Strawberry Farming Guide And Cultivation Methods In India

Strawberry Farming Little About Strawberry Farming

In the past decades, the business of growing strawberries or strawberry farming commercial is being increased more and more because of too big profit in this business plan. Strawberry is also one of the important fruit crops that is being cultivated in numbers of countries in the tropical, subtropical and surrounding region. This crop requires easy propagation method and with early maturity, this crop can give you higher yield or production.

Strawberries have great market potential because of these fruits are an excellent source of Minerals,¬†vitamin ‚ÄėC‚Äô and¬†anti-oxidants.¬†Strawberries are mainly used in preparing numbers of¬†edible products such as¬†fruit juice,¬†preserves, milkshakes,¬†Jams, chocolates, pies,¬†fruit juice, and many of¬†ice creams. Strawberry fruits are mainly asked for its excellent¬†juicy texture,¬†bright red color,¬†aroma, and also for excellent sugar content.

strawberry farming

One can grow Strawberries in the poly house, greenhouse, containers, pots. You can also grow these fruits in balconies and terrace. If you have some extra space in your backyard, then you can utilize it for growing strawberries and can earn some extra income. Strawberry fruits are native to the temperate regions, but you can grow them in sub-tropical regions with suitable climate conditions. Strawberries fruits are mostly cultivated in Canada, USA, Europe, India, and South America. But, when it comes to production, United States tops the list of production list all over the world.

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One can receive a sharp and decent income via growing strawberries commercially or in backyards, pot, containers, terrace or on the balcony. Growing strawberries is not a hard working job, to obtain a huge profit from it requires good farm management skills and proper care and management of them.

Strawberry | Scientific Name and Botanical Name: Fragaria × Ananassa

Strawberry | Health Benefits

The following is the list of some health benefits of strawberry, let’s learn.

health benefits of strawberry

  1. Strawberry contains Antioxidants like the Phenolic phytochemicals, Flavonoids, and ellagic acid. All these are helpful in keeping the good eye health.
  2. Strawberry is also helpful in boosting the immune system.
  3. Strawberries are also useful in treating gout and arthritis.
  4. Strawberries are also helpful in preventing some cancer.
  5. Consuming Strawberries regularly can boost your brain function.
  6. Strawberries are also used for reducing the problem of hypertension.
  7. Strawberries are also beneficial in improving the heart health and function.
  8. Strawberry is also helpful for good weight management.
  9. This fruit also contains folic acid, which is helpful in preventing the birth defect problem.
  10. Apart from this, Strawberries are also rich in vitamin C and minerals.

So, let’s learn strawberry farming or growing strawberry business in the following section.

Other Name of Strawberries

Strawberry (English),¬†Straaberii (Hindi),¬†ŗ§łŗ•ćŗ§üŗ•ćŗ§įŗ§ĺŗ§¨ŗ•áŗ§įŗ•Ä (Nepali), ŤćČŤéď (Chinese), ō™Ŕąō™ ŔĀōĪŔÜŕĮŘƬ†¬† (Urdu),¬†aarbei (Afrikaans),¬†ŽĒłÍłį (Korean),¬†maduixa (Catalan),¬†ŌÜŌĀő¨őŅŌÖőĽőĪ (Greek),¬†Fragola (Italian), istroberi (Cebuano),¬†Aardbei (Dutch),¬†s√ļ tal√ļn (Irish),¬†Fraise (French),¬†Erdbeere (German),¬†zhawmoee (Taiwanese),¬†truskawka (polish), frawla ( Maltese),¬†Yelag (Armenian), sa aap: (Sanskrit), mansikka (Finnish), Fresa (Spanish), ordb√¶r (Danish),¬†maasikmari (Estonian),¬†Lulushtrydhe (Albanian),¬†jordb√¶r (Norwegian),¬†strawberi (Malay),¬†cńÉpŇüunńÉ (Romanian),¬†Istaber (Kashmiri),¬†ŠěēŠüíŠěõŠüā ŠěüŠüíŠěŹŠěĒŠěľŠěöŠěł (Cambodian), morango (Portuguese),¬†„ĀĄ„Ā°„ĀĒ (Japanese),¬†√ßilek (Turkish),¬†–∑–Ķ–ľ–Ľ—Ź–Ĺ–ł–ļ–į (Russian),¬†ŔĀōĪōßŔąŔĄō© (Arabic),¬†zemene (Latvian),¬†eper (Hungarian),¬†◊™÷ľ◊ē÷ľ◊™ ◊©÷ł÷Ļ◊ď÷∂◊Ē (Hebrew),¬†d√Ęu t√Ęy (Vietnamese),¬†s√†dtror-berr√™e (Thai), jahoda (Czech), Jordgubbe (Swedish), Marcqvi (Georgian), etc.

Major Strawberry Producers

Since Strawberry fruits are native to the temperate regions, but you can grow them in sub-tropical regions with suitable climate conditions. Strawberries fruits are mostly cultivated in Canada, USA, Europe, India, and South America. However, here below is the list of top 10 countries, which produces the strawberry the most.

  1. United States of America (USA)
  2. Turkey
  3. Spain
  4. Egypt
  5. Mexico
  6. Russia
  7. Japan
  8. South Korea
  9. Poland
  10. Germany

Where do Strawberries Grow?

strawberry plant flowers

Agro-climatic Condition for Strawberry Farming

Strawberry fruits are native to temperate climate condition so they grow their best in temperate regions. However, with advance strawberry farming techniques and technology, it is possible to grow various improved varieties in sub-tropical regions. However, the moderate temperature along with light intensity and photoperiod are the key factors which play an important role in the vegetative growth of plants, quality, and quantity of strawberry farming.

Take care that this crop is very prone to the frost conditions so longer cool periods during it vegetative growth can lessen your production. Also, this crops requires sufficient sunlight, about less than 8 hrs at the time of flowering. Since this crop is short day crop, it requires exposure for about 10 days in bright sunlight.

Best Soil for Growing Strawberries

A well-drained and deep loamy soil having good organic matter content are considered as the best soil for growing strawberries commercially. However, do not grow strawberries constantly on the same field. Also, never plant this crop after growing eggplant, raspberry, potatoes, tomatoes and peppers. Apart from this, avoid planting on soils, contaminated with nematodes and alkaline soils for producing more.

A soil pH ranging between 5.8. to 6.8 is considered as the ideal for growing strawberry commercially, means they can grow well in moderately acidic conditions. However, go for at least a one soil test before starting strawberry farming or cultivation, so that you can learn the soil suitability and fertility of your soil.

How to Start Growing Strawberries

growing strawberries

Select a suitable Strawberry Variety

There are many kinds of varieties available in the market, use for commercial cultivation all over the globe according to the various climate conditions. Here below is the list of top 10 varieties which are famous for higher production and producing quality fruits.

  • Honeoye
  • Earliglow
  • Allstar
  • Ozark Beauty
  • Chandler
  • Jewel
  • Seascape
  • Tristar
  • Sparkle
  • Surecrop
  • Fort Laramie

The United States of America is the topmost producer, all over the world. In the USA, Premier Florida-90, Kenmore, Missionary, Blackmore, and Klondike are names of most cultivated varieties.

In India, the cultivar used for growing strawberries commercially are Royal Sovereign, Srinagar, Seascape, Pusa Early Dwarf, Torrey, Tioga, Bangalore, Dilpasand, and Solana. 

However, it is a good idea to select a high yielding variety having high resistance to disease. There are many varieties available in the market, according to the specific region. Find with your local horticulture department.

Land Preparation for Growing Strawberries

Preparing land for your cultivation plays a vital role in the production. Bring your soil into fine tilth form. This can be done by giving normal plowing, followed by couples of harrowing. Also, add about 20 tonnes of farmyard manure at the time of the last plowing or before plantation to enhance the soil fertility.

The method of planting in this crop varies according to the particular region. Plant healthy runners on matted rows, flatbeds, and raised beds in row system, in a single and double row on the main field. Growing this crop under well-irrigated conditions, then planting should be done in the ridge system.

How to Grow Strawberries

how to plant strawberries

Method of Propagation

Propagation is the easiest task in this farming. The propagation in this crop is mainly done with the help of runners and is known as vegetative propagation. Runners are formed after the blooming season in the crop. Allow your plant to set the runners and not to the fruits. For forming quality runners, a good rooting is required for good plantation on the field.

With good care and management of plants, it is possible to obtain about 50 healthy runners from a single strawberry plant.

How to Produce Strawberry Runners

Carry out strawberry plantation by keeping, about 1.0 m x 1.0 m or 1.5 m x 1.5 m between the previously prepared bed for runner production in the strawberry.

Using the growth regulator such as GA3 pray is beneficial in increasing the runner production. Plant these runners in poly bags by using suitable potting media like using sand, soil, and farmyard manure at 1:1:2 as potting media.

Spacing in Strawberry Farming

After producing healthy runners, plant your well-grown roots in the row system. Plant healthy runners on matted rows, flatbeds, and raised beds in row system, in a single and double row on the main field. Growing this crop under well-irrigated conditions, then planting should be done in the ridge system.

For growing with raised beds, plant them by keeping row spacing 3 m x 4 m or 4 m x 4 m. In this, the plant should be planted about 50 cm apart from each other whereas row to row distance is about 55 to 70 cm.

Irrigation In Strawberry Farming

Strawberries are shallow rooted plants so this crop is very sensitive to the drought conditions. However, provide water on the basis of requirement. The irrigation frequency in this crop depends on atmosphere and soil moisture content. Try to irrigate your crop frequently with less water. Also, provide sufficient amount of water to plants during the fruit setting stage for the good development of fruits.

irrigation in strawberry farming

Always try to maintain the good moisture content in the soil and manage a well. The first irrigation should be given just after the implantation of tubers, After then, give frequent irrigation to your crop for well vegetative growth and better setting of roots. In the hot season, irrigate your crop, at least twice a week whereas in winter this should be once after the good settlement of crop.

For commercial strawberry farming, go for the drip irrigation system since it has many advantages over the traditional method and well utilization of water.

Always avoid excessive irrigation since it can cause rotting results as plant death and can invite pest and disease to crop.

Application of Manure and Fertilizers in Strawberry Farming

Timely application of suitable manure and fertilizers leads to higher production. Manure and fertilizers play a vital role in the healthy vegetative growth, quality and quantity production. However, for growing strawberry, add about 20 tonnes of farmyard manure at the time of land preparation only to enhance the soil fertility before plantation on the main field along with 20 kg of Nitrogen, 40 kg of Phosphorous and Potassium Potassium per hectare land.

Apart from this, also provide 80 kg of Potassium and 40 of Phosphorous, annually per hectare land. Along with this, also provide additional nutrients such as calcium sulfate (0.5 %), zinc sulfate (0.5 %), boric acid (0.2 %), and foliar application of urea (2 %) to enhance the quality production.

Strawberry | Pest, and Diseases

pests and diseases in strawberry farming

Strawberry Pests

The following is the list of some pests of strawberries.

  • Spider (two-spotted) mite
  • Rutherglen bug
  • Cluster caterpillar
  • Aphids
  • Heliothis
  • Cutworm
  • Looper
  • Queensland fruit fly

For controlling measure, remove these pests as sooner as they observed on your farm.

Strawberry Diseases

The following is the list of some diseases, that observed in the strawberries.

  • Lethal yellows
  • Grey mould
  • Leaf spot
  • Black spot
  • Verticillium Wilt
  • Fusarium wilt
  • Scorch disease
  • Blight disease
  • Powdery mildew
  • Crown Rot
  • Transit rot
  • Cutworms
  • White Grubs
  • Colletotrichum crown rot
  • Sclerotinia fruit rot
  • Phytophthora fruit rot
  • Base rot
  • Wilt disease
  • Root-lesion nematodes
  • Root-knot nematodes
  • Black root rot
  • Root weevil

For controlling measure, learn the symptoms of all these diseases and treat them well with a suitable method.

Harvesting Strawberry

Plants begin bearing fruits in the 2nd year of plantation. Picking of fruits should be carried out when 1/2 to 3/4 of the skin attain the color. Usually, picking should be done in the morning depending on the atmosphere and temp on every 2nd to the 3rd day of harvesting. Picked these harvested fruits in a small basket or trays. Keep these collected fruits in a shady region to maintain the fruit quality.

harvesting straberries

However, the harvesting season of this commercial crop varies according to the region and market demand. For receiving more rate in the market, pick your fruits when they ripen fully for the local market and for transporting, harvest them before they attain proper color.

Post-Harvesting Task

strawberry fruits are highly perishable and require a great care while harvesting or picking. For obtaining excellent rate in the market, you have to maintain the quality of fruits. So, here below are some task to perform, after picking these fruits.

post harvesting task

  • Grading: Short out the collected fruits on the basis of color, size, and weight.
  • Storage:¬†Before sending to market, keep your fruits in cold store to precooling for about one to two weeks. This will maintain the gesture and color of fruits.
  • Packing:¬†Packing of harvested fruits should be done according to their shape and size and also on the basis of grading.
  • Transportation:¬†For sending your products to distant market, make use of trucks and lorries.
  • Marketing: There is no need of marketing your strawberry fruits since peoples are always looking for strawberries and its other products. However, you can make use of trader or a commission agent for marketing.

Yield of Strawberry Farming

The yield of this commercial crop depends on the cultivar, type of soil, way of irrigation, climate condition along with orchard management skills.

However, one can easily harvest fruits about more than 30 tonnes of fruits from a hectare land with little care and management of orchards.

By growing commercial improved and hybrid varieties, you can produce more 50 tonnes of fruits from a hectare land.

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