How To Grow Avocado? Avocado Farming, Process and Profit
About Avocado Fruit Farming
Avocado fruits are also known as “Elegator Pierce”, which is mostly grown in Mexico, Peru, India, Kenya, Persia, Chile, USA, Colombia, New Zealand, Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Brazil and many other countries, all over the world. Avocadoes are also known as the butter fruits is an evergreen tree of the Laureşi species.
Avocado fruit contains high fatty acid content, but it has very little cholesterol levels. Many people avoid eating avocado because of the high calcium contained in them because they feel that they can gain weight by consuming it. However, compared to butter, the amount of calories in it is very low and because of which it is known as butter fruits.
Basically, this fruit plant is grown to provide protection to the crops on the fields, simultaneously with the fences on the sides of orchards. But, nowadays, this fruit crop is grown primarily as a cash crop, almost in all types of climate conditions and weather. However, there is also less capital required for growing avocado fruit crop and a very good returns as good fruit production.
Basically, this fruit crop is native to the tropical American territory and is supposed to be originated in Mexico, Central America, and nearby regions. This fruit is single seeded which is consumed mostly for its excellent medical value. This fruit crop is mostly practiced in the tropical, Mediterranean and nearby regions. However, it is also possible to grow them in all types of climatic conditions and weather.
When it comes to production, Mexico tops the list of production, all over the world. They are able to grow up to more than 60 feets taller in heights and have long leaves. These fruits are available in different shape such as spherical shape, egg shape, pear shape having green and fleshy skin. Usually, these marketable fruits have the weight ranging from 150 gm to 750 kg, depending on the cultivar, used for cultivation. For growing this fruit crop, the grafting method of the plantation is used for avocado fruit production. This method of the plantation is also beneficial in producing quality, healthy and quantity production of fruits. These plants are not fully self-pollinating plants.
Nowadays, starting an avocado fruit farming is the best idea to start farming as a business plan, because the start-up cost for growing avocado is very less than other fruit farming business plan. In addition to this, this fruit crop also requires low care and management for optimum production of fruits.
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One can easily create a huge income via growing avocado fruit plants. Avocado fruit plant can be grown in pots, containers, as indoor plants in addition to being grown as the commercial fruit crop. However, there is need of frequent replantation of these plants because these plants grow up to more than 60 feets taller in height.
So, let’s learn how to grow avocado fruit plant or avocado farming or cultivation in the following section involving health benefits of avocado, how to plant, when to plant, up to harvesting of this fruit crop.
Avocado Fruit | Scientific Name and Botanical Name
The scientific name or Botanical Name of Avocado Fruit is “Persea Americana” and it belongs to the family “Lauraceae” and genus “Persea”.
Health Benefits of Avocado Fruits
Avocado fruits are full of minerals and vitamins because of which they have excellent medicinal value.
However, here below is a list of some of the health benefits of eating avocado fruits. Let’s learn the list:
- Avocado fruit contains fibers; soluble and insoluble that is beneficial for maintaining a healthy digestive system.
- Avocado fruits are also beneficial for the diabetic person.
- Avocado fruits are high in fatty acid but are low in cholesterol level, so eating this fruit is also beneficial for the pregnant women, keeping healthy and happy.
- Eating this fruits has an excellent result in weight loss and weight management.
- Avocados are also good for keeping skin soft, fair and healthy.
- These fruits are low in cholesterol level so these are helpful in lowering the cholesterol level and also reduce the danger of stroke.
- These fruits are also helpful in relieving from the arthritis diseases.
- These are the excellent source of anti-oxidants, hence are beneficial for the eye health.
- Avocados are also helpful in preventing certain kinds of cancers.
- Avocado fruits are also beneficial in providing prevention from chronic diseases and are also good for blood regulation.
How awesome all these benefits are???
Top Avocado Producers
Avocado can be grown in all types of climate conditions and weather. However, here below is a list of 10 countries, who top the list of the avocado production.
- Dominican Republic
Avocado | Other Names or Local Names
Butter Fruit or Makhanphal (Hindi), Avokado (Afrikaans), Avocado (Dutch, German), Makhan Phal (Gujarati), Cowlo (Nepali), Avocado or Persea americana (Italian), a-bu-kha-lo (Chinese), afukaadu (Arabic), Awokado (Polish), Mager Nashpati (Urdu), Abokado (Korean), abukado (Filipino), avokÃ¡do (Czech), Abokado (Japanese), avokado (Latvian), Aguacate (Spanish), Bo (Vietnamese), Avocatier (French), Αβοκάντο (Greek), Avokaado (Estonian), awokado (Thai), avocado (Romanian), avokado or apukado (Malay), Avokado (Turkish), Aligatapera (Sinhalese), Neerabijh (Sanskrit), abacate (Portuguese), Авокадо (Russian), avokado (Danish), Avokado (Swedish), Avokádó (Hungarian), etc.
So, let’s learn Avocado Farming or Cultivation Successfully…
Where Do Avocados Grow?
Avocado Tree | Climate
For growing an avocado tree, the climate conditions and weather is the most important task that plays an important role in the production of the fruits. For growing any commercial crop, there is need of suitable climate conditions for healthy growth of plants and also for optimum productions.
Avocado plants thrive their best in the temp. ranging between 17 °C to 27 °C during its complete cultivation or growing period. That means, there is need of cool atmosphere during its complete economical life. However, the ideal temp. varies from cultivar to cultivar of this fruit crop. But, the lowest temperature required for this fruit plant is noticed to be 14 °C for healthy growth of plants.
In addition to this, this fruit plants also requires a highly humid condition during the crucial stage such as flowering stage and fruit setting stage. So, a protection should be provided from the strong, hot and dry winds to the plants for optimum fruit production. Because such conditions during the growing period may lead to breaking down of branches and flowers and also dropping down of fruits from the tree.
Avocado fruit farming can be practiced well up to some extent on a higher altitude, around 3000 m. above mean sea level. However, there is also need of an annual, well-distributed rainfall, ranging from 1100 mm to 1400 mm for the healthy plant growth.
Note: Avoid water stress during the flowering stage and fruit setting stage because avocados are very sensitive to the frost conditions during the crucial stages such as a flowering and fruiting stage.
Avocado Tree | Soil Requirement
For obtaining an excellent fruit production, there is also need of a fertile soil which is full of organic matter and high in soil productivity. A good combination of micro and macronutrients is responsible for creating good soil fertility. However, for learning the soil fertility and productivity of soil, it is a good idea to go for a soil test. So, that the deficiency of micronutrients and macronutrients can be supplemented at the time of soil preparation onwards.
Avocado tree or plants are able to grow in all types of soil including reddish-brown soil to the red soil, dark brown soil along with subsoils. Avocado trees are very sensitive to the fertile soil which also has good drainage capacity. A well-drained soil is helpful in good aeration in the soil. However, growing avocado plants or trees on reddish-brown soil, dark brown soils are considered as the best suitable for optimum fruit production.
However, high yielding varieties of avocado trees or plants prefer medium and sandy soil having pH, ranging between 5.7 to 6.7 is considered as the best suitable soil for excellent fruit production. Also, avocado plants or trees also thrive their best in the soil which contains clay content, about 40 % of the soil So, avoid the water logging problem in this commercial fruit farming.
How to Start a New Avocado Farm?
There is no need of much thinking for starting a new avocado farm, but it requires attention to be taken on some task such as selection of variety, land preparation, the method of the plantation, how to plant, how deep to plant, when to plant, etc. So, all these tasks are explained below in short. Go through it…
There are numbers of varieties of avocado fruit tree are available in the market, which is used for commercial avocado farming. However, all of them are not suitable for growing in all the types of climate conditions and weather.
Mostly, there are seven varieties of avocados are used for growing commercially throughout the world. So, here below is avocado varieties chart along with their description & their growing season.
|Shepard||An important cultivar in Australia, small size, smooth and pointed skin, sticky flesh, acorn-shaped||August to October|
|Choquette||Most popular variety in Florida, largely composed of water, bleeds like lime green juice on cut, silky flesh, extremely mild flavor||October to December|
|Tonnage||Pear shape, green pebbly skin having slender neck pointing to the stem, sweeter in taste, low in oil content, having a faint, savory taste of chestnut||September|
|Daily 11||Larger fruits, dense and flavorful in taste, having oily flesh inside||August to October|
|Macarthur||Voluptuously shaped variety, bulbous bottom curving deeply to the base, nutty flavor, decadently smooth, buttery when ripening fully.||August to November|
|Hall||Similar to the Choquette in shape and size, thicker and drier flesh, juicy fruits||October to November|
|Hass,||This is one of the most important cultivars which is able to grow year around.
A nutty taste, high-fat flesh, and almond butter texture contain more than 20 % oil, tough and durable skin – ideal for transportation, etc
Note: The above-mentioned variety of avocado are world best, which are used mostly for commercial avocado farming or production. However, there may be another variety suitable for growing in particular region.
Land Preparation for Avocado Farming
Bring the soil in fine tilth form by giving about two to three ploughings with the help of tractor plow. It should also be free from dead trees, weeds and other material from the earlier crop.
Soil should be prepared in a way such that water stagnation problem does not occur.
Also, a well rotten farmyard manure should be added at the time of the last plowing or harrowing to increase the soil fertility and productivity of the soil.
How To Plant Avocado?
Method of Propagation
For commercial Avocado farming, the tree is mostly propagated through the grafting method and budding method of a plantation because there are more care and attention, required for growing an avocado from seeds. Apart from this, plantation with grafting method also ensures uniform growth and early fruit bearing in the crop.
For growing an avocado from seed, learn the systematic way of how to plant avocado from seed? because too much care and attention is required in the process
Avocado | Planting Season
For planting, it is recommended for commercial avocado cultivation to plant or graft these plants in the beginning of monsoon season for the faster and proper establishing of seedlings in the crop.
Never plant a new avocado plant is a place where an aged plant died earlier because it may lead to invites disease from the soil.
Avocado Planting | Spacing
The high-density plantation is helpful in giving higher production but the high-density plantation of the avocado tree may lead to problems in the canopy management in the later years of cultivation. So, these should be planted at a good distance for healthy production of fruits.
Usually, a spacing of 10 X 10 meters to 12 X 12 meters is adopted for the commercial avocado cultivation. With this spacing, one can easily plant trees, around 100 trees or plants per hectare land.
However, it is also possible to grow about 300 plants and even more than it with the help of high-density plantation such as 12 x 6m, 8 x 4 m, 10 x 5 m, for higher production of fruits. But, it requires the use of hedging machines and also of growth controlling sprays in the cultivation.
Pollination in Avocado Tree Farming
As we know that these fruit trees or plants are not self-pollinating plants in nature. So, there is need of artificial pollination should be carried out for the fruit production. For best fruit setting, a cross-pollination with another cultivar is be carried out.
Avocado Flowers have both parts; male and female flower parts which work differently at the different time of day. Basically, there are two types of plants; A type and B type plant.
However, for successful pollination in avocado farming or cultivation, it is a good idea to plant one male plants per each 6 to 8 female plants. Or place some beehives to increase the successful pollination of this crop.
How Long Does it Take To Grow An Avocado Tree?
Basically, an avocado tree takes around more than 10 yrs for becoming ready for fruit bearing. However, nowadays, with an improved variety of avocado, it is possible to get fruits at their plant age 4 to 5 yrs in the commercial avocado cultivation. So, always select a high yielding and fast growing variety of avocado so that you can obtain fruits as sooner as possible…
Irrigation in Avocado Farming
A systematic way of irrigation direct impact on the production of any crop. So, after selecting a high yielding variety and planting on the main field, there is need of care in the water supply to this fruit crop.
Give water to this crop, just after the plantation carried out for good establishment of plants. Then after, irrigation should be done at a regular interval such as irrigating at three or four weeks. In hot and dry season, there is more requirement to the crop so irrigation should be done at an interval of 2 to 3 weeks.
To avoid moisture stress, mulching should be done in the cold season. For mulching, cover the plants with dry leaves and grass. And, in the rainy season, there is no need for any irrigation to this crop.
However, for commercial avocado farming or cultivation, irrigating with the drip irrigation system is the best idea for optimum fruit production and utilize the water as best. This will enhance the fruit growth and also reduces the harvesting time. Drip irrigation is also helpful in producing quality and quantity fruits.
Note: As this crop is very sensitive to the water logging problems, water stagnation should be avoided for the healthy growth of plants. In case of flooding, drained out the water from the base of plants.
Application of Manure and Fertilizers in Avocado Farming
Timely application of suitable manure and fertilizers plays an important role in enhancing the production amount up to many times. This crop responds very well to the heavy manuring, containing Nitrogen as major organic matter content. Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Potash should be applied to the newly appearing seedling in equal proportion whereas to the grown and older plants, these fertilizers should be applied to the ratio 2:1:2.
Usually, the deficiency of Iron is found in the soil, which has soil pH above than 7.0. The deficiency of iron should be corrected by supplying iron chelate at 30 to 40 gm per each tree or plant. Applying organic manure along with inorganic fertilizers is always beneficial in attaining excellent growth rate and a healthy fruit production. Also, apply urea in two equal doses at an interval of three to four months.
The following is a table, showing the application of manure and fertilizers according to the plant age for the healthy growth rate of plants or trees.
|Plant Age (Yrs)||Nitrogen (gms)||Potassium (gms)||Phosphorous (gms)||FMY (kg)|
|1 to 3||40||40||30||25|
|4 to 6||75||50||40||40|
|7 to 10||150||130||40||45|
|More than 10 yrs||200||150||50||50|
Note: Application of manure and fertilizers totally depends on the soil fertility. A less fertile soil may require manure and fertilizers in high quantity.
Avocado Tree | Care
The care of avocado tree includes the pest and diseases control on the avocado plants.
Avocado Tree | Pests
The following is a list of some pests and insects, which commonly found in the avocado cultivation.
- Fruit-spotting bug
- Queensland fruit fly
- Red-shouldered leaf beetle
- Red-banded thrips
- Swarming leaf beetles
Presence of any of these may lead to lower down the fruit production up to many times. So, these pests and insects should be controlled by a suitable way. Controlling these through the use of particular pesticide is considered as the best way of controlling them.
Avocado Tree | Diseases
The following is a list of some diseases, which commonly found in the avocado fruit cultivation.
- Root rot (Most common, caused by attack of Phytophthora cinnamon)
- Bacterial soft rot
- Cercospora spot (attack on roots, leaves, and fruits)
- Black spot (attack on roots, leaves, and fruits)
- Phytophthora root rot
- Stem-end rot
- Pepper spot
There are numbers of fungicides and liquid fertilizers are available in the market, which has effective result in controlling all types of diseases. However, diseases in any crop occur due to over irrigation, lack of care in planting, and deficiency of any organic matter. So, these should be corrected at the proper time to avoid the loss.
Note: Consult your local horticulture department since they are the best source of information for symptoms and controlling measures of any pests, insects, and diseases.
Do you know How Long Does it Take To Grow An Avocado Tree? Usually, this fruits crop takes around more than 10 yrs to become ready for harvesting. However, the commercial avocado varieties are able to give fruits in the 4th and 5th year of plantation. But, harvesting fruits at the proper time definitely yield higher fruit production.
So, avocados should be harvested at their mature age. To determine the maturity, observed the color change in the fruits. There are two varieties of avocado, the purple and green. Generally, the purple variety changes color from purple to maroon whereas the green used to change color from green to yellow.
However, start harvesting when the seed coat starts changing from yellow-white to dark brown color. Also, try to soften these fruits after harvesting for about 10 days so that fruits ripe a well.
Yield of Avocado Farming
The yield of avocado farming or cultivation depends on numbers of key factors such as the variety, plant age, soil type, climate conditions along with the farm management skills Practiced for the cultivation.
However, averagely, it is possible to obtain fruits around 15 to 20 tonnes per unit hectare after 6 to 7 yrs of the plantation on the main field.
Avocado fruit farming is really a lucrative business plan if cultivation is practiced by fast growing and high yielding variety is grown and proper farm management practices are followed…
Have a Good Income From Avocado Farming