 1 no’s
Cost of Labor (Salary) Rs 6000 per month
Cost of Electricity and Water Rs 200 per annum
Loan Interest Rate 12 % per annum
Loan Repayment Duration 5 Years
Milk Rate In the Market Rs 40 (least rate of Milk)
Milking Duration 240 Days
Non-milking Duration 150 Days

Feeding Plan in Buffalo Dairy Farming🐄🐄

Types of Fodder  Fodder Price per kg  During Lactation Period During Non-Lactation Period
Supplied Quantity Daily Cost Supplied Quantity Daily Cost
Solid Fodder Rs 15 5 75 2 30
Green Fodder 2 25 Grow your own 20  Grow your own
Dry Fodder 3 4 12 5 15
Total  –  – 87  – 45

🐮 Lactation Period And Dry’s Day of Buffalo 🐄

Dairy Breeds

The following is the table of about the lactation period of buffalo along with dry days.

Lactation Period
1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
1st Batch 1250 1150 1050 1050 1000
2nd Batch 500 1050 1200 1400 1400
Total 1750 2250 2250 2450 2400
Non-Lactation Period
1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
1st Batch 150 550 750 750 750
2nd Batch 0 750 650 500 500
Total 150 1300 1400 1250 1250


Learn what does the above mention table state:

  1. For the 1st year, the milking days of the first batch are about 240 days whereas there are 90 non-milking days.
  2. In the 2nd year, the milking days are taken as 220 days whereas the non-milking period for them is 120 days
  3. In the 3rd year, this figure will be 220 and 150 days.
  4. In the 3rd year, this figure will be 200 and 150 days.
  5. In the 3rd year, this figure will be 200 and 150 days.

🐮 Cost Of Setting Up a Dairy Farm in India 🐄

Shed in Dairy Farming Business

One Time Investment in Dairy Farming in India

Cost of Shedding for 10 milking cattle 60,000 sq. feet (500 X 120 feet)
Cost of shedding for calves 24000 sq. feet (200 X 120 feet)
Cost of Buying 10 Murrah Buffalo Rs 5,00,000 (10 X 50,000)
Cost of Dairy Equipment Rs 10,000 (10 X 1000)
Cost of fodder cutter Rs 50,000
Total Investment Rs 6,44,000

Recurring cost

Fodder Cost for One Month (5 dairy breed) Rs 12500 (520 X 30)
Cost of Insurance (5 % of base value) 25,000 (5 % of 5,00,000)
Cost of Growing fodder at home Rs 20,000
Cost of Electricity & medical expense Rs 12000
Total Cost  Rs 69500

Total Project Cost

Total project cost= Rs. 6,44,000 + Rs. 6,95,000 = Rs. 7,20,000

Costing and Income in Dairy Farming In India

Here below is a detailed description of the costing and income in dairy farming business in India.

Management in Dairy Farming

Costing or Investment

Cost or Investment 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
Cost of fodder in a lactation period of during milking days Rs 136950 Rs 186750 Rs 186750 Rs 199200 Rs 199200
Cost of fodder in a non-lactation period of during dry days Rs 60000 Rs 54000 Rs 54000 Rs 48000 Rs 48000
Cost on Medicines Rs 10000 Rs 10000 Rs 10000 Rs 10000 Rs 10000
Cost of Insurance Rs 25000 Rs 25000 Rs 25000 Rs 25000 Rs 25000
Cost of Growing green fodder Rs 20000 Rs 20000 Rs 20000 Rs 20000 Rs 20000
Cost of Labor Wages Rs 72000 Rs 72000 Rs 72000 Rs 72000 Rs 72000
Total Cost along with addition expense Rs 365000 Rs 365000 Rs 369000 Rs 365000 Rs 365000

Please do note that All the prices or figures are mentioned on the basis of average income and initial input in buffalo farming. It may vary according to particular region and facility of various sources.


The average milk rate in the market is taken as Rs 40 per ltr of milk. (The lowest one, it is for explanation).

  1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
Income from selling milk Rs 6,00,000 Rs 6,50,000 Rs 7,00,000 Rs 7,50,000 Rs 7,50,000
Total Income Rs 6,00,000 Rs 6,50,000 Rs 7,00,000 Rs 7,50,000 Rs 7,50,000
Total Profit Rs 3,00,000 Rs 3,50,000 Rs 4,00,000 Rs 4,50,000 Rs 4,50,000

🐮 Profit Margin in Dairy Farming 🐮

Duration 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
One time Investment Rs 644000
Recurring Cost Rs 263950 Rs 361750 Rs 361750 Rs 368200 Rs 368200
Income Rs 6,00,000 Rs 6,50,000 Rs 7,00,000 Rs 7,50,000 Rs 7,50,000
Pure Profit Rs – 3,00,000 Rs 2,90,000 Rs 3,50,000 Rs 3,90,000 Rs 3,90,000

Final Words

Dear friends, this is a project report for dairy farming business plan in India is made on the ideal condition and situation with least prices. All the figure are average figure base on the real life. So, that you can learn why you should go for a dairy farming business in India rather than going for any other busines.

So, friends, Just make a strategic plan and move ahead to earn millions from this business.

🐄🐄 Have a Great Success in your Dair Farm 🐮🐮 🐄🐄