- 1 Green Peas Cultivation; Information and Guide
- 2 Pea Nutrition Fact
- 3 Health Benefits of Green Peas
- 4 Major Producers of the Green Peas
- 5 Common Names of Green Peas
- 6 Factors Affecting yield
- 7 Cultivars (Varieties) of Green Peas
- 7.1 Agroclimatic requirement for Green Peas Farming
- 7.2 Soil Requirement for Green Peas Farming
- 7.3 Propagation in Green Peas Farming
- 7.4 Land Preparation in Green Peas Farming
- 7.5 Irrigation in Green Peas Farming
- 7.6 Application of Manures and Fertilizers in Green Peas Farming
- 7.7 Pests and Diseases in Green Peas Farming
- 8 Intercultural operations in Green Peas Farming
- 9 Harvesting of Green Peas
- 10 Yield in Green Peas Farming
Green Peas Cultivation; Information and Guide
Pea is an important vegetable; that is commonly found in any vegetarian family. Peas are an excellent source of Nutrition and are also a good source of Protein. There are lots of uses of the green peas in the kitchen like It is used as a vegetable or in soup, canned frozen or dehydrate. It is cooked as a vegetable alone or with the potatoes. Split grains of pea are widely used for the Dal. Pea straw is a nutritious fodder for the livestock animals like cows, buffaloes, etc.
Peas are farmed widely by the growers because of richness in nutritious value. One with good farm management skill can achieve excellent earnings by farming Peas. Nowadays, peas are cultivated more in poly-house & in the greenhouse rather than farming them in open farm because they grow well in controlled environments & condition
So, let us know some basics about the green peas before moving to its farming like its nutrition fact and health benefits of using them as food.
Pea Nutrition Fact
Here below is a chart that includes the detailed information on the Green peas Nutrition value per 100 gm of serving.
|Green peas (Pisum sativum),
Nutrition Content per 100 gm of Serving
(Reference: USDA National Nutrient Data Base)
|Energy||81 Kilo calorie||4 %|
|Protein||5.42 gm||10 %|
|Total Fat||0.40 gm||2 %|
|Dietary Fiber||5.1 gm||13 %|
|Carbohydrates||14.45 gm||11 %|
|Cholesterol||–||Zero calorie food|
|Vitamin A||765 IU||25.5 %|
|Vitamin C||40 m gm||67 %|
|Vitamin E||0.13 m gm||1 %|
|Vitamin K||24.8 µ gm||21 %|
|Riboflavin||0.132 m gm||10 %|
|Niacin||2.090 m gm||13 %|
|Thiamin||0.266 m gm||22 %|
|Pyridoxine||0.169 m gm||13 %|
|Pantothenic acid||0.104 m gm||2 %|
|Folates||65 µ gm||16 %|
|Potassium||244 m gm||5 %|
|Sodium||5 m gm||<1 %|
|Iron||1.47 m gm||18 %|
|Calcium||25 m gm||2.5 %|
|Magnesium||33 m gm||8 %|
|Copper||0.176 m gm||20 %|
|Manganese||0.410 m gm||18 %|
|Zinc||1.24 m gm||11 %|
|Selenium||1.8 µ gm||3 %|
Note that it does not any type of Cholesterol, So we can say it as a Zero calorie food. Include this in your diet & eat it once a week
Health Benefits of Green Peas
So, because of this much nutrition value, there are lots of health benefits of using them as food. Here below is a list of some health benefits of green peas.
- Peas are a low fat and low-calorie foods that make you feel full Healthy & are helpful in decreasing bad cholesterol (LDL).
- Also, peas are used as filling foods for weight loss
- The protective polyphenol content (coumestrol), present in peas helps is preventing stomach cancer.
- Peas improves the immune system of your body as they are rich in copper, calcium, iron, zinc, manganese, etc
- Peas are effective anti-aging agent for skin
- Vitamin K in peas helpful in the prevention of arthritis & Alzheimer’s.
- It is good to use Fresh pea pods for the expectant mothers & for the health of newly born babies because are rich in folic acid
- Peas are good source of Vitamin A, B (B6, B12) C, E, & K
- Green peas are a natural remedy for chilblains & are also effective in stopping constipation.
- Use of peas is also good for the heart health & hair health.
How beneficial are peas to our health? So, add this low-calorie vegetable, at last, once a week to get its benefits.
Major Producers of the Green Peas
China is the topmost country in producing peas followed by India. Here is a list of top 10 countries, which are major producers of Green Peas in the world.
Common Names of Green Peas
Matar (India & Hindi), Kerau (Nepali), 青豆 (Chinese), エンドウ (Japanese), зеленый (Russian), αρακά (Greek), Grünen Erbsen (German), Guisantes (Spanish), Piseanna Glas (Irish), Zielony Groszek (Polish), grønne ærter (Danish), gröna ärtor (Swedish), Pisum sativum (Italian), Wervilhas Verdes (Portuguese), Erwten (Dutch), Pois verts (French), Nogsaeg Wandukong (Korean), yeşil bezelye (Turkish), zelený hrášek (Czech), Berde mga gisantes (Filipino), Mazăre (Romanian), grašak (Bosnian), nokhod farangee (Persian), вандуй (Mangolian), ถั่วเขียว (Thai), mtsvane barda (Georgian), ග්රින් පීස් (Sinhalese), Mattar (Urdu), bizele të njoma (Albanian), 青豆 (Taiwanese), grašak (Croatian), kacang hijau (Malay), zaļie zirnīši (Latvian), etc..
Factors Affecting yield
All like other farming, the yield of green peas cultivation also has some favorable condition, which can give you more amount of profit.
Here is a list of some factor that directly affects the yield of green peas farming. So, be sure to check out these factor in more details, later on.
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- Cultivars (Varieties) of Green Peas
- Climate condition
- Soil preparation
- Way of irrigation
- Application of Manure and Fertilizer to it
- Intercultural activities and
- Post harvesting management
So, it is important to know them in more details to obtain the desired or expectable yield from the peas farming.
Let us discuss them in more details.
Cultivars (Varieties) of Green Peas
In any commercial farming, the cultivars chosen for the cultivation is a key factor which decides the amount of yield. A proper selection of hybrid leads to a good amount of yield for the grower. Green peas have both; vining and low-growing cultivars. Depending on pod maturity, there is three type of cultivars in peas; early season, midseason and late season cultivars.
You can select any hybrid for its cultivation depending on the other factors like the climate condition, your soil fertility, etc… Here is a list of some famous cultivars of all these three types early season, midseason and late season cultivars. Have a look on it.
|Early Season Cultivar||Mid-Season Cultivar||Late Season Cultivar|
|Early Superb||Alderman||UN 53 (3)|
|Meteor||Perfection New Line||–|
|Little Marvel||NP 29||–|
|Alaska||Jawahar Matar 1 (JM1 or GC 141)||–|
|VL-Ageti Matar-7 (VL-7)||Jawsahar Matar 2 (JM 2)||–|
|Jawahar Matar 3 (JM 3, Early December)||VL-Matar-3||–|
|Jawahar Matar 4 (JM 4)||Pant Uphar (IP-3)||–|
|Harbhajan (EC 33866)||Punjab 88 (P-88)||–|
|Pant Matar 2 (PM-2)||Azad P-2||–|
|Jawahar Peas 54 (JP 54)||Vivek-6 (VL Matar-6)||–|
|Matter Ageta 6||Ooty-1||–|
|Hisar Harit (PH1)||Jawahar Pea 83 (JP 83)||–|
|Jawahar Peas-4||Jawahar Peas 15 (JP 15)||–|
Note: From the above mention, there also some hybrid variety of green peas.
Find out with local horticulture department for improved or hybrid varieties, specific to your region.
Early Season Cultivar
These are more popular cultivars in green peas cultivation, because of they give you better economic return than remaining. They will give you an early harvesting of peas but are not able to produce a high amount of peas.
Usually, for this type of variety, carry out 2 to 3 picking. Harvest first time after about two months of sowing, & second one is to two to three weeks later. Maturity period for such variety is two to three month.
If you are looking for a high yield or more production of green peas in the peas cultivation, then it is recommended to go for this type of variety rather than go for early season cultivar.
In such cultivars, one can pick at least three to four heavy flush of green peas. First at about three months later from sowing & the succeeding two at an interval of two weeks.
Agroclimatic requirement for Green Peas Farming
Besides the selection of cultivars, the agro climatic requirement for pea farming is also an important factor that directly affects the yield. So, farming peas in suitable climate condition will lead you to better profit. So, take care of this as Agro climatic condition decides the time of sowing, crop rotation, etc.
Green peas thrive their best in cool & moist places. A temp; ranging between 12 °C to 28 °C is considered as the perfect for peas farming. Above 28 °C, there may be a poor production of peas in your farming. At the time of flowering & pod developing stage, moisture content in soil is necessary. A rainfall of 450 mm is supposed to be ideal rainfall for good development of peas plant. At the time of seedling, a low soil temp. about 10 °C to 15 °C has required for good germination take place at 12 °C to 14 °C soil temp.
Soil Requirement for Green Peas Farming
Peas can grow over a wide variety of soils, but they thrive theirs best in well-drained, loamy soils, full of organic matter with a pH, ranging between 6 to 8. To obtain a greater amount of peas production, it is a good idea to apply a suitable dose of rotten-well farm yard manure at land preparation time.
It is recommended that please go for a soil test to find any nutrient contents deficiency in your soil.
Propagation in Green Peas Farming
The method of propagation in green peas include the way of propagation, the season of sowing, seed treatment, a method of sowing, sowing rate, spacing, etc..
Way of Propagation
For farming peas, the seed of chosen cultivars are shown on the field and is the major way of propagation in pea cultivation.
To get optimum pea production, sow about 25 to 35 kg seed per hectare land. Take care that it may vary in accordance with some other factor like the soil, climate condition, type of cultivar and more.
Usually, peas are cultivated by two different seasons, listed below:
- February to March &
- October to November
But, nowadays, peas are cultivated through out the whole year in poly-house & in the greenhouse rather than farming them in the open farm because they grow well in controlled environments & condition.
Take care that sowing time of peas may vary from region to region in accordance with the agro climate condition.
Method of Sowing in Green Peas farming
There are three ways of sowing peas in its cultivation; dribbling method, the broad casting method, & sowing behind the plowing of soil.
A good seed treatment will definitely give benefits you by enhancing the percentage of germination and further the amount of yield; quality and quantity.
So, before sowing seed soaked the cultivars seed for minimum about a day to increase germination % of peas. Also, treat these seed with Rhizium culture for excellent results in your peas cultivation
After germination, when it comes to planting, spacing or seed sowing space. For this make use of Flat bed layout system or In line system.
For Flat bed layout, the spacing between each plant should be 25 cm X 45 cm & for In line system, the spacing between each plant should be 10 cm X 45 cm. It is sufficient enough to grow much pea plant in your pea farm.
Land Preparation in Green Peas Farming
If you are thinking of farming green peas or any commercial farming, then it is better to go for the soil test firstly. One can easily go for a soil test to the nearest horticultural department or any Agri cultural department like Agri colleges, etc. So that you can learn about the fertility of your soil and the nutrition deficiency in your soil.
So, for commercial green peas farming, bring the soil in fine tilth structure with help of tractor or a country plow. Usually, 2 to 3 plows are enough to bring your soil in fine tilth form. If present, removal of weeds o the previous crop which remains in the field should be carried out.
After soil testing; Any deficiencies of a nutrient or micronutrient found, then supplement them at the time of the last plowing.
Irrigation in Green Peas Farming
Green peas plant does not require too much irrigation. Give a light water to this crop just after the sowing seeds on the field. However, one can go for the pre sowing irrigation of field to increase the germination % of seeds by raising moisture content in the soil.
Depending on climate condition or season, give necessary water to you pea plants. A succeeding water is needed at the time of pod development in the peas & also at the time of flowering. Take care that if the crop is cultivated in the light and sandy soils, then it requires frequent irrigation.
In the summer season, irrigation should be done at an interval of 9 to 12 days. And in winter season& rainy season, avoid waterlogging as it may lead to seed rotting.
Care while Irrigation
Peas plant does not need too much water like other crops. So, irrigate it on the basis of requirement & always avoid over watering. Overwatering leads to bad result in this crop as lowering the yield amount and sometimes some more.
Irrigation always depends on the climate condition and weather. If it’s rainy season, low intervals of irrigation required. Usually, Pulse crops require higher water percentage compared to cereal crops.
Application of Manures and Fertilizers in Green Peas Farming
Timely application of suitable manure & fertilizer leads to optimum production in your crop.
So, for green peas cultivation, use about 25 tonnes of ordinary manure per acre land at the time of farm preparation. Also, use chemical fertilizer Nitrogen, Phosphorous & Potassium with a ratio of 60 : 70 : 70 kg per acre area land. After about one month of sowing peas on the field, make use of Nitrogen (60 kg) for better production.
Pests and Diseases in Green Peas Farming
Pest in Green peas
The main Pest & insect that are commonly found in the pea farming Aphids and Pod borer.
Disease in Green peas
The most common diseases, that is found in the green peas farming is Powdery mildew
For more details on symptoms and their controlling measures, one can consult any horticulture department and agriculture university, near to him.
Note: Your local Horticulture is the best & reliable source of finding proper solutions for managing pests & diseases in Green Peas Farming.
Intercultural operations in Green Peas Farming
Some intercultural activities should be carried out to get a quality and quantity production from peas farming.
Weeds are the additional plant that grows in any crop unusually and is harmful to the growth o the plant as well. So, controlled level of weed in any commercial farming is helpful in raising the yield of that crop. However, there are numerous chemical & mechanical means of weed control are available in the market.
Mostly, the traditional method of controlling weed or manual weeding is done in the peas cultivation. As peas are vine type plant, they got spread at about two months older and because of this, it is a difficult task to control weed by means of the mechanical method as it causes to damage peas (vines) plant.
In the market, numbers of herbicides like propazine, simazine, and atrazine easily available. About half a kg per acre land is sufficient enough to control the leaf weeds effectively.
Prometryne @ 450 gm per acre area is effective in increasing the vegetative growth of the peas plants and also peas production. However, you can consult your near one horticulture department for more information on growth regulators
Trailing & Stalking
After about two months of the plantation, vines of peas get to spread over the land. So, to fix them by means of supporting these vines, make use of the Bamboo stick.
Harvesting of Green Peas
Harvesting or picking of peas varies from cultivars to cultivars, used for the cultivation. Early season cultivars get ready in about two months of the plantation for the first picking while the Late season & Mid season get ready in about three months for their first picking. Usually, peas are pick manually at their maturity stage.
When peas pod start to change their color, at this stage peas are ready for their first harvsting. For the early season cultivary, the maturity period is about two months. For mid seasonal cultivar’s, the maturity period is about two and half a month and the last one, for late seasonal cultivar’s, maturity period is about three months.
For higher peas production, carry out picking of peas multiple time. Successful farmer use to pick peas for something about 4 to 5 time
Harvesting at the proper time will lead you to a good amount of yield so be careful while picking those peas. Start picking peas as soon as the pods changes their colors from green to dark or yellow. A healthy & quality product has more demand in market, so pick them fresh as possible.
Yield in Green Peas Farming
As we had discussed earlier, the yield of peas depends on many factors like cultivar (variety), soil, climate condition and crop management practices.
Peas are cultivated under ideal condition, then one can achieve a peas production of aboout 30 to 45 Quintals per ha in early varieties & about 50 to 60 Quintals per ha in mid season varieties.
However, a good farm management skill, proper care timely harvesting or picking of peas and a selection of suitable cultivars leads to higher peas production in your peas farming.
Hey, friends! there is no need to think about what is the bottom line of this crop. Because of plenty of its nutritious value, there is always a great demand of this in the market; local and internationally. One can easily earn a huge amount of profit with the help of green peas cultivation but need only patient and dedication to it and some preventive care like weed control and selection of cultivar.
Have a great success in the Green Peas Farming!!!
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