Profitable Pearl (Moti) Farming; Guide & Tips for Beginners

Profitable Pearl (Moti) Farming; Guide & Tips for Beginners

Hey, Friends!! are you thinking of freshwater pearl farming or how to grow pearl at home only? then, let me tell you; today I am here with an article which will provide you the basic info on how to start a profitable pearl farming in India(Gujarat, Maharashtra)? or Pearl farming at Home, Starting from its basic to its detailed, step by step a  guide on complete pearl culture process like, how to raise the amount of yield in pearl farming or what factors that affect the yield of pearl farming. So, let us start with its basic info.

About Pearl

Pearl is a natural masterpiece that is generated from the mollusk and raising or production of pearl is known as the pearl culture. Freshwater pearl culture; which can be easily operated by any beginners who have an interest in starting a pearl farming. Nowadays, the demand of pearl in the international market is increasing, as there is plenty of its utilization in the world of grocery. On the another hand, the stock of pearl is reducing because of the increasing pollution. This business; pearl culture process is really profitable & is also too simple than other because there is no need of any food to form a pearl.

Pearl Farming quality

How long does it take to form pearls? In a very short time period, you will be able to obtain pearl as yield. Generally, it takes several weeks to form a pearl inside an Oyster. About 45 days to six months or more than it, however, pearl formation mainly depend on the types of mussel, you have used for pearl cultivation

Types of Pearls | List

Here below is a list of some pearl varieties

  1. Natural pearl
  2. Freshwater Cultured Pearl or Cultured Freshwater Pearl
  3. Keshi Pearl
  4. Seawater Cultured Pearl (salt water)
  5. Japanese Cultured Pearl
  6. Cultured Pearl &
  7. Mabe Pearl

Which are available in eight type of shapes. Those eight shapes are round, baroque, button, semi-round, pear, oval, circled drop, & double bouldered.

Pearl Farming Commercially

But in the market, Perfectly rounded & shiner Pearl are more valuable and also in great demand.

Usually, Natural pearl, Seawater Cultured Pearl (salt water) & Freshwater Cultured Pearl or Cultured Freshwater Pearl are cultivated more by the farmer.

Natural Pearl

It’s formation of nacre around the foreign body which came inside of a mollusk. The shape of the pearl depends on the original shape of the foreign body.

Artifical Pearl

These are actually not a pearl, it is just a solid body which appears in pearl shape which coated with a synthetic material.

Cultured Pearls

It’s just an interfere of man to insert foreign body inside the mollusk, Can be cultured anywhere everywhere in the water.


Check here Also More articles:

Pearl Farming; Modern Techniques

Nowadays, in our day to day life, there is a great use of modern techniques in our life. In pearl culture, the first step is to collect Oyster for Nucleation process. Normally, these pearl Oyster are collected from the Ocean. Nowadays, Shellfish sperms & eggs are easily available in the market. So, if you are new to this business, then try to buy only high quality, sperms & eggs of Oyster from the market.

Many farmers also used to propagate these eggs & sperms for generating a new generation of oyster larvae

Today we are going to learn Cultured Freshwater Pearl farming or Freshwater Cultured Pearl cultivation.

Major Pearl Producing Countries

All over the world, China is a major producer of pearls.However, here is a list of some countries, which are major pearl producers in the worlds.

  1. China
  2. Japan
  3. Australia
  4. South Seas
  5. Vietnam
  6. India
  7. UAE
  8. USA
  9. Mexico
  10. Fiji
  11. Philippines
  12. France
  13. Myanmar and
  14. Indonesia

Key Points to Consider before Starting a Pearl Farming

Forming a pearl takes a long term time period, sometimes several years along with bigger initial investment and you have to work hard to convert this in successful in pearl culture process & Produce high-quality pearls so that you can earn a bigger profit. Quality of pearls depends on the size, shininess, shape, etc.

One can easily meet his high-quality pearl yields under some specific circumstances, which are listed below

  • First of all, you need a well known & good source of Pearl’s mollusk or Oyster.
  • You also have a proper & sufficient location for forming pearls.
  • As this business require good initial capital to invest in your business for establishment & operating your pearl farm.
  • You should have good knowledge of grafting & its techniques as this is an important and difficult task in pearl cultivation.
  • And finally, you should have contact with a well-known retailer in the market, so that you can sell your pearl.

If you are incapable of meeting any one of the mentions above than it is advisable to go for other farming or business without taking a danger of loss.

How Are Pearls Formed?

A frequent question that is asked by the people that how does pearl form in the pearl farming or what is the process of Nucleation in the pearl farming.

Pearl Farming Commercial business

The surgical procedure of implanting a foreign object into the Oyster is known as the process of Nucleation. In this, object causes irritation by which the oyster counteracts by secreting the nacre to surrounding the object; finally, this will produce the pearl at the end.

Freshwater Pearl Farming or Cultured Freshwater Pearl

Cultured freshwater pearl formation involves some step, which is explained below in detail to provide you comfort. Go, through it and take advantage of this information to be a successful freshwater pearl farmer.

Let us start our journey with the gathering of Oyster onwards.

Collection of Mussels or An Oyster

Since the complete farming of the pearl is mainly depended on the Oyster. It starts with the collection of an oyster or the Mussels. To get a good profit, it is recommended to collect a healthy mussel so that there is good result later on at the time of harvesting.

Where to Find Pearl Oysters? is a silly question. Collect the Pearl Oyster from natural sources of freshwater like ponds, river, etc. Collect them manually and please place them in pots or buckets or containers in the water. To have a good result in pearl production, make use of only those Mussels which have bigger posterior & anterior length (about more than 8-9 cm)

Collection of Mussels or An Oyster

How to raise Oysters

Under the controlled situation, leave the larvae to float smoothly in the water. When they become several weeks old, they start to fix to a rock or alike object. After about several months, larvae grow to baby Oyster. At this stage, they are transferred to a separate place like the nursery of a farm. At this place, they are managed for something around 1 Р2 years, till they have matured sufficiently large to be used for the nucleation process.  And, if you are new to this business, then try to buy only high quality, sperms & eggs of Oyster from the market. Many farmers also used to propagate these eggs & sperms for generating a new generation of oyster larvae

Pre-cultural Operation or Activities

After collecting a quality oyster from fresh water bodies like pond and river, it is recommended to carry out some operation; before starting pearl culture. Such, Pre cultural operation in pearl culture operation leads to better result in this farming. Here below is a list of suggestion to you on pre-cultural activities to carry out.

  1. Keep the collected mussels in a crowded condition
  2. Usually, keep those collected Mussels in tap (normal) water with a stocking density of about one mussel per liter water.
  3. It is recommended to follow this operation for about 2 to 3 days.
  4. Keeping mussels in older water is supposed to have a good result in pearl formation.

Such pre cultural activities or operation are helpful in the easy handling o mussels at the time of surgery in the pearl culture.

Implantation Methods in Pearl Farming

Generally, freshwater pearl operation and methods depend on the surgery, done in the internal structure of the mussel and the type of pearl is intended in the pearl cultivation.

Pearl Farming Commercially

A shell bead can be an essential input in the pearl culture operations and locally available inexpensive biocompatible acrylic material can be employed as nuclei in freshwater pearl operations or production.

To get a good profit, pearl mussels of the size around 8 to 10 cm in shell length and weight of 50 grams and above are the best bet (ideal) for the pearl cultivation.

Implantation of Grafits and Nuclei or Mussel Surgery

This can be performed in three different ways, which are:

  1. Gonadal Implantation
  2. Mantle Tissue Implantation and 
  3. Mantle Cavity Implantation

& are also the common method of implantation, used in the pearl cultivation.


The nucleus is a particle, which is composed of shell powder of the lifeless mussels pod & is combined with a solvent. The liquid solution is used to furnish the desired appearance.

There are numerous nucleus like design nucleus, tear drop, oval, round and half round.

Pearl Farming Commercially

Mantle Tissue Implantation in Pearl Cultivation

Implantation can be done at mantle ribbons of both valves. Here below is a step by step guide for Mantle Tissue Implantation in Pearl Farming. learn it properly.

  1. First of all, divide the collected mussel into two groups like donor & receiver mussel group
  2. Moving ahead, Prepare the graft; set of small parts of the mantle tissue. For this, prepare a mantle ribbon from the donor set, and cut it in the small parts like 2 X 2 mm.
  3. Carry out the implantation on the recipient mussels. Take care that there are two type of recipient mussel;¬†‚Äėnon-nucleated‚Äô & ‚Äėnucleated‚Äô
  4. If you are going for implantation on the¬†‚Äėnon-nucleated‚Äô recipient then, introduce the grafted parts or pieces into the¬†openings, generated at the interior side of dorsal pallial mantle
  5. And if you are going for ‘nucleated’ recipient implantation,¬†introduce the grafted parts or pieces into the small nucleus which has diameter around 2 mm


Take care that while grafting, nucleus should not be injured & come out from grafting.

Gonadal Implantation in Pearl Farming

The Gonadal implantation in pearl culture process is similar to the Mantle tissue implantation. Graft preparation is done by the same ways as like in the mantle tissue method. Here below is a list of some step to follow for Gonadal Implantation in Pearl culture process. Learn them.

  1. First of all, prepare a graft, by cutting the mussels at the gonad portion.
  2. Then after, insert the prepared graft in the gonad portion of the Mussels.
  3. Then, insert a nucleus after the inserted graft; take care that nucleus should have a diameter of 2-4 mm to obtain good results. This will help in keeping the nucleus in tight contact with graft.


Take care of the Nucleus should not touch the external epithelial sheet of grafting and also the intestine of it did not get cut while operating surgical procedure.

Mantle Tissue Implantation in Pearl Farming

This type of Implantation can be done at mantle cavities of both the valves of the collected mussels.In this method, after the opening of two valves of the collected and pre-cultured mussel, insert a bead which has a diameter around  4 Р6 mm into the mantle cavity section of collected mussels.

In this process, both the shells are separated between the shapes having designers Beed with 4 to 6 cm diameter. Then, carefully separate the mantle cavity from the anterior part of mussels, from the fish shell by using a surgical set. Try to keep the design part toward the surface and then closed the oyster, leaving a little space.


Be sure that the mussels are not to be injured at any of ends at this stage.

Post Operative Care of Mussels

All like other farming, proper care in this farming leads you to good result later. So, be careful of this to handle it properly. After implantation of mussels, treat them with an antibiotic with keeping in nylon or polythene bags for about two weeks. Don’t forget to provide natural food to them. Check these units on the daily basis, and eliminated material that is hazardous to them. And also eliminate the dead mussels from it as they did not give you any pearl from them.

Pond Culture in Freshwater Pearl Farming

After about two weeks in the operative care, these mussels should be transformed to a suitable pond which has a sufficient area to grow well your pearl with a clean environment. For stocking¬†mussels in the pond, make use of nylon bags. It is recommended to place¬†2 to 3 no’s of mussels per unit nylon bags. This will optimize your pearl production.

Fixed those prepared bags with a PVC pipe or a Bamboo stick into the pond. Take care while fixing or placing them into the pond. Generally, keep them at depth of one meter inside & not more than it.

Pearl Farming stocking

Pond Size

For pearl farming, the size of the pond is not a matter to think more on it. Any one can follow it with any size of a pond. You can start a pearl culture with the help of small size pond to big size pond. But if you are looking for commercial gains then its better one must go for a minimum one-acre pond to get the desired profit. As bigger is the size of your pond, the greater is the amount of profit in pearl farming.

Stocking Density in Pond

To achieve optimum pearl production, culture those mussels with keeping a stocking density nearly about 30,000 per unit Hector pond area.

Application of Manure and Fertilizers in Pearl Farming

Timely implementation of manure and fertilizer to any commercial farming plays an important role in increasing the yield and as your business; Pearl culture process totally depends on the plankton present in your pond. As more planktons in your pond, higher is the growth of your pearl. So, your pond should be rich in plankton.

So, to increase the¬†Plankton’s productivity in your pond, fertilize it with suitable fertilizer. Make use of organic & inorganic fertilizers to stabilize Plankton’s fertility periodically.

Check those mussels inside the bags on regular basis. If found, removed the dead ones. Clean those nylon bags regularly till the collection of pearl from your pond. Because of bad atmosphere cause to bad quality pearl production.

Quality pearl

Feed these mussels timely. cow dung, algae, and groundnut are some common fodder use for feeding mussels in pearl cultivation.

Climate requires for pearl farming

The surgeries must be performed during winter.¬†That’s the main criteria. The temperature can be anywhere between 25 ‘C to 28 ‘C. One must avoid performing surgeries in the warm climate or in summer.

Pearl Harvesting

How long does it take to form pearls? Pearl Formation takes few months, something about one year. However, pearl formation mainly depends on the types of mussel, you have used for pearl cultivation. After about one year, pearl inside the pond is ready for harvesting.

Collect those fixed mussels from the pond and harvest your own pearl from an unopened oyster shell individually. You have to break these mussels in the harvesting of pearl and are not capable of using another time.

Harvesting of pearl from Oyster

In pearl culture process, the pearl production varies with the method of Implantation. In each method, there is a different product. The product obtain in these three methods are

  1. Mantle cavity Implantation; Pearl attached to the shell of mussels are obtain.
  2. Mantle tissue Implantation;  Rounded & irregular (small) pearl obtain and are not attached to the shell
  3. Gonadal Implantation; Rounded & irregular (big) pearl obtain and are not attached to the shell

Yield in Pearl Farming

Hey, Guys! Everyone looking for a good yield; from any business. With the help of pearl culture process, one can achieve a good profit. In pearl farming, An average freshwater mussel will produce about 24 to 32 pearls per culturing cycle. However, valuation of your pearl in the market is also an important task in your profit.

Pearl Valuation

Valuation of pearl

The profit in your pearl farming totally depends on the valuation of your harvested pearl. A quality product has great demand in the market rather than a low-quality product. So, must take of the quality in your pearl culture operation.
Your pearl will be valued on the following circumstances:
  1. Luster: Higher the luster, higher the value
  2. Surface: Pearl with the clean & shiny surface has a higher value in the market.
  3. Shape: Perfectly rounded shape pearl is in great in demand. But, it mainly depends on the client; of which shape? he wants to buy like baroque pearls bring the good price in the foreign countries.
  4. Color: Pearls are available in numbers of colors, but the Black Pearl is in trending demand of client with the highest price.
  5. Size: As bigger is the size of your pearl, the higher is the value of it market

Pearl Farming Training

Because of too much profit in this farming, lots of people want to follow this; pearl culture process. And for this, many people looking for how to become a successful pearl farmer? For this, they more preferred to getting a training before starting this farming. However, there are many Pearl Farming Training Institute in India, providing training of various pearl farming courses. So, please contact your nearest one for more details.

Learn Pearl farming Project report: Click Here

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *