Potato Farming Process, Profit and Cultivation| Cultivation About Potato Crop
Potato is one of the most important commercial crops that is cultivated widely because of its great demand in the market, throughout the whole year. Because of plentiful benefits of potatoes, there is great demand for potato products in both local and international market. Nowadays, with the help of good potato farming techniques and cultivation practices, it is able to obtain more than 40 tonnes of potato yield per hectare.
So, let us learn, how to grow potatoes, where do potatoes grow, when & how to plant potatoes, how to grow potatoes from potatoes along with how to grow potatoes at home, in a container.
The potato scientific name is “Solanum tuberosum“.
Potatoes are also as the poor man’s food. Potatoes are also used in producing in alcohol & Starch. Mostly, potatoes are cross-pollinated via many insects like bumblebees to carry pollen to other potatoes field.
Basically, potatoes are the herbaceous perennial plant, which can grow up to two meters in height. However, this can vary depending on the potato cultivar, used for cultivation and method of propagation.
How long does it take to grow a potato? or how long does it take to grow potatoes? Friends, growing potatoes is more beneficial than other commercial farming because of in a very short time period, it is able to obtain more than 40 tonnes of potato yield per hectare.
Potato tubers having white flowers, basically have white skins whereas tubers having colored flowers, produce pinkish skins. For getting more and more production, there are numbers of hybrid potato varieties, available all over the world, developed depending on the climate condition. Selection of a high yielding, a quality potato variety with disease resistant tubers is a key factor in growing potato successfully. Apart from being grown as a commercial crop, potatoes are also can be grown in pots, greenhouse, poly houses, containers and also backyards.
Potato plantation by selecting best potato variety along with proper good potato farming techniques and cultivation practices, one can earn millions from it in a very short time period, about two months and some more days.
Benefits of Potato
Here below is a list of health benefits of potato, before going to learn potato farming or cultivation.
- Health Benefits Of Potatoes, Weight loss: Eating a plain potato, whether it may sweet or white is good for weight loss as potato are free from fat, high in nutrition content along with low-calorie value because all this make a good supplement for any weight-loss food.
- Benefits of Potato Juice: Friends, A potato juice is full of nutrients value along with Vitamines, (A, B, C..), good amount of potassium, iron, calcium, copper, phosphorus, etc. So, consuming potato juice is highly beneficial as it grants lots of health benefits to our body. Potato Juice is also used For Skin Whitening by many peoples
- Eating potatoes daily also helps in regulating high blood pressure in our body.
- Potatoes are beneficial for heart health and also prevent some cancers
- Potatoes are also good for prevention of the kidney stone problem
- Eating potatoes also enhance the immune system of our body.
- Potato foods are also good for good for the health of brain & nervous system
Potato Names in Different Language
Aloo and Batata (Hindi), Aloo (Urdu), Aalu (Nepali), Pomme de Terre (French), mǎ líng shǔ (Chinese), a batata (Portuguese), Patatja (Albanian), πατάτα (Greek), Patatas (Filipino), Kartoffel (German), Картофель (Russian), კარტოფილი (Georgian), Aardappel (Dutch), Tattie (Scottish), Prátaí (Irish), alu (Burmese), Kartoffel (Danish), 감자 (Korean), じゃがいも (Japanese), Kartul (Estonian), Төмс (Mongolian), Patates (Turkish), Kentang (Sundanese), Seyeb zemeyeney (Persian), Ziemniak (Polish), Krompir (Bosnian), Patata (Maltese), кромпир (Serbian), Viazi (Swahili), 土豆 (Mandarin), картоф (Bulgarian), Brambor (Czech), ដំឡូង (Cambodian), Patata (Spanish), Potet (Norwegian), Taiwanese (Ukrainian), Khoai tây (Vietnamese), Potatis (Swedish), Kartoshka (Uzbek), Ľuľok zemiakový (Slovak), Ala (Sinhalese), Kartol (Kurdish), Izambane (Zulu), Krompir (Slovenian), มันฝรั่ง (Thai), baṭāṭā (Arabic), Patata (Italian), Taten (Welsh), Alookum (Sanskrit), Kartupelis (Latvian), Alo (Pashto), Maflengzuu (Taiwanese), Burgonya (Hungarian), Cartof (Romanian), Компир (Macedonian), 马铃薯 (Cantonese), Ubi Kentang (Malay), etc…
Where Do Potatoes Grow?
Potato | Climate Requirements
The potato crop is a cold season crop, which can tolerate frost up to a moderate extent. Whatever is this, a temp ranging around 23 to 28 °C is considered as the best suitable temp. for the best development of plant during their initial growth stage.
But, potatoes tubers can thrive their best around 18 to 21 °C, which usually reduces with the increased temp.
Best Soil For Potatoes
Potatoes can be cultivated on many types of soil throughout the world. But a deep soil with well drainage power containing good organic matters content is considered as the best soil for potatoes. Sandy soils having little clay and little organic matter content along with good irrigation system and application of suitable fertilizer would definitely yield more production and also good quality potato tubers.
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pH for Potatoes
When it comes to pH for Potato crop can tolerate low ph of soil in comparison to other commercial crops. However, growing potatoes in a soil having ph ranging between 5.8 to 6.8 is always beneficial in producing more potatoes.
Whatever is this, a smart grower always goes for at least a single soil test before starting a commercial crop farming business plan. So, that if your soil has any micronutrient deficiency, then it should be supplemented at the land preparation onwards.
Soil Preparation For Potatoes
Growing potatoes need lots of care while land preparation. It should be in fine tilth form. For this, about two to three manual plowing are sufficient enough for bringing soil in fine tilt form. While land preparation, weed from the previous crop should be removed, if present.
It is a good thing to supplement organic matter at the time of land preparation so that your micronutrient deficiency should be removed.
How to Grow Potatoes
Method of Propagation
Potatoes are propagated mainly by planting potato tubers. For obtaining higher production, selecting a quality, healthy and pure potato variety is the essential task. Note that, potatoes seed tuber is the expensive input in farming potatoes.
Care while selecting potato tubers. select a disease free, weigh about 40 gm and should be sprouted well. Also, tuber age, it should be about 2 to 4 months from the crop harvesting.
Seed rate in potato plantation depends on potato cultivar, agroclimatic condition and types of soil, on which plantation is done. Usually, about 1500 to 2000 kg of potato seeds are sufficient enough for commercial potato farming.
Planting season in potato cultivation depends on agroclimatic condition, potato variety, etc.
Potato Planting | Depth and Spacing
Planting potato by keeping good spacing, definitely yield more production. However, the spacing in potato farming is not uniform across throughout regions. It differs on atmosphere and market demand.
For growing potatoes on the hilly region, a spacing of 30 cm X 60 cm is good with furrow method while growing on plains, a spacing of 30 cm X 30 cm is the ideal one. While plant potato tuber, keeping 5 inches depth.
Reduce row spacing in potato farming. Minimize row spacing for high-density plantation in potatoes to obtain high-quality tubers to meet fresh markets
When to Plant Potatoes
Plant potatoes, when the soil temp. is ranging between 10 °C to 20 °C for higher production. Plantation should be done in wet soil. Your soil should have a good moisture content. So, a light irrigation is to be provided before potato plantation in the dry area.
How Deep to Plant Potatoes
Usually, planing potatoes at 12 inches deep inside the soil is ideal depth for potatoes. For planting large tubers, planting should be done at a higher depth. Warm seed potato tubers up to ten to fifteen degree before handling cutting to lessen the potential required for bruising. They should be removed from freezer or cold store after 7 days before potato plantation.
Never plant directly just after removing them from the freezer.
Irrigation in Potato Farming
Irrigation is also a key factor, which determines the production; Quality and quantity. However, irrigation in potato farming depends on numbers of factors like potato variety, relative humidity, growing season length, and other such like environmental factors. It is a notable thing that in growing potatoes, irrigation is also depended on the day length of growing season. However, about 900 mm of water or rainfall is sufficient enough for growing specific variety depending on climatic conditions. In commercial potato farming, maintaining the adequate moisture content of the soil is an essential task.
Growing potatoes also requires water throughout the complete growth, especially during the initiation and enlargement of the potato tubers also during potato plants flowering.
There are several ways of irrigation in potato farming. But, the most common are furrow irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, and sub-irrigation methods. However, the way of irrigation also depends on soil type and geography.
Application of Manures and Fertilizers in Potato Farming
Producing more potatoes requires high nutrient content soil. So, soil should be supplemented with all essential organic matter to obtain a higher potato production.
For this, use to add nitrogen, phosphorous along with potash in the ratio of 120:50:225. Adding organic manure or vermicompost, basically more than 20 tonnes per hectares while preparing soil is beneficial in acquiring all the micronutrient require for any type of commercial crop.
Potato | Pest, and Diseases
There are many ways to protect potato crop from the pest and diseases such as liquid fertilizers, cultivating high quality and disease resistant potato variety, buying seed tuber from a genuine source. Also, crop rotation in potato farming is the best way in potato pest and disease control.
Potato tuber moth, Root-knot nematode, Jassids, Aphids, leafhoppers, Whitefly etc are some common pest that attacks generally on commercial potato farming.
Late blight, Early blight, Bacterial wilt, Septoria leaf spot, Viral disease (potato virus S, X, and Y), Black scarf, Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid, Common scab, soft rot, Pink rot, Black bug, Blackheart disorder are some common diseases that attack generally on commercial potato farming.
Potato | Pest and Disease Management
For farming potatoes successfully, it is essential to control these potato pests and diseases. Since the presence of them indicate low potato production. So, it is a good thing to avoid these pests and diseases in your potato crop to obtain higher production.
There are many ways to protect potato crop from the pest and diseases such as liquid fertilizers, cultivating high quality and disease resistant potato variety, buying seed tuber from a genuine source. Also, crop rotation in potato farming is the best
How long does it take to grow a potato? or how long does it take to grow potatoes is mainly depends on the types of potato and soil types, used for cultivation. Generally, fast-growing potatoes become ready for harvesting about three months later from the plantation.
When leaves of potato plant’s changes color to yellow and tubers starts, easy separation from the stolons indicates that the potato crop is ready for harvesting. But, how to harvest potatoes depend on the region of cultivation. For this, many follow manual harvesting while some used to mechanical harvesting.
Make sure that tubers do not get injured during harvesting and also irrigation is to be stopped before potato harvesting.
The yield of potato farming depends on numbers of factors such as potato cultivar, soil type and other such like environmental factors. On an averagely, with the help of good potato farming techniques and cultivation practices, it is able to obtain more than 40 tonnes of potato yield per hectare.