Tilapia Fish Farming Guide & Info | Tips for big Profit

Tilapia Fish Farming Process, Profit & Guide

Fishes are one of the important species that are being farmed from long back ago to make money. Fishes are also the cheapest best species that are consumed mainly for their high protein content throughout the world.

When it comes to fish farming, Tilapia is the #2nd most farmed fish in the world. Basically, these fishes are freshwater fishes inhabiting the shallow streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes. But, currently, the availability of this fish in natural water resource is being decreased due to the over-exploitation and pollution.

Presently, the increasing fish meat consumption and fish demand in the world made the farmers to raise fishes to create income from it to meet the market demand too. Farmers can raise Tilapia fishes in ponds, tanks or any other water body. In fact, Tilapia fish farming is the best way to create local employment for skilled as well as non-skilled people

In India, this fish was introduced in 1952, and a ban was imposed by the fisheries research committee of India on this fish in India. However, the commercial farming of Tilapia fish is approved in some states of India.

Farmers need to contact fisheries department or an aquaculture department for guidelines and all necessary licenses for it. So, check below guideline on Tilapia Fish farming to make a big profit from it with minimum care and management of fishes. In this guideline, you can learn the Scientific classification, various farming method, feeding management, breeding, pond management, and other management for profitable tilapia fish farming.

Importance of Tilapia Farming

Tilapia owns a big importance in the commercial fish farming business sector. As Tilapia grows very rapidly in suitable climate conditions and environment, most of the fish farmer used to rear Tilapia, besides being very tasty to eat. And, there is a great demand for this fish in the market. Since most of the people used to eat almost all kind of Tilapia recipes. In fact, this creates a revolution in the fish farming sector.

tilapia farming in india

However, when it comes to the Tilapia fish farming potential, low-lying areas having water stagnation are best suitable for the agricultural activities. Specifically, such kind of areas can be converted into water resource like a pond in order to raise Tilapia fishes.

Tilapia is also one of the easiest and most profitable fish, used to farm because of their mode of reproduction and their omnivorous diet. Raising Tilapia fish in tanks or a channel is considered as the safest for the environment. Since It does not spread the waste and diseases from the fish tank to the clean environment.

Farmers can get desired profit within a short time period if they raise the Tilapia fishes with modern technology. In fact, modern farmers are more interested in rearing Tilapia farming due to the high market rate and higher demands in the market. Tilapia fishes are well known for surviving in averse natural condition with disease resistance power. They can survive in 15 to 38 Degree Centigrade temp. and grows their best in 18 to 32 Degree Centigrade temp. Once can easily rear these fishes twice or thrice accordingly the available facilities.

Scientific Classification of Tilapia

Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Actinopterygii
Order Perciformes
Family Cichlidae
Sub-family Pseudocrenilabrinae
Tribe Tilapiini
Genus Tilapia

What is Monosex Tilapia Fish Farming?

In Tilapia Fish Farming, it is difficult to rear different aged sized fishes in the same rearing pond due to their unconditioned propagation.

Farmers can rear the male fishes only, which are known as Monosex Tilapia, separated from the female fishes. Because male fishes grow faster with uniform size and gain good weight in comparison to the female ones. And, the farming of only Monosex Tilapia (Male) separated from females is known as Monosex Tilapia Fish Farming.

In fact, Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) boost the market potential. As they are scientifically confirmed to be the superior to freshwater carps. And, are also considered as the best suitable for rearing in the Asian continent climate conditions and atmosphere.

Advantages of Monosex Tilapia Fish Culture

  • Tilapia fishes are faster in growth with uniform size and weight.
  • It has an excellent market demand in both; local as well as international markets.
  • It¬†prefers almost all types of supplementary feeds.
  • They can be profitably cultured in seasonal ponds.
  • They can be also cultured with a high stocking density in the ponds or local water resources.
  • They have high disease resistance power and are able to grow in almost all kind of adverse environment.
  • These fishes can be also raised in¬†saline water, where the¬†salinity is in between 12 to 16 ppt.
  • Well known for attaining huge profit with average fish farming pond management and care.
  • Are able to feed on pond natural feed like planktons, algae, etc.

How to Start Tilapia Fish Farming Commercially

tilapia farming

However, to attain good profit from this business farming, farmers require following some simple care and management tips. The tips on Tilapia fish culture includes –

  • Selection of Suitable pond
  • Feeding Management
  • Suitable farming Method or rearing method
  • Breeding along some care and management…

So, let us learn about all these points of concerns.

Selecting a Suitable Farm Location for Tilapia Farming

Pond selections play a significant role in the successful Tilapia fish farming. So, care to be taken while selecting pond location. So, make sure of following points of concern while selecting a pond for Tilapia Fish culture.

  • Always select a pond or tank having a good water depth with a minimum 1.5 to 2-meter water depth.
  • Never let the water level to falls down below 1.5 meters.
  • The¬†selected pond soil should be water retentive with sufficient water supply availability to ensure a good profit.
  • Always avoid¬†industrial areas,¬†flood-prone areas, and¬†chemically impacted soils while selecting a pond for Tilapia.
  • For rearing Tilapia’s in an old fish pond, the old pond should be renovated in order to avoid an occurrence of any disease and damage in the pond. Make sure to check the inlet and outlet of the old pond.
  • Make sure to check the minimum depth of the pond.
  • Desilting of existing ponds should be carried out.
  • Also,¬†Impoundment of non-essential areas of water bodies should be done.
  • Make sure to check to construct or repair¬†watchmen rooms,¬†civil structures, water supply arrangements, and electricity supply.

Optimal Temperature for Tilapia Fish Farming

Tilapia fishes can¬†survive in 12 ¬įC to 35 ¬įC. However, for their optimum growth rate, the¬†optimum temperature for tilapia is¬†15 ¬įC to 32 ¬įC

Liming in Fish Pond

Generally, fish ponds are more acidic in nature and are also less productive than the alkaline fish ponds. So, to bring down the pH to the desired value, lime is used. Since a preferred pH of pond directly states a better production.

The use of lime is also beneficial in the following –

  • To increase the pH level of the fish pond.
  • It can also act as a¬†buffer and can avoid the fluctuations of pH in the pond.
  • It also increases the resistance of soil to parasites.
  • The¬†toxic effect of lime kills the parasites,¬†present in the pond. It also boosts the¬†organic decomposition.

However, for commercial production, it is always a better idea to go for a soil test, at least once. It helps the producer to learn the pH of the soil, and the amount of lime should be used to correct the pH. A new pond should be filled with water, only after liming it.

So, Please, apply as much as lime as required on the basis of the following table to bring the pH value at the desired value for the better fish production.

Lime in kg/ha Soil pH
2000 4.5-5.0
1000 5.1-6.5
500 6.6-7.5
200 7.6-8.5
None 8.6-9.5

Pond Management in Tilapia Fish Culture

To select a suitable farming method in Tilapia farming is the most important thing to attain good profit and income. Tilapia fishes are farmed under nursing pond management and stocking pond management.

tilapia farming

Nursing Pond Management in Tilapia Fish Culture

Pond water should be emptied in order to make it dry. If is not possible to dry out the pond, then, make use of chemicals in order to eradicate cannibalistic and unwanted fishes from the pond. Now, 750 kg of dung along with 15 kg urea, 7 kg of TSP, 100 kg of lime, and 2 kg of MOP per acre pond area should be applied in order to produce natural fish feed.

Arrange fence with a net around the pond area in order to close the entrance for frogs, snakes, and other natural predators to avoid any kind of fish loss. After a week of fertilizing the pond, start stocking of 3 weeks aged Monosex Tilapia in the pond. Usually, one can easily stock about 1.5 to 2 lac Monosex Tilapia per unit acre land of the pond.

The pond should be supplemented with high protein containing feed at about 15 % of the body weight of the total stocked fishes. It is recommended to feed them twice or thrice a day rather than feeding once at different intervals.

Fishes should be raised in this system for about 7 to 9 weeks. Thereafter, they should be transferred to the main stocking pond.

Stocking Pond Management in Tilapia Fish Farming

Now, here in stocking pond management, 2 months old and older fishes are rear, transferred from nursery pond. So, make sure about the stocking pond depth. It should be just like the nursery pond or little deeper. Likewise, make use of chemicals in order to eradicate cannibalistic and unwanted fishes from the pond.

harvesting fishes

Now, in order to produce natural fish feed, 750 kg of dung along with 12 kg urea, 6 kg of TSP, 100 kg of lime, and 2 kg of MOP per acre pond area should be applied per unit acre pond area. In general, it starts growing within a week of fertilizing the fish pond. However, when it comes to fish stocking density, stock only 25 thousand fishes per unit acre tocking pond area to obtain higher growth rate and excellent fish weight. It is also essential to maintain the natural fish food amount in the pond, 500 kg of dung, 3 kg of urea, along with 2 kg of TSP should be applied at an interval of 7 days. However, if you are using supplementary fish feed, then, stop applying the fertilizers in the pond.

The pond water should be changed on daily basis at 5 % to 6 % when the fishes gain the weight of about 100 gm. When it comes to Monosex tilapia fishes, they attain 200 gm to 250 gm body weight within a time period of 4 months after stocking them in the rearing pond.

And, from this stage, farmers can start their selling to the local market. Farmers should harvest the fishes on the basis of market requirement. One can wait for a little time till fishes attain body weight of 500 gm or even more in order to earn more and more profit.

Feeding Management & Feed Rate in Tilapia Farming

Tilapia fishes are an omnivorous fish species. And, generally, they consume everything including planktons, algae, and various types of aquatic plants. For large scale commercial Tilapia farming, farmers can buy the commercial fish feed from a nearby market. One can also produce natural fish feed or organic fish feed with the help of above method. If possible, please buy a good stock of Commercial feed from the market. Since it is healthy and effective for the fish and it provides the highest growth to the fishes.

And, In commercial tilapia fish production, providing nutritious food to fishes is very important for quick growth and higher body weight of the fish. So, please follow the average daily feed requirement schedule for optimum growth of fishes.

Body Weight (Grams) Daily Feed Rate No.Of.Times a Day
20 to 25 8 % to 10 % 3 to 4
50 to 100 6 % to 8 % 3 to 4
100 to 200 5 % to 6 % 3
200 + 2 % to 4 % 3

Breeding in Tilapia Fish Culture

The breeding process of Tilapia is a very simple, and it is not so difficult as compared to others. However, for breeding purpose,  place the brood-stocks in a small sized tank, then after the fry should be transferred to a larger pond or tank for further rearing process.

tilapia

However, it is very difficult to fishes as male or female, when are very young. So, it is a big problem in commercial fish farming, since male tilapia grow faster than compared to the female ones. So, modern commercial tilapia producers make uses of hormones or genetically chosen fishes in order to produce only male tilapia, leaving the females for profitable farming.

Care & Management in Tilapia Farming

Tilapia production is not a difficult task. However, care of some point of concern should be taken in order to reduce any loss in this business farming. So, to obtain desirable production of tilapia fishes,

Take care of following points in fish feeding management in tilapia fish farming

  • Make sure to change the pond water¬†occasionally for the better growth of fishes.
  • Regularly check out the PH of water and soil. The PH value of pond water should be in from¬†7 to 8¬†for the excellent growth rate of fishes.
  • Make sure of any diseases should not enter in to the pond. The presence of any diseases in the pond directly lower down the production.
  • Keep pond safe by keeping away all types of natural predators such as snakes, frogs, etc.
  • There is also need of fresh and clean environment for the optimum fish production.
  • Feeding should be done properly with sufficient amount of food having high nutritious value and protein content.
  • Periodical monitoring of the fishes is to be carried out for disease incidence and growth. Records for day to day management of the pond to be kept for inspection.

How Do You Harvest Tilapia Fishes?

In a very short time period, about 6 months, tilapia fishes reach their market age. The growth rate of fishes depends on the food and environment provided to the fish. So, always feed with fresh & nutritious, high-quality food in sufficient amount in a clean and fresh pond environment.

harvesting fishes

Depending on the market, decide how much fish is to be harvest from the pond. There are two popular ways or method for harvesting fish in commercially tilapia farming.

  • Harvesting with the help of fishnet
  • By removing the pond water

Normally, harvesting fishes in the morning and afternoon are considered as the best time for harvesting fishes.

After harvesting, send off the collected fishes to the nearby local market for marketing.

Final Words

Hope that this is enough for Tilapia farming or tuna fish farming. However, kindly inform us if you feel any kind of discomfort while going through this article by commenting below in the comment box.

But, Tilapia fish farming is really fun providing a business plan. Have a Grand Success in Tilapia fish farming…

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