How to Grow Chilli? Little About Chilli Farming Guide Process and Cultivation
Basically, Chillies are most important and worthwhile commercial crop that’s plays a vital role in the world economy since it is widely grown spice amongst all the spice crops. Usually, they are also known as “Chili Pepper” throughout the world. Generally, this crop is mostly grown to obtain the fruits to use them as a major ingredient of many kinds of curries, chutneys, and also as a culinary.
They are used as a spice, vegetables, sauces, condiments, fruits and in preparation for various pickles. Chillies are so popular that they are being used by everyone, all over the world. These are mostly eaten for their excellent spicy taste and flavoured pungency. The active element “Capsaicin” one kind of alkaloid present is chillies is also extracted from them and is used as a medicinal ingredient.
This variety of spice is used in various kinds of forms including green chillies, red chillies and as a powder form of spice. They are significantly known for strong burning and tangy sensation when taken because of capsaicin content whereas the red colour of these spicy fruits is because of pigment “Capsanthin” content present in them. These are valued on the basis of their colour and pungency level.
Chillies are supposed to be native to India but in fact, they are originated from ‘South America” and the nearby region which were delivered to the Asian continent by the Portuguese in the 15th century.
Currently, commercial chilli farming is pretty successful and anyone can earn an excellent profit with instant income because there is always a great demand in the local and international market. Beside growing on the commercial open field, they can be also grown in poly houses, greenhouses, pots, containers, backyards, under shade nets, etc. However, the quality and quantity of yield are higher, if grown under controlled environmental conditions like growing in greenhouses. With advanced chilli farming technology, it is also possible to grow them successfully in the hydroponic system.
Scientific Name of Chilli
There is two scientific name for chilli, there two are Capsicum Annuum L and Capsicum frutescens L. which belongs to the family “Solanaceae” and to the genus “Capsicum”.
Health Benefits of Chilli
The following is the list of some of the health benefits of eating chili daily… learn it.
- Green chillies are an excellent source of many minerals and vitamins, especially of antioxidants so it can act as janitors in providing protection against damage from free radical and preventing many cancers.
- The Vitamin C content of green chillies is beneficial in strengthening immunity naturally to the diseases.
- The green chilli peppers are full of Vitamin E content which is an essential source in the production of certain kinds of natural skin oils.
- Chillies are supposed to be zero calories content food so it plays an important role in losing weight diet.
- They also keep the prostate cancer away from the men.
- They are also helpful in reducing the high blood sugar level of the body.
- Green chillies are an excellent source of dietary fibres because of which are found to be beneficial in improving the working of the digestive system.
- They release endorphins significantly into the brain and works are mood refresher.
- Eating chillies are also found to be beneficial in reducing the chances of lung cancer.
- They are also loaded with the anti-bacterial feature that means they help in keeping bacteria away from us.
- They are also an excellent source of natural Iron.
Chili Production in World | Major Producer
Chili is the largest spice amongst all the spice crop all over the world however when it comes to production, India tops the list of chilli production followed by China and Ethiopia. Learn the following list of major chilli producing countries all over the world.
Other Names for Chili in Different Languages
Chilli is known by a different name in different languages throughout the different portion of the world.
Chilli (English), Mirch (India Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi), khursani (Nepali), Marcha (Gujarati), acı biber (Turkish), Poivre de Guine (French), Pimento Chile (Spanish), 紅辣椒 (Taiwanese), Hsiung yali chiao (Chinese), Chilischote (German), Peperone, Peperoncino (Italian), čili (Slovenian), Tšilli (Estonian), Spaanse peper (Dutch), Cili merah (Malay), گردفلفل (Persian), Capsicum Annum L. (Latin), Pimento (Protuguese), الفلفل الحار, Filfil Ahmar (Arabic), ჩილი (Georgian), Upelepele (Zulu), Togarashi (Japanese), Kovy pyeret or Basbaas (Somali), Nga Yote (Burmese), чили (Serbian), මිරිස් (Sinhalese), улаан чинжүү (Mongolian), τσίλι (Greek), น้ำพริก (Thai), красный перец (Russian), Latvian (Latvian), 고추 (Korean), Sili (Filipino), Mah Tehs (Cambodian), Papryczka (Polish), Marach wangun (Kashmiri), Чили (Bulgarian), Chili (Norwegian), Chili (Danish), ardei iute (Romanian), чили (Macedonian), 辣椒 (Mandarin), Chladný (Czech), стручковий перець (Ukrainian), ớt phơi khô (Vietnamese).
Climate Requirement for Chilli Farming
Basically, chilli can be grown throughout the whole world but it thrives it best in the tropical region and subtropical region. It requires humid and warm climate conditions having ideal temp ranging from 18 °C to 28°C along with adequate evenly distributed yearly rainfall. But take care that soils with low moisture content during the blossom grow and fruit set stage may result in dropping down of bud, blossom and newly formed fruits. Extreme rainfall during growing period is also harmful to this crop since it leads to rotting and defoliation of this chilli plants. However, an annual rainfall of about 20 to 25 inches yearly rainfall is essential for healthy plant growth and higher production.
Take care that a temp below 15 °C during the growing period may lead to lower crop yield.
Soil Requirement for Chilli Farming
They can be grown over a wide variety of soils however they thrive their best on sandy and loamy soils, clayey loamy soils under irrigation conditions.
Along with well-drained soil and deltaic soils. Whereas for rainfed conditions, black soils are best suitable since they can retain good moisture level for the long time period.
However, always preferred plantation of soils which are full of all essential organic matter content with the facility of good drainage and aeration.
For excellent plant growth, the ideal soil pH for growing chilli is 5.8 to 7.0. Never use acidic soils for cultivating this crop since are not suitable for higher production and quality yield.
Presently, there are many, many improved varieties of chilli are available in the market, and they often knew differently depending on the area. However, learn the list of some famous chilli varieties across the world.
- Kashmiri Chilli
- Guntur Chilli
- Bird’s Eye Chilli – Dhani
- Naga Chilli
- Mundu Chilli
- Jwala Chilli
- Kanthari Chilli
- Byadagi Chilli
- Green Cayenne
- Red Cayenne
- Yellow Cayenne
- Red Ball
- Green Ball
There may be another variety of chilli which is popular in your region in accordance with the climate conditions and atmosphere.
Land Preparation in Chilli Farming
Chili farming can be done over a wide variety of soils however, sandy, loamy, clayey soils should be preferred to obtain higher yield with a facility of good drainage and proper aeration. Bring the cultivating soils in fine tilth form and in friable conditions to facilitate it with proper aeration and good drainage. Giving 3 deep ploughing followed by a couple of harrowing is sufficient enough to bring the soil in such conditions. Also carry out crushing of soil, if present. Levelling of soil is should be done with a tractor blade.
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Make raised beds to drain out the rainwater and facilitate soil with good aeration. However, supplement all the essential organic matter at the time of land preparation. Adding about 20 tonnes of farmyard manure per hectare land is good enough to increase the soil fertility for chili cultivation. However, the manuring should be done for about 15 to 20 days before the sowing of seedlings. Make use of Heff at about 10 kg per hectare land to protect the newly planted seedling from pests and insects.
How to Grow Chillies?
Propagation in Chilli Farming
Chillies are mainly propagated with the help of quality seedlings raised on nursery beds from quality seeds. For raising seedling, select only those seeds which have a high tolerance to the pests, insects, and diseases to obtain higher yield. Always purchase them from a well known certified and organic farms. One can collect it from his/her organically raised own field.
If organic seeds are not available, one can start cultivation with chemically untreated chilli seeds obtained from local and high yielding variety.
Chilli Seed Treatment for Raising Seedlings
The selected seeds should be treated well with any suitable chemical fungicides (pesticides) to obtain high quality of seedling and attain higher germination %. So, treat the selected seeds well with Pseudomonas sp. or Trichoderma at about 15 gm per each kg of quality seeds to prevent the occurrence of rot in nursery raised seedling.
The best time for raising seedling on nursery beds is from Feb to March so that seedling becomes ready for transplanting in April and May.
Raising Nursery Seedling
Sow the fresh and certified chili seeds on previously prepared beds from Feb to March to make them ready for transplanting on the field in April since cultivation with planting seedling has better survival % and quality yield in comparison the broadcasting planting method.
Prepare the nursery bed thoroughly mixing with the compost and topmost soil. After sowing treated seed on beds, cover it with thin soil film.
How long do chilli seeds take to germinate? Usually, seedling appears in about 4 to 6 days after planting seeds on beds. These nurseries raised seedling should be planted on the main field when they become 45 to 50 days older.
Seed Rate in Chilli Farming
For raising nursery seedling, about 500 gm of quality seeds are sufficient enough for starting cultivation on a hectare land.
Chilli Planting Season
Planting should be done from May to June for producing chilli as Kharif crop whereas it should be done from Jan to Feb to cultivate it as a Rabi season crop.
Chilli Planting Spacing
Planting of 45 to 50 days older seedling should be done from April to May to meet the market demand. Planting of seedling should be done in shallow trenches and on ridge lands.
They can be planted with an appropriate planting distance such as 30 cm X 30 cm, 30 cm X 45 cm, and 60 cm x 60 cm.
Sowing Directly on Field in Chilli Farming
For cultivating chilli under the rainfed condition, seeds should be sown directly on the field from the end of March to the first two weeks of April. For sowing seeds directly on the field, about 1.8 kg to 2 kg of quality seeds is required. Carry out thinning along with gap filling after about 4 to 5 weeks of sowing seeds.
Irrigation in Chilli Farming
Chilli plants do not have tolerance to high moisture that means water is given on the requirement basis. In commercial chilli cultivation, frequent water supply or heavy irrigation results in bony vegetative growth and flower shedding. And, the need of irrigation to plants always depends on climate conditions, soil type and atmosphere.
This crop requires a uniform moisture of soil throughout the complete growing period. But, have poor tolerance towards the drought conditions and flooding. Irrigating with drip irrigation method is best suitable for cultivation in a region with water scarcity problem. One can irrigate with furrow method with a facility of enough water.
Irrigate the crop, just after planting the seedling on the main field. Then after water should be given on the requirement basis. Try to irrigate crop at least once a week in the hot month whereas at an interval of 10 days in the cold month.
The dropping down of plants leaves in evening, generally at 4 PM to 5 PM indicate the need for water to the plants. Chili farming is usually practised under rainfed conditions with an annual rainfall of 120 inches, evenly distributed throughout the year. But, it is also possible to grow chilli with the facility of irrigations. But, care to be taken while growing.
Always avoid overwatering. Since plant growth, branching along with dry matter growth are unfavourably affected by overwatering. But, care to be taken during critical stage such as flowering stage and fruit development stage. Avoid overhead irrigation since it invites numbers of diseases. Also, drain out the water due to heavy rains and flooding conditions to avail constant moisture.
Avoid excessive use of chemical fertilizers, liquid pesticides, and harmful fungicides. Also, avoid water stagnation problem on nursery beds and on fields to avoid an early occurrence of fungal infection.
Application of Manure and Fertilizers in Chilli Farming
Always try to cultivate chillies on such soils which are full of all essential organic matter. So, apply about 15 tonnes of farmyard manure per hectare land at the time of land preparation to increase soil fertility.
For growing chillies under rainfed conditions, apply 50 kg of Nitrogen, 25 kg of Phosphorous and 25 kg of Potash. Give the half dose of Nitrogen at the time of planting seedlings on the main field. Whereas the remaining half dose of Nitrogen should be given after about 4 to 5 weeks of planting seedling.
For growing chillies with the facility of irrigations, apply 100 kg of Nitrogen, 50 kg of Phosphorous and 50 kg of Potassium per growing hectare. Manuring should be done in four equal splits. The 1st one at the time of planting seedling. And, the 2nd one at 4th week of planting seeds. The 3rd and 4th one should be given at 10th and 12th week of planting seedling to obtain higher yield.
Pests and Diseases in Chilli Farming
Chillies are very prone to pests and diseases. And the presence of any pests, insect, and diseases in any crop leads to reduce the production to a big extent. So, learn the list of common pests and diseases in chilli cultivation along with their symptoms and control measures.
Chilli Pests and Their Control
Learn the list of common pests and insect, observed in chilli production along with their symptoms and control measures.
|Aphids||Small & succulent, pear-shaped insects. Mostly attack in cold months & influence widely to the crop.||Aphids lower down the pods quality and growth.||Spray dimethoate @ 0.05 % to control aphids effectively|
|Thrips||Causes leaf curling & drooping of premature flowers||Reduce the flowering % & hence yield||Crop rotation, weed control, seed treatment with imidacloprid 70 % @ 10 to 15 gm per each kg of seeds. Also, give phorate 10 % G @ 12 kg/ha to control effectively|
|Fruit borer||This caterpillar eat leaves which late make bores on pods.||Lower down the quality and quantity of fruits.||Collect & destroy the affected fruits. Spray Bacillus thuringiensis at 10 gm/ litre|
|Broad Mites||Mites sucks plant juice at midvein on the underside of leaves.||Cause curling of leaf, developing corky tissues on fruits.||select pest-resistant varieties, & weed control, crop rotation, Spray dimethoate at 0.05 % is beneficial.|
|Mealybug||Bug sucks saps tender shoots, leaves, and fruits.||Pest causes curling of leaves & dropping of fruits.||Spray with 0.02% dichlorvos or with 0.025% quinalphos along with fish oil rosin soap to control effectively.|
|Root-knot nematode||Insect pest destroys root system by growing small roots galls.||Infected plants turn wilt yellow.||Avoid production on sandy soils with hot weather. Select resistant variety, crop rotation, can reduce them.|
Chilli Diseases and Their Control
Learn the list of common diseases, observed in chilli production along with their symptoms and control measures.
|Damping Off||Serious disease of seedlings observed on nursery bed.||Affected seedlings display rot on the base of plants, & plant died off.||Treat seeds properly with Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 15 gm/kg seeds, 1 day before sowing. Avoid Waterlogging. Regularly Spray with fungicides.|
|Leaf Spot Disease||Infected leaves have small and dark greasy spots. Water-soaked like spots develop on green fruits.||Leaf drop off of infected plants||Spray Agrimycin @ 200 ppm along with copper oxychloride (0.3 %) to control effectively.|
|Anthracnose Disease||Dark & sunken spots formed on fruits, dark pink coloured dots emerge at the centre formed spots.||Fruits rot and dropping occur||Avoid shadily & moist climate conditions, Select disease-free quality seeds. Discard off infected ones, Spray crop by using Mancozeb @ 2.5 gm/ litre.|
|Powdery mildew||–||–||Spray Carbendazim @ 1 gm/liter. Spray about 3 times at an interval of two weeks|
|Leaf Curl Disease||Cause small size of leaves and downward curling||Leaves start falling off, mainly spread due to aphids & thrips||Control Thrips & Aphids.|
Chilli Plant Growing Stages
How long does it take to grow chillies? is depended on the variety, growing season, climate conditions, soil type, soil fertility and water supply. However, on an avg, it takes about 5 to 6 months to become fully mature after planting on the field.
There are two growth stages, namely vegetative stage, and reproductive stage. Usually, the vegetative stage tends to extend for about 75 to 85 days accompanied by the reproductive stage of 85 to 95 days.
In vegetative growth stage, an increase of plant height, branching, etc takes place. For better aeration and proper sunlight infiltration into the canopy, cloudy branching should be followed. It also prevents fruit rot disease.
Chilli plant flowering time starts from around 45 days after planting seedlings on the main field. And this crop is cross-pollinated with having 50 % of the natural crossing in it. After pollination in the crop, about 40 to 45 days of time is needed for starting fruit development and to attain maturity in the crop.
The maturing age depends on the cultivar, chosen for production. Generally, it takes about more than two months for fruits to become fully ripen after the flowering season starts. Harvesting also depends on the market need.
For selling freshly harvested in local, harvest fully grown immature green chillies. And for canning, harvest fully mature red chillies. And for making powder, harvesting of fully matured riped dry fruits.
Harvesting should be done on alternate days to obtain higher yield for few months and to meet the market need. However, it is quite important to store them at proper place to maintain the pungency and red colour.
Since having much perishable nature they require attention while harvesting and after harvesting. The collected fruits should be stored in proper place and transported to local market. Also, harvesting at proper maturity leads to higher production as yield.
The post harvesting in the chilli production includes the Drying, Grading, Packing and preserving at a suitable place. It is helpful maintaining the quality and quantity of fruits to earn higher market rate.
Yield of Chilli Farming
Yield depends on cultivar, soil type, and fertility, facility of irrigation along with farm management skills, practised during cultivation process. However, on an avg, one can easily obtain about 2 to 2.5 tonnes of dried chillies whereas about more than 10 tonnes of green chillies as yield.
But, yields are higher for production with the facility of irrigation in compare to rainfed crops.
The marketing of chillies include the following points:
- Supply freshly harvested green chillies to the local market on the basis of market requirement.
- And, for red chilli production, it is a good idea to contact a nearby chilli powder maker or industry for the bulk sale.
- However, dry chilli production is more profitable farming over the green because there is always great market demand for it. And, one can really make a big one from it.