Kiwi Fruit Farming About Kiwi Fruit Farming Guide
Kiwifruit, also known as “Chinese gooseberry” is one of the deciduous vine fruit crops which is widely grown all around the world. Basically, this crop is mainly cultivated in China, New Zealand, Italy, Japan, Australia, United States of America, United States, France, Chile and Spain.
In New Zealand, this fruit matches to the popular bird “Kiwi” and that is why is known as Kiwi Fruit. Nowadays, this fruit is becoming more and more popular throughout the world because of its excellent medicinal advantages. This fruit can be eaten as a fresh or combined with other fruit, in the salads and some deserts.
Nowadays, the commercial Kiwi fruit farming is being increased more and more because apart from being eaten as a fresh and combined with other fruits as salads and desserts, this fruit is also used for preparing squashes and flavored wine. Economically, these fruits are highly praised for its medicinal value and nutritious value. One can easily earn a sharp income via following commercial kiwi fruit farming, in a very short time period with minimum care and management with low investment.
Kiwifruit has great market potential. Apart from being consumed as fresh and in salads, these fruits are also used in the preparation of squashes and flavored wines. These fruits are an excellent source of Vitamin B and Vitamin C and other minerals such as potassium, Phosphorus, and calcium. So, there are lots of health benefits of eating Kiwi Fruits regularly.
Kiwi Fruit | Scientific Name or Botanical Name
The scientific name or botanical name of this fruit, kiwi fruit is Actinidia deliciosa and is belong to the Actinidiaceae family.
Top 10 Kiwi Producer
Here below is a list of top 10 countries, who tops the list of kiwifruit production, all over the world.
- New Zealand
- The United States of America.
Apart from the above list, this fruit farming is also followed in India, Spain and many other countries throughout the world.
Health Benefits of Kiwi
Here below is a list of some health benefits of eating kiwi fruits…
- Kiwi fruits are Unbelievable Source of Antioxidant, because of Vitamin C and Vitamin E.
- Kiwi fruits are also a good anti-aging agent and are also helpful in improving the skin health.
- Kiwi fruits are also helpful in improving the respiratory system of our body.
- This amazing fruit is also beneficial for eye health and keeps safer from numbers of eye diseases.
- Consuming kiwifruit is also beneficial in improving the digestive system of our body. An improper digestive system invites numbers of disease to our body and makes us unhealthy.
- Consuming kiwifruit is also helpful in Improving the Cardiovascular System
- Kiwifruit contains vitamin K which is beneficial for strengthening of bone and also keep us away from bone related problems.
- The Serotonin present in the kiwifruit is beneficial for the sleep disorders. Consuming kiwi is also helpful in getting happy sleep.
- This citrus fruit also has Antibacterial and Antifungal Capabilities
- Both, the fruit & roots of this fruits have inhibitory results in human liver, lung, colon cancer cell growth etc.
How awesome all these are, so let’s add this awesome fruit to your diet and take the advantages.
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Kiwi Fruit | Nutrition Facts
Kiwifruit is a treasure trove of nutrients. The following is a table showing the nutrients value present in an average size kiwi fruit.
|Vitamin C||64 mg|
|Vitamin A||3 microgram|
In addition to the above-mentioned nutrition values, kiwi fruit also full of other nutrition such as copper, vitamin K, vitamin E, magnesium, colline, and phosphorus such as
- 15 grams carbohydrates
- 2.9 grams fiber
- 0.8 gm fat
- 82.4 milligrams vitamin C
- 35.7 micrograms vitamin K
- 1.4 milligrams vitamin E
- 285 milligrams potassium
- 0.2 mg copper
- 23.7 micrograms folate
Where Do Kiwis Grow
Kiwifruit farming can be done throughout the world. But, to obtain maximum profit from it requires growing on suitable climate conditions and soil.
Kiwi Fruit Tree | Climate
Kiwis are able to grow in almost all types of climate condition and soils however they can thrive their best in a warmer and a humid climate condition. Growing kiwis on 600 m.s.l to 1500 m.s.l are considered as the best suitable for producing the most. This commercial crop also requires a good annual rainfall ranging between 130 cm to 210 cm during its growing period for good plant growth and proper fruiting.
For growing kiwi fruit tree, there is also need of a fair moisture content throughout the year for the healthy growth of this crop.
Note: Avoid planting kiwis, where strong winds along with frost conditions observed because, during the flowering stage, strong wind and frost are injurious to this commercial crop. Also, note that this crop is also damaged by sunburn.
Kiwi Fruit Tree | Temperature
The ideal temp for growing kiwis is below 38 °C. Also, note that temp. more than 38 °C may cause sunburn in this crop. So, avoid farming in such region where the normal temp is more than 38 °C.
Soil Requirement for Kiwi Farming
A loamy and sandy soil which is deep, yellow and brown in color, full of organic matter content is supposed to be the best soil for growing kiwi fruit tree crop. It should also have well drainage capacity.
For growing kiwis, there is need of regular nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus during its vining stages during its vegetative growth.
For healthy growth rate of kiwis, the best soil pH is 6.3 to 7.3 for maximum production of this fruit crop.
How To Grow Kiwi Plant
Select a Suitable Kiwi Variety or Cultivar
For starting kiwi fruit farming, there are many varieties of kiwi fruits are available, which are suitable for growing in the different region, throughout the world. Of which, some varieties are very popular all over the world.
However, here below is a list of some most popular kiwi varieties:
- Fuzzy kiwifruit
- Chinese egg gooseberry
- Golden kiwifruit
- Baby kiwifruit
- Red kiwifruit
- Arctic kiwifruit
- Silvervine kiwifruit &
- Purple kiwifruit
In addition to above list, the Abbott kiwifruit, Bruno kiwifruit, Hayward kiwifruit, Allison kiwifruit, Monty kiwifruit & Tomuri kiwifruit varieties of kiwi fruit are also grown by the people, in various region of the world.
Land Preparation for Kiwi Fruit Farming
For preparing land for growing kiwis, prepare a steep land having rows oriented from north to south direction so that they can get maximum sunlight. A good establishment of kiwis vineyards, a thorough land preparation is required.
The soil should be brought in fine tilth form by giving about 2 to 4 normal ploughings followed by 2 harrowing. For successful kiwi farming, it is essential that the soil should be free from all types of weed.
For preparing pits for planting kiwis, fill the pit by with a good mixture of farmyard manure and upper soil for good establishment of kiwis vineyards.
How to Plant Kiwi Fruit Plant?
For commercial kiwi plantation, it is essential to growing these Viney plants at proper distance with a suitable method of propagation by keeping ideal depth.
Propagation in Kiwi Farming
This commercial crop is mainly propagated through grafting method and by planting vegetative cuttings.
Best Season of Kiwi Plantation
Growing this commercial crop during the month from December to late of January is supposed to be the best season for kiwi plantation. Plant these fruit plant at some depth for good establishment of the crop.
Spacing in Kiwi Farming
Growing this crop at suitable planting distance is helpful in attaining maximum fruit production. However, the planting distance for commercial kiwi farming varies according to the cultivars to cultivars and also on the method of propagation.
Generally, for commercial kiwi plantation, T-bar training system and Pergola Training System are mostly followed. For planting with T-bar training system, the row to row spacing is 3.5 m whereas the plant to plant spacing is about 6 m. And for planting with Pergola Training System, the row to row planting should be 6 m whereas, the plant to plant distance should be 5 to 6 m.
For good pollination in this commercial crop, male plants should be planted in the orchard with the ratio, one male plant to 6 to 8 female plants.
However, for marketable kiwi fruits, pollination should be done with the help of insects.
How to Grow Kiwifruit From Seed?
Growing kiwifruit plant from a seed is not a hardworking job. Here below is a procedure about how to harvest seeds and prepare them for growing kiwifruit plant?
- First of all, obtain the seeds from available kiwi fruit
- Place these collected kiwi seeds along with water in a small blender so that the gooey membrane separates from seeds.
- Wash these kiwi seeds by using the colander in the sink.
- Smoothly place the seeds on a damp paper towel. Then, insert them into a plastic ziplock and place them in a warmer container.
- When there appeared sprouted seedling, split the paper towel into minute pieces and transplant these seedlings in the well-prepared pit, stuck to the small pot.
This is how, how to grow kiwifruit from seeds? This procedure is also applicable for growing kiwi fruit in pots and containers.
Protection From Wind and Frost
As this commercial crop is grown mostly in the colder areas such as New Zealand, Spain, Australia, USA, France, Chile, Japan, China, etc. It is essential to provide protection to this vine crop from the frost conditions and heavy winds. Because, if protection is not provided, then there may be chances of less production of fruits in this crop.
In the cold season, the kiwifruit plant vines do not have any leaves on them and are dormant, which are able to withstand temp. up to – 12 °C. But, it requires protection from such a low temp. during the flowering stage and also during the fruit setting period because at this stage, heavy frost conditions and winds may lead to complete destruction of the crop.
Also, heavy winds are also responsible for low production in this crop because heavy winds may lead to fallen down of the leaves, new setting fruits and also the flowers, which is directly responsible for the lower production of this fruit crop.
Irrigation in Kiwi Fruit Farming
For good establishment of crop and fruit setting, there is need of timely water supply to any crop. Likewise other commercial crops, this commercial crop also requires frequent water supply during its complete growing period. This hardy crop takes about three to four years, for being ready for harvesting, so this crop requires regular water supply up to three years of the plantation on the main field. However, do not over water to this crop because once the crop vine meets the need, the foliage can spread to the soil surface and may lead to mulch in this crop. Mulching in any crop minimizes the water requirement of any crop because mulch saves water from evaporation and also control the weeds in the best way.
Whatever is this, a kiwi crop requires water supply at the regular interval, especially during the hot season and drought conditions. For commercial kiwi farming, irrigating this crop at 10 days to 14 days of the interval is considered as the best and beneficial for optimum production. But, supplying water on the basis of plant requirement is the best way for the optimum fruit production.
Application of Manure And Fertilizers to Kiwi Fruit Plant
Timely application of suitable manure and fertilizers in enough dose multiplies the production amount up to many times. So, for producing maximum, it is the best idea to grow this crop on the soil, which is full of all the essential organic matter such as Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potash and other micro & macronutrients.
So, add about 25 kg of farmyard manure as the basal dose to each plant before planting this crop to the main field. Also, add about 500 gm of the mixture, containing 40 % of Nitrogen, 30 % of potash and phosphorous each, each and every year to the base of the plant up to 5 years of plantation. After five years of the plantation, adding 1 kg of Nitrogen, 0.5 kg of Phosphorous and 1 kg of Potash, every year has excellent results in this fruit production.
Along with all these essential growths enhance, this crop also requires a high amount of Cl because the deficiency of Cl has adverse effects on the plant vegetative growth such as roots and shoots.
Also, this commercial crop is also very sensitive to the excess amount of Boron and Sodium. Excess Boron and Sodium are harmful to this fruit crop. Try to supply Nitrogen in two equal splits, first in January and the remaining on the beginning of summer that is in April.
Note: As this fruit crop is very sensitive to application of manure and fertilizers, go for a soil tests, at least once before starting cultivation so that you can learn the soil fertility and productivity of the soil. Also, try to give this essential manure and fertilizers by mixing well with the soil. Care of the level of Cl, B, and Na. The deficiency of Cl and excess level of Boron and Sodium may causes lower the production up to many times.
Training And Pruning Kiwifruit plants
As this crop has Viney plants, there is need of training and pruning in this crop for obtaining better production of the fruits.
Training in Kiwi Farming
For training these plants, wooden pillars should be fixed on the main field. However, concrete and iron pillars are also used for providing support to these vines. Fix them by keeping a distance of 5 to 6 meters, apart from each other. Construct a structure such as Kniffin system with the healthy of wire fence or a mess like structure to provide the support to the vines. The pillars should have a height of 1.6 m to 2.1 m, above from the ground. A 2 mm thick and tensile wire should be strung on the top of these fixed pillars.
However, one can prepare a mess having different construction for providing support to these vines plants. But, take care that, a proper support is needed during the complete growing period of this fruit crops for the healthy production of fruits.
Pruning Kiwifruit plants
Along with good training in this crop, there is also need of proper pruning for good fruit production. There is a need for timely removal of unwanted and undesired parts should be removed from the plants to enhance the plant growth and also the fruit production in kiwi farming.
- Cut the canes from male plants, just back to the removed flower wood, just after the flowering season starts.
- Also, removed the excessive and vigorously grown wood from the plants along with vertically growing plants.
- Do not harm the growing spur for the future growth of plants and a good next flowering season.
- Also, removed the extra tangles from the plants along with the overgrown tangles.
Kiwi Tree | Male And Female | Pollination
This fruit plants are not self-pollinating plants, so there is a need for good pollination for fruit setting on the plants. There is a need for artificial pollination. In the early season of summer, the flowering season starts in this crop. These flowers should be pollinated and also thinned a well. For good pollination in this commercial fruit crops, plants about one male plants per 6 to 8 female kiwi plants.
Unlike other fruit crops, the kiwi plant requires a high level of pollination for good fruit production. It requires more than 10,000 pollen grains per stigma for healthy pollination.
Whatever is this, for healthy pollination in this fruit crop, it is the best idea to place some honeybee hives at some distance apart in the orchard. However, it is also possible to pollinate the flowers artificially.
For More Info
1.) Honey Bee Farming Guide: Click Here
Kiwifruit Plant | Pests, and Diseases
The following are the common pests and insects, that are found on this fruit plant.
- Armored Scales
- Boxelder Bug
- Armored Scales
- Leaf-roller caterpillars
- Boxelder bug &
- Root-Knott nematode
For controlling measure, consult your nearby horticulture department.
The following is the list of some diseases, that are commonly found in this commercial crop. Learn the symptoms and treat them as sooner as they observed in your orchards.
- Armillaria Root Rot
- Bleeding Canker
- Bacterial Blight
- Botrytis Fruit Rot
- Juice Blotch
- Crown Gall
- Water Staining
- Sooty Mold of Fruit
- Phytophthora Root and
- Crown Rot
Learn the symptoms for controlling measure of all the above-mentioned diseases. Since the presence of any of the above may lower down the fruit production up to many times.
Kiwi | Harvesting, And Yield
All the varieties of kiwis start fruiting at four to five of plant age. However, for a healthy fruit production, we have to wait for about two to three years more after the plant starts bearing fruits. However, these fruit crops become mature for harvesting earlier at the lower heights following by the higher heights because of temp. variation at the different elevation.
When to Harvest? is a common question of many growers. So, for picking fruits from the plants, pick the large size fruit firstly by leaving the smaller size fruit for later harvesting to attain market shape and size. Friends, this fruit contains stiff hairs on their surface, so after collecting them from the orchard, rub them with a rough cloth to discard the stiff hairs.
Yield of Kiwi Farming
The yield of this crop depends on numbers of factors such as the tree age, variety or cultivar, method of irrigation, the soil type and climate conditions along with farm management skills, practices in the cultivation. Averagely, it is possible to collect or harvest about 100 kgs of fruits and even more per vine or fruit plant, per each harvesting season.
After the good establishment of the orchard, that is after 7 or 8 years, one can easily harvest 30 tonnes of kiwifruit and even more per unit hectare land, every kiwi harvesting season.
Post-Harvesting Task in Kiwi Farming
To obtain an excellent market rate of this delicious fruits, there is need of some post harvesting task should be performed after collecting them from the orchards.
Grading of Fruits
Short out the fruits on the basis of their size and weight. Fruits weighing more than 75 gm should be graded as “A” Grade fruits and that weighing between 50 gm to 75 gm should be graded as ‘B’ grade fruits.
Storage of Fruits
Keep these harvested fruits in a cool place without any refrigeration for about two months. So, that they can attain excellent conformity quality
Packing of Fruits
For packing kiwifruits, make use of polythene liners, because are very effective in managing high humidity level and also keeps the fruits for a long time in edible condition.
Marketing of Fruits
There is no need of worrying about marketing the kiwifruits because they are in demand for all the time during the whole year. Mostly, all kiwi growers sell their fruits through the trade agent or commission agent in the market.
Have a Grand success Kiwi Farming, produce optimum and Earn a great profit from it.