Sugarcane Farming Process & Plant Cultivation|Breeding Institute List

Sugarcane Farming Process, Profit Little About Sugarcane Production

Sugarcane is also one the most grown commercial crop, all over the world. However, growing sugarcane is not a hardworking job but it requires good care and management while sugarcane farming to produce optimum since this crop is very susceptible to the climate conditions, type of soil, manure and fertilizers, the way of irrigation, pests, insects, diseases and their controlling measures.

It also requires care and attention during harvesting sugarcanes along with proper care and management to obtain a higher production from sugarcane farming.

Basically, sugarcane crop is a perennial grass crop that grows the most in tropics and subtropics region which produces multiples of stems having a diameter about 3 to 5 cm and height about 5 m. However, this crop belongs to the bamboo family. Stems of this crops grow into cane stalk formed, and contributes about more than 70 % of the total plant when matured.

A mature sugarcane stem contains about 11 to 18 % water-soluble sugar, 10 to 16 % of fibers, about 3 to 4 % of non-sugars content along with more than 70 % of water content in it.

Basically, this commercial crop is native to India which is mainly grown or cultivated for producing sugar the most. Apart from this, it also supplies raw material for making alcohol and other beverages. The rest residue of sugarcane is also used as the nutritious fodder for the dairy cattle. 

The scientific name of sugarcane is Saccharum officinarum.

One can create a huge income via growing sugarcane with suitable techniques and technology. So, let’s learn commercial sugarcane farming or cultivation and earn millions of this.

Sugarcane Health Benefits

The following is the list of some¬†health benefits of sugarcane,¬†let’s learn the list.

  1. Sugarcane improves the function of the liver.
  2. Sugarcanes are the great source of energy and drinking sugarcane juice is the best way to overcome dehydration problem.
  3. Sugarcanes are excellent source of potassium, iron, calcium, magnesium, and manganese
  4. Sugarcane also prevents you from some of the critical cancers such as prostate cancer, breast cancer etc.
  5. Sugarcane is natural sweeteners so it is also good for the diabetic patients.
  6. Sugarcanes are also helpful in keeping the kidney healthy.
  7. It also aids in the growth of teeth, and bones.
  8. Sugarcane also used as the home remedy for curing acne.
  9. This also helps in curing febrile related disorders.
  10. Its juice can act as a good digestive tonic and can enhance good digestive systems.

Use of Sugarcane

Sugarcane farming is mainly done for the sugar production. However, apart from producing sugar, this crop is also used for manufacturing numbers of by-products from it.

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The Bagasse, press mud, molasses, and green top, obtained from this crop is used in preparing pulp, paper, cattle feed, furfural. Apart from this, the waste residue of sugarcane is also used as a medium for growing edible mushroom.

Sugarcane molasses is also used for manufacturing potable alcohol, Fuel Alcohol, Acetic Acid, along with many of Pharmaceutical products.

Major Sugarcane Producers

All over the world, India tops the list of sugarcane producing countries after the Brazil.

1) Brazil
2) India
3) China, mainland
4) Thailand
5) Pakistan.
6) Mexico
7) Colombia
8) Philippines
9) Indonesia
10) USA (The United States of America)

Apart from the above-mentioned countries, sugarcane is also produced more in the other portion throughout the globe.

Other Names of Sugarcane

Suikerriet (Chinese),¬†Zuckerrohr (German),¬†Satang Susu (Korean),¬†Kallam Sheqeri¬†(Albanian),¬†La canne √† sucre (French),¬†c√Ęy m√≠a (Vietnamese),¬†Umoba (Zulu),¬†air tebu (Indonesian, and Malay),¬†Canna da Zucchero (Italian),¬†Ňěeker kamńĪŇüńĪ(Turkish),¬†Cana de a√ß√ļcar (Portuguese), Kyan (Burmese), Nam (Thai)

Sugarcane in India

In India, sugarcane is commonly known as Ganna. However, the following is the list of sugarcane in the local languages throughout the India

Ganna (Hindi), Karuppan (Tamil), Usacha (Marathi), Cheraku (Telugu), Ganne (Punjabi), Currumbin (Malayalam), Kabbina (Kannada), Akhju (Oriya), Sherdina or ŗ™∂ŗęáŗ™įŗ™°ŗęÄ (Gujarati).

Where Does Sugarcane Grow?

Agroclimate Condition for Growing Sugarcane

This perennial grass crop can grow their best in the tropics as well¬†as the subtropical region where normally the temp ranges from¬†20 ¬įC to 45 ¬įC. Also, this crop also responses very well to long period bright sunlight along with high humidity.

This commercial crop requires a moderate rainfall, ranging 1500 mm to 2500 mm annually for the best growth and production.

Nowadays, it is possible to grow sugarcane throughout the whole year with irrigated conditions.

Best Soil for Growing Sugarcane

Sugarcane can be cultivated over a wide variety of soils since it can thrive it best, almost in all the types of soil with sufficient moisture content. However, a deep and loamy soil, full of all the essential organic matter content is considered as the best for growing sugarcane and optimum production.

Although, a soil ranging from black to medium black with good drainage facility is also considered as the most suitable for sugarcane production.

For optimum sugarcane production, the ideal soil pH for sugarcane production ranges from 5.5 to 7.5. Loamy and sandy soil on the riversides are also good for sugarcane cultivation.

Do you know “How long does it take for sugarcane to grow?”¬†Usually, this commercial crop takes about 12 to 18 months to become ready for harvesting. So, a soil with good productivity is most preferred for its production.

Do not plant this crop on the waterlogged soils or soils with no good drainage capacity since waterlogging in this crop can invite numbers of pests and diseases to this crop.

How to Start Sugarcane Farming?

Select a Suitable Sugarcane Variety

All over the world, there are many hybrid and improved varieties of sugarcane available for commercial farming. However, following is a list of some high yielding varieties of the countries, producing the most.

In India, 687, CoJ. 64, Co Pant. 84211, CoLk. 8001, CoS. 767, Co. 1148, CoS. 802, CoC. 85061, Co. 8021, CoC. 671, Co. 6304, Co. 1148, CoS. 767, CoJ. 79, Co. 6304, Co. 6907, Co. 7527, Co. 7805, Co. 740, Co. 7219, CoM. 7125, CoC. 671, Co. 7527, Co. 740, Co. 7804, Co. 8014, Co. 740, Co. 6806, Co. 8338, Co. 7805, Co. 8011 etc are best yielding varieties of the sugarcane, used for commercial farming according to the climate conditions and soil types.

Note: Selecting a high yielding variety of sugarcane plays an important role in deciding the yield or production. However, select only the best, depending on your atmosphere and climate conditions.

Preparing Land for Sugarcane Farming

For optimum production, your soil should have fine tilth form for good germination %age. So, firstly bring your soil into fine tilth form for proper germination and healthy stem growth of this crop. Usually, about two or three deep ploughings with tractors are sufficient enough for bringing your soil in the fine tilth form.

After first plowing, let it expose to bright sunlight for about three months period. Also, crushed the clods and leveled it well for optimum production. Land preparation helps in good aeration in the soil and removed the roots penetration of the previous crop. It is a good idea to incorporate soil with well-rotted farmyard manure, for about more than 35 tonnes per hectare to increase the productivity of the soil.

How to Grow Sugarcane Crop?

Ways to Propagate

This commercial crop is mainly propagated by cuttings matured vegetative known as¬†‚Äúsetts‚ÄĚ. For optimum sugarcane production, select a¬†disease resistant, high yielding and quality setts to produce maximum.

How to Plant Sugarcane?

After collecting the quality setts, discard the ends from the apical portion. This discarding of the apical portion increases the easier buds breaking in this crop. The cuttings should have length, at least 35 cm to 45 cm with minimum 3 budding on each of them.

Modern Sugarcane Planting Methods

Sugarcane plantation can be done by following any of the below methods:

  • Ridge¬†Method
  • Furrow Method
  • Pit¬†Method
  • Wet Method
  • Flat Bed Method
  • Rayungan Method
  • Trench and Jawa Method
  • Transplanting Method

However, for commercial sugarcane plantation, furrow method is the most suitable and is also followed by the most of the growers.

  • Furrow Method

In this method, setts are planted horizontally in the furrow by keeping depth 20 to 30 cm inside.

After planting them horizontally covers these planted setts with thin layer soil.

The setts of cane can also grow via planting them directly on the main field or through transplanting them on the main field.

Pit Method

Apart from the furrow method of sugarcane plantation, pit method is also chosen by the growers since it has the capacity to produce more than the furrow method, about two times than the furrow method.

Planting Density or Seed Rate In Sugarcane Farming

For growing sugarcane on a hectare land commercially, it requires cuttings, about 18,000 to 24,000 cuttings to cover the whole field.

However, plants the setts at good planting depth so that seedlings appear faster.

Irrigation in Sugarcane Farming

This crop is very sensitive to water supply and needs water more than other crops. This crop requires sufficient water supply at every crucial stage such as sprouting stage, formative stage, ripening stage and also during the introductions of sprouts in the setts. However, giving water abundantly is the best way to produce the maximum. So, supplying water through drip irrigation or with alternate furrow method of irrigation in water scarce area for optimum sugarcane production.

However, follow the following watering schedule for cultivation in tropical region:

  1. Once in a week during the emergence of germination. Generally, the germination period in sugarcane productions varies from 30 to 40 days after plantation on the main field.
  2. After that, provide water at an interval of 10 days during the tillering stage. Carry this scheduled for about three months after the plantation on the main field.
  3. Then after, this crop requires more amount of water for about six month period because, during this period, the vegetative growth of this crop takes place in this time period.
  4. Then during maturing state, supply water to your crop at an interval of 12 to 15 days up to harvesting your crop.

That means this commercial crop requires about irrigations about 40 times during its complete growth. However, growing this crop in the sub-tropical region, about 10 to 12 irrigations are enough.

Application of Manures and Fertilizers in Sugarcane Farming

Sugarcane crop is heavy feeder and long durational crop that also requires manures and fertilizers in more amount. So, it is a good idea to add about 50 tonnes of well-rotted farmyard manure at the time of soil preparation onwards.

However, following is a table about the application of manures and fertilizers in sugarcane production along with the time of application.

Time of Application Nitrogen (kg) Potash (kg) Phosphorous (kg)
At the time of plantation (10 % of N, 50 % of K &P ) 25 kg 75 kg 75 kg
Two months after plantation (40 % of N) 100 kg
Three months after plantation (10 % of N) 25 kg
Six months after plantation (40 % of N, 50 % of K &P ) 100 kg 75 kg 75 kg
Total 250 kg 150 kg 150 kg

Note: Your soil may not have ideal fertility or productivity. So, go for at least a single soil test before starting sugarcane production so that you can learn about the organic matter present in your soil.

Intercultural Activities in Sugarcane Farming

A good farm management practices in sugarcane production leads to higher production. This includes mulching, weed control along with suitable crop rotation.

Weed Control in Sugarcane Farming

This commercial crop is massively influenced by weeds on the main field because this crop requires more water than other commercial crops along with more nutritions supply. In order to achieve proper growth, there are also more possibility of more weed occurrence.

Note that more weed in your crop may lead to lower the production. So, it is a good idea to control weed as sooner as it appears on the field. For commercial sugarcane farming, first weeding should be done after about one month of planting setts on the fields.

However, it is better good a good idea to apply pre-emergence weedicides for controlling weeds in the field such as the application of Atrazine @ 2.5 kg per hectare followed by  2, 4 РD spray @ 1.5 kg per hectare. 

Note that proper combination of cropping, agronomical, rotational and biological methods along with the supplemental use of suitable herbicides is the best way of controlling weeds in sugarcane farming.

Crop Rotation in Sugarcane Farming

Rotating crop is also a good task that helps you more in controlling weeds in sugarcane production. This also increases the fertility of the soil. In heavy rainfall areas, rotate sugarcane with rice. And, in low rainfall area, rotate this commercial crop with cotton crop. 

However, rotating sugarcane crop with the Banana crop, Turmeric crop, Soya bean Crop, Groundnut crop, and some gram crops.

Sugarcane | Pests, and Diseases

Sugarcane | Pests

The following is the list of some common Pests of the sugarcane crop.

  1. Early shoot borer
  2. Top shoot borer
  3. Internode borer
  4. Whiteflies
  5. Mealybug
  6. Sugarcane woolly aphid
  7. Scale insects
  8. White grub
  9. Termites
  10. Grasshopper

Learn the symptoms and take preventive measures as sooner as they observed in your field. Since the presence of any of them may lead to lower down the crop production.

Sugarcane | Diseases

The following is the list of some common diseases of the sugarcane crop.

  1. Red rot
  2. Grassy shoot
  3. Wilt
  4. Smut
  5. Red striped disease
  6. Leaf scald disease
  7. Mosaic disease
  8. Rust
  9. Pokkahboeng
  10. Sugarcane yellow leaf disease

Learn the symptoms and take preventive measures as sooner as they observed in your field. Since the presence of any of them may lead to lower down the crop production.

Harvesting of sugarcane

This crop is a long duration crop that takes about 12 to 16 months to become ready for harvesting. Also, harvesting at the proper time is also important task that needs special care. Harvest your crop at their right maturity level because both, early and delayed harvesting leads to quality loss production. Also, stop irrigations before two weeks of harvesting or cutting this crop.

However, on the basis of available facility, manual or mechanical harvesting can be done. For manual harvesting, give a slant cut at the ground base with a help of cane cutting knife. Also, dried leaves from the roots and canes should be discarded at the time of harvesting.

Also. cut the immature top portion along with 2 to 4 internodes from the top. After harvesting canes, make the bunches, and send them to the local market for crushing off. Crush them after about one day of harvesting to prevent the reversion of sucrose to glucose.

Yield of Sugarcane Farming

The yield of sugarcane crop depends on numbers of key factors such as the type of soil, way of irrigation, application of manures and fertilizers, pests and diseases management along with good farm management skills.

However, for commercial sugarcane farming, an average yield of more than 150 tonnes of canes from a hectare land can be obtained with normal farming practices.

Have a Happy Sugarcane Production!!!

2 thoughts on “Sugarcane Farming Process & Plant Cultivation|Breeding Institute List

  1. Very nice presentation and iwll observe all that you mentioned in my sugar cane plantation in funtua Nigeria, my only problem is that, idid not carry out soil test before planting. Thank you.

  2. The presentation is very good and I will observe all that you mentioned in my sugar cane plantation in Funtua Nigeria, my only problem is that idid not carry out soil test before planting. Thank you.

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